Diary of Johann Paul Kremer
September 1-5, 1942
This document is one page from the most famous "insider" views of
the Nazi extermination process: the diary of SS Dr. Johann Paul Kremer.
Dr. Kremer arrived at Auschwitz on August 30, 1942, where he
replaced a doctor who had fallen sick. His diary is remarkable not only
for its explicit mentions of the gassing process, but for the way which
Kremer continues to relate the everyday things one might find in any
diary: where he lunched, what he ate, what films he saw, etc.
This diary page covers only five days, and includes his first
witnessing of a "special action" (gassing).
|Wrote off to Berlin for officers' cap, belt,
suspenders. In afternoon attended block gassing with Zyklon B
||September 1, 1942|
|For the first time, at 3:00
A.M. outside, attended a special action. Dante's
Inferno seems to me almost a comedy compared to this. They don't call
Auschwitz the camp of annihilation for nothing!
||September 2, 1942|
|For the first time, came down with the diarrhea with
vomiting and colic-type attacks of pain which have hit everyone here in
the camp. It cannot be the water as I have not drunk a drop. Also the
bread cannot be responsible, as those who have eaten only white bread
(special diets) have also come down with it. Most probably the reason
is the unhealthy continental and very dry tropical climate with its
dust and masses of vermin (flies).
||September 3, 1942|
|To combat the diarrhea: 1 day of gruel and
peppermint tea, followed by a week's special diet. Charcoal and
Tannalbin at intervals. Already considerably better.
||September 4, 1942|
|In the morning attended a special action from
the women's concentration camp (Muslims); the most dreadful of horrors.
Master-Sergeant Thilo (troop doctor) was right when he said to
me that this is the anus mundi. In the evening towards 8:00
attended another special action from Holland. Because of the
special rations they get a fifth of a liter of schnapps, 5 cigarettes,
100 g salami and bread, the men all clamor to take part in such
actions. Today and tomorrow (Sunday) work.
||September 5, 1942|
|Von Berlin schriftlich Führermütze, Koppel
und Hosenträger angefordert. Nachmittags bei der Vergasung eines
Blocks mit Zyclon B gegen die Läuse.
||1. September 1942|
|Zum 1. Male draussen um 3 Uhr früh bei einer
Sonderaktion zugegen. Im Vergleich hierzu erscheint mir das Dante'sche
Inferno fast wie eine Komödie. Umsonst wird Auschwitz nicht das
Lager der Vernichtung genannt!
||2. September 1942|
|Zum 1. Male an der hier im Lager jeden befallenden
Durchfällen mit Erbrechen und kolikartigen anfallsweisen Schmerz
erkrankt. Da ich keinen Tropfen Wasser getrunken, kann es hieran
nicht liegen. Auch das Brot kann so nicht schuld sein, da auch solche
erkranken, die nur Weißbrot (Diät) zu sich genommen haben.
Höchstwahrscheinlich liegt's an dem ungesunden kontinentalen
und sehr trockenen Tropenklima mit seinen Staub- und Ungeziefermassen
||3. September 1942|
|Gegen die Durchfälle: 1 Tag Schleimsuppe und
Pfefferminztee, dann Diät für eine Woche. Zwischendurch Kohle
und Tannalbin. Schon erhebliche Besserung.
||4. September 1942|
| Heute nachmittag bei einer Sonderaktion aus
dem F.K.L. (Muselmänner): das Schrecklichste der Schrecken.
Hschf. Thilo (Truppenarzt) hat Recht, wenn er mir heute sagte,
wir befänden uns hier am anus mundi. Abends gegen 8 Uhr wieder bei
einer Sonderaktion aus Holland. Wegen der dabei abfallenden
Sonderverpflegung, bestehend aus einem fünftel Liter Schnaps, 5
Zigaretten, 100 g Wurst und Brot, drängen sich die Männer zu
solchen Aktionen. Heute und morgen (Sonntag) Dienst.
||5. September 1942|
The reproduction of this page was taken from Death Books From
Auschwitz: Remnants, Vol. I, Appendix, 1995, p. 185.
An English translation of this document beyond this one page can be
found in "The Good Old Days": The Holocaust as Seen by Its
Perpetrators and Bystanders, Ernst Klee, Willi Dressen, and
Volker Riess, Eds., 1991, pp. 256ff. Kremer's diary and testimony
are put in context in Nazi Mass Murder, Eugen Kogon,
Hermann Langbein, and Adalbert Rückerl, Eds., 1993,
pp. 149-50, 153-4.
It is unknown to us whether the underlining of key words was
performed by Dr. Kremer or by a postwar cataloguer of this document,
or perhaps an archivist. (In particular, it would seem odd for Dr.
Kremer to have underlined "Zyclon B," though reasonable
explanations might be hypothesized for the others.) In any case, we
have textually reproduced the underlining as shown.
After the war, Dr. Kremer testified about his diary. An extract is
found in "The Good Old Days", p. 258:
Particularly unpleasant was the gassing of the emaciated women from
the women's camp, who were generally known as 'Muslims'. I remember I
once took part in the gassing of one of these groups of women. I cannot
say how big the group was. When I got close to the bunker [I saw] them
sitting on the ground. They were still clothed. As they were wearing
worn-out camp clothing they were not left in the undressing hut but
made to undress in the open air. I concluded from the behaviour of
these women that they had no doubt what fate awaited them, as they
begged and pleaded to the SS men to spare them their lives. However,
they were herded into the gas chambers and gassed. As an anatomist I
have seen a lot of terrible things: I had had a lot of experience with
dead bodies, and yet what I saw that day was like nothing I had ever
seen before. Still completely shocked by what I had seen I wrote in my
diary on 5 September 1942: 'The most dreadful of horrors.
Hauptscharführer Thilo was right when he said to me today that
this is the anus mundi', the anal orifice of the world. I used
this image because I could not imagine anything more disgusting and
SS-Doctor Kremer at a hearing on 18 July 1947 in Cracow