Annex VIII - part 10/10
Prison Camps

Analysis by geographical location
  1. BiH
  2. Croatia

  3. FRY
    1. Kosovo
    2. Montenegro
    3. Serbia
    4. Vojvodina
    5. ICRC visited camps
  4. The Republic of Slovenia


1. Kosovo

       Lipijan: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources including ICRC). According to one report there is a prison three kilometres from Lipijan along the road to Stimlje. It is constructed with fences two to three metres high. Prisoners were held there for up to 30 days before being taken to prisons in Serbia. *5355 The ICRC visited Lipijan prison on 20 December 1993. *5356

2. Montenegro

       Baosici: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, but none neutral). Baosici is located in southern Montenegro, near Herceg-novi, along the Adriatic Coast. According to one source «extremists» have moved 22,000 captured civilians to various camps in Serbia, including Baosici. It is unclear from where the civilians originated or who their captors were. *5357 According to another source there were 350 prisoners at the camp sometime before October 1992. *5358 Another source also reports the existence of this detention facility at Herceg novi in Baosici. *5359

       Herceg-novi: This is probably the same detention facility referred to as «Baosici» above. Herceg-novi is located in southern Montenegro along the Adriatic Coast. According to one source «extremists» have moved 22,000 captured civilians to various camps in Serbia, including Herceg-novi. It is unclear from where the civilians originated or who their captors were. *5360

       Herceg-novi City Jail: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State). In March and April 1992, Bosnian Muslims fled from the hostilities in the Foca area to Montenegro, which they believed was safe due to programs authorities in Serbia broadcasted. These programs indicated that Muslims were safe in Serbia. In July 1992, at least 30 Muslim refugees in Herceg-novi were apprehended by the city police and detained in the city jail. They were held until unidentified police personnel and Miso Stevanovic arrived in Foca police vehicles and transported them to the Foca prison. *5361

       Kumbor: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). According to one source there is a military prison in Kumbor. Kumbor is located in southern Montenegro, near the coast. *5362

       Morinj: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including ICRC). One source reports that Morinj is a military prison in southern Montenegro, just north of Kumbor. *5363 According to Amnesty International Morinje is a camp run by the JNA and Serbian paramilitaries. *5364 The ICRC visited Morinje prison on 11 November 1991. *5365

       Niksic: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, but none neutral). A report indicates that Niksic, a city in Montenegro, contains a detention facility. *5366 Another source also reports the existence of this detention facility. *5367

       Pljevlja: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State). Pljevlja, in northern Montenegro, was also a site where Muslims took refuge from the hostilities in the Foca area around March and April of 1992. In July 1992 Muslim refugees were rounded up and held in jails in several cities, one of which was Pljevlja, until they were picked up by Foca police personnel. All the refugees were taken to Foca prison and detained until they were sent to unidentified locations. *5368

       Podgorica: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State). Podgorica, formerly Titograd, is located in southern Montenegro. It is another city where Muslim refugees, who had fled the conflict in Foca in July 1992, were held in the city jail until they were picked up by Foca police personnel. At least two Muslims were held in the jail. *5369

       Sutmore: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State). Sutmore is located in southern Montenegro, along the Adriatic Sea. According to the wife of a BiH refugee her husband was arrested on 20 May 1992 in Sutmore. He was detained for four days before being moved to an unknown location. His wife believes he may have been turned over to the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) in BiH to be used in a prisoner exchange there. *5370

       Approximately 130 prisoners from the Reserve Officers School in Bileca were allegedly moved to Sutmore. *5371

       Zelenika: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely ICRC). According to the ICRC, 357 detainees from Mostar, Rodoc, Livno, and Tomislavgrad were transferred to Zelenika, Montenegro on 30 October 1992 and 73 were released there. Another 111 detainees from Konjic, Visoko, and Zenica were transferred to Zelenika on 23 December 1992 and 30 were released. The first group of detainees were held in Bosnian Croat controlled detention facilities and the second group were held in BiH Government detention facilities. Both releases were under ICRC supervision. It is not clear that there is a detention facility in Zelenika. *5372

3. Serbia

       Aleksinac: (The existence of this detention facility has been corraborated by multiple sources including the US Department of State). The majority of men from Vukovar were transported to detention facilities in FRY by the JNA and irregular soldiers. One of these detention facilities was located in Aleksinac. *5373 In late April 1992, prisoners from Stajicevo were to be released in a prisoner exchange, however all the younger men were transferred to Aleksinac, Nis, and Sremska Mitrovica. *5374

       A group of 180 Croatian National Guardsmen from Vukovar were transferred by bus from the Sremska Mitrovica to the Aleksinac detention facility. Upon arrival at Aleksinac, prisoners were beaten by military police, commanding officers, and civilians. A large number of civilians gathered behind the prison fence and shouted at the prisoners as they entered. The prisoners were severely beaten during their internment at the facility. The dates of their internment are not known, however they were transferred soon after their arrival in Aleksinac to Nis. The witness also claims that when the ICRC arrived at Nis some of the more severely beaten prisoners were moved to an army barracks in Aleksinac. After the ICRC departed the prisoners were taken back to Nis. *5375

       Aleksinac Mines: (The existence of this detention facility has been corraborated by multiple sources but none neutral). There was also a report of thousands of prisoners from BiH being detained in FRY, some of whom were interned in the Aleksinac Mines. *5376 Another report alleges that a group of men from Vukovar were forced to work in the mines in Aleksinac, and many of them were executed. The conditions were reported as unbearable. *5377 This camp is also reported in another report. *5378

       Batajnica: (The existence of this detention facility has been corraborated by multiple sources including the US Department of State). Batajnica is a city in Serbia, a few kilometres north-west of Belgrade. Five prisoners, the majority from the invasion by Serb forces of Bosanska Samac, were sent to a camp at Batajnica, in Serbia on 9 or 10 May 1992 from the Spanac JNA Barracks in Bijeljina. *5379 According to another source, however, Batajnica contained 2,200 prisoners sometime before October 1992. *5380

       Belgrade: Belgrade appears to contain several prisons where detainees from the Croatian and BiH conflicts were held and tried. The reports refer to a military prison, the military investigative prison, and the VIZ army prison, though it is not clear whether these are the same place. The reports also refer to the civilian prison and the central prison where prisoners were held for short periods after sentencing and before being transferred to other prisons to serve their time. The central and the civilian prison also appear to refer to the same place though this is not certain.

       At all three of these military prisons the procedures appear to have been similar. Prisoners were transferred from other detention facilities through out FRY to be tried for various crimes in Belgrade. The prisoners were forced to make false statements to television journalists and were accused of crimes they claim not to have committed. They were beaten while detained and awaiting trial. Most report being tried and sentenced or merely awaiting trial. Some were transferred to the Central/Civilian Prisons after being sentenced and before being transferred to another camp. On 14 August 1992 most of the witnesses were exchanged at Nemetin.

       Unknown Prison in Belgrade: (The existence of this detention facility has been corraborated by multiple sources including ICRC). *5381 An undetermined number of prisoners were transferred from Mitrovica to Belgrade on 5 March 1992. These prisoners were maltreated and filmed by television crews. They were served with bills of indictment two days before the exchange on 14 August 1992 in Nemetin. *5382

       Another prisoner from Sremska Mitrovica was transferred to Belgrade on 14 February 1992 for a public trial which lasted for one month. Allegedly the prisoners were forced to confess to crimes they did not commit. The witness claims that the prisoners were tortured while in the custody of reservists but the younger reservists were not as cruel. One man was beaten so severely that his back was broken and he had to be taken to the Medical Centre in Belgrade. Initially the ICRC had access to the prisoners but for a two month period they were forbidden to visit the prison. The prisoners were exchanged on 14 August 1992 at Nemetin. On the way to the exchange, the bus would stop in villages and locals would enter the bus to beat the prisoners. *5383

       Military Investigative Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely ICRC.) A witness was transferred from Staijcevo in early December to the military investigative prison located between the Slavija and Banjica areas of Belgrade. *5384 He was forced to make anti-Croatian statements in front of local and international reporters. The public prosecutor for Belgrade and another individual told the witness that if he did not make such statements he would be maltreated. He was coached for the interview and given a statement from which to make his remarks. The statements attempted to portray Croatia as the aggressor in the war, that Croatia wanted to take over Serbian lands and that Tudjman had deceived the Croatian nation, and wanted to be separated from Yugoslavia in order to make a profit. On 14 August, the Croatian prisoners from the Belgrade military investigative prison were exchanged at Nemetin. *5385

       Military Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, but none neutral). Several members of the Croatian army in Vukovar were transferred from Sremska Mitrovica to the military prison in Belgrade on 2 March 1992. *5386 One was tried for desertion from the JNA and the military court sentenced him to five years imprisonment. Following the trial he was transferred to the central prison in Belgrade on 20 July 1992 and then on the same day to Valjevo detention facility to serve his sentence. *5387 Another was sentenced to seven years imprisonment. *5388 Both were exchanged on 14 August 1992. *5389

       One witness believes that those removed from the Begejci detention facility in November 1991 were taken to the military prison in Belgrade. *5390

       Around 16 October 1991, a convoy attempting to leave Ilok was stopped by the JNA and some people were removed from the convoy and taken to several prisons in FRY, including the military prison in Belgrade. *5391

       VIZ Army Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, but none neutral). After six months in the KPD at Sremska Mitrovica a witness was transferred to the VIZ army prison in Belgrade in June. There they raised a bill of indictment against 31 prisoners. The witness was accused of crimes he claims he never committed. He awaited trial in the VIZ for 45 days but was exchanged on 14 August 1992 in Nemetin. *5392

       A member of the Croatian Army was transferred from Sremska Mitrovica on 13 February 1992 to Belgrade for trial. He was beaten when he arrived at the VIZ Belgrade prison and then put under the protection of the ICRC. He claims to have been mentally abused though not beaten again. The witness was in Belgrade until 20 July 1992 when his trial took place and was sentenced to four years imprisonment. He was sent to the Central Prison Institution in Belgrade and from there to Pozarevac to serve his sentence. He was exchanged 20 days later. *5393

       A Croatian women from Vukovar was transferred from Sremska Mitrovica to the VIZ army prison in Belgrade on 3 February 1992. She claims that during her transportation, her hands were tied with plastic bands which caused swelling. At the prison, the detainees were beaten at night and the witness could hear screams from other cells. The witness was sentenced to 15 years in prison but was exchanged on 14 August 1992. *5394

       Another woman was transferred to the VIZ from Begejci. She was questioned the first night at the prison by a reservist named «Lala». He beat her in the toilet room and forced her to take off her clothes. She claims that she was not raped though she was sexually mistreated. Three other prisoners were beaten before she was. All the prisoners were registered on a list and deprived of all their property and documents. The witness was then held in solitary confinement for a month and a half. She claims that she was not beaten while in solitary confinement though she was deprived of sleep. After that she was moved to a cell with a Serbian woman and remained in shock for 30 days. She was accused of armed rebellion, of crossing the Vojvodina border, and helping the «Ustase». She was exchanged on 14 August 1992 at Nemetin. On the way to the exchange she claims the prisoners were robbed and local «Cetniks» were allowed on the buses to mistreat them. *5395

       Bor: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). Bor, a city in eastern Serbia, allegedly contains a detention facility in the Borski Rudnici Mines. According to one report there were 2,500 prisoners held in the detention facility. *5396

       Bubanj Potok: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). At the end of September 1991 civilians, transferred from Bogdanovci, were detained in an army barracks controlled by the JNA. The barracks were located near Nis in Serbia and served as a training ground for a Martic special unit. The prisoners were physically maltreated by JNA soldiers. Each was allegedly hit 100 to 200 times and one epileptic prisoner was killed. *5397

       Kakobovac Sheep Farm: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State). One report indicates that a sheep farm in the Serbian Town of Kakobovac was turned into a jail where a large number of Croatian POWs from Vukovar were detained and killed. The bodies were buried in a canal between two buildings. The canal was used as a runoff for manure from the sheep and was lightly covered with dirt. When strong rains occurred pieces of the bodies would emerge from the mud. The bodies had to be exhumed and moved approximately half a kilometre and buried in a ditch. At the time of the report the area was surrounded by barbed wire to mark the site. *5398

       Loznica: (The existence of this camp has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State). According to one source «extremists» have moved 22,000 captured civilians to various camps in Serbia, including Loznica, in western Serbia. It is unclear from where the civilians originated or who their captors were. *5399 The BiH government also alleged that there was a concentration camp in Loznica. However embassy officials, humanitarian organizations, and western journalist did not find any indication of a camp there. Loznica, according to the officials apparently housed Muslim refugees from BiH under inadequate conditions and the circumstances of its closing are peculiar. *5400 According to another source, however, Loznica Sports and Recreation Centre contain 1,380 prisoners sometime before October 1992. *5401 Another report also mentions the camp in the Loznica Sports Centre. *5402

       Kraljevo: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). According to one source, a military prison is located in Kraljevo. *5403

       Ljubovija: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). One report indicates that Muslims from several villages around Srebrenica were taken to a detention facility in Ljubovija. Ljubovija is located in Serbia on the eastern shore of the Drina river near the border of Bratunac. *5404

       Mokra Gora: (The existence of this camp has been corroborated by multiple sources, but none neutral). Morka Gora is located near Uzice in western Serbia. According to one source «extremists» have moved 22,000 captured civilians to various camps in Serbia, including Mokra Gora. It is unclear from where the civilians originated or who their captors were. *5405 According to another source there were 3,000 prisoners at the camp sometime before October 1992. *5406 This camp is also mentioned by another source. *5407

       Nis: Nis is located in western Serbia near the Bulgarian border, at the fork of the Morava River and Nisava River. *5408 According to several reports, at least one detention facility, possibly more, existed in Nis containing an undetermined number of prisoners from Croatia, mainly Vukovar, and BiH. *5409

       Military Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources including ICRC). One source asserted that a military camp holding 1,540 prisoners was established in Nis. *5410 The ICRC listed two detention sites in Nis which its representatives visited. The first was a military prison visited on 14 April 1992. *5411 This camp is also mentioned in another report. *5412

       Prison/Penitentiary: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources including ICRC). The second detention site listed by ICRC was a prison/penitentiary, visited on 2 December 1991. *5413

       A detention facility clearly existed on 23 November 1991 as there were reports of Croatian National Guardsmen captured in Vukovar being held there. Reports indicate that prisoners were incarcerated in Nis as late as April of 1992. *5414 Amnesty International, however, reported that in October of 1991 two JNA reservists were detained at Nis pending a military trial. The two reservists from Aleksinac had refused to participate in the conflict in Dalj and had insisted on their unit being withdrawn from Croatia. The basis of their complaint was that the JNA was the aggressor in the conflict and that the reservist troops were inadequately trained. *5415 It is not clear that these men were detained in the same facility as the prisoners from Croatia and BiH.

       Little information was reported on the actual structure of the facility. What could be determined from the reports was that 35 to 160 prisoners were held in a single room *5416 and multiple rooms existed. At least some prisoners had beds, apparently bunkbeds, and there was limited access to toilet facilities. *5417 The dining area was located at some distance from the cells, so that the prisoners had to run to the location. *5418 Solitary confinement cells were also used by the custodians of the detention facility. *5419

       The commander of the camp, who is thought to have been a military commander in Sibenik, approved of all the maltreatment the prisoners received. He allegedly had a wife and child in Croatia and was prone to drinking a lot. The witness claimed that the commander was exchanged but did not expound on this. *5420

       NCO Catic and 15 soldiers under his command went from room to room beating prisoners and were especially cruel around the time of Croatia's international recognition. *5421

       One man most responsible for beating the prisoners was an ensign whose name is unknown. Though it was unclear what his role was in the detention facility, he wore a uniform without shoulder borders at times and civilian clothes at other times. He was described as a strong man with no mercy. *5422

       The prisoners were interrogated by members of the Serbian Counter-Intelligence Service (KOS) who were allegedly from Nis, by their accents. The KOS members beat the prisoners excessively and often. Another investigator was a captain of the first rank. *5423

       The prisoners appeared to have been mainly Croatians, though one report indicated Bosnians were also incarcerated. Around 16 February 1992, Amnesty International had reports from Croatian officials that an undetermined number of prisoners were held in Nis. *5424 Another source claimed that over 22,000 captured civilians from BiH were taken to various prison camps in FRY including Nis. *5425

       According to testimonies from ex-detainees at least 180 Croatian National Guardsmen from Vukovar were incarcerated in Nis on 23 November 1991. They had previously been held in Aleksinac for a few days and remained in Nis until 16 February 1992. *5426 On 12 December 1991, a group of prisoners from Stajicevo were transferred to Nis. *5427 Another group of Croatian Army reservists were transferred from Stajicevo to Nis on 22 December 1991 and remained there until mid-February 1992. *5428 In late April at the detention facility in Stajicevo the male prisoners, between 17 and 45 years old, were transported to other camps in FRY including Nis. *5429 One survivor of the massacres in Vukovar was held in Begejci until 21 January 1992 when he was transferred to Nis. *5430

       Physical abuse, especially beatings, occurred on a regular basis at Nis. *5431 One detainee, interned between January and March 1992 claims that he was beaten every other day. This resulted in severe injuries to his back, legs and feet. *5432 Some prisoners were beaten with truncheons and kicked. *5433 Another prisoner claimed that he had seven broken ribs and two fractured vertebrae as a result of the beatings he received while in custody. *5434 The beatings were severe enough to cause the fatality of two prisoners in custody at Nis. *5435

       According to reports, prisoners appear to have been beaten at random. For example, they were beaten as they went to meals and when they used the toilet facilities. *5436 Physical abuse was also used as a sort of revenge or punishment. On 15 January 1992, the day Croatia gained international recognition, the prisoners were beaten harshly and told that they would not be treated according to the Geneva Conventions. *5437 Prisoners were also beaten before being transported to other facilities in FRY. *5438

       NCO Catic and 15 soldiers under his command beat one 17 year old prisoner until he lost consciousness. This occurred three times during the beating and the prisoner was revived with water each time. These soldiers would move from room to room beating detainees. Prisoners were usually abused by three to five guards. The guards would sometimes use dogs to terrorize the prisoners or shoot at them. *5439

       A mentally unstable prisoner was treated exceptionally badly according to one witness. Two or three guards would jump on him and kick him in the loins, if he did not scream the guards would beat him more severely. They attempted to force a confession from him but he refused. The witness believes that the guards singled out the unstable prisoner because he was wealthy and owned a Mercedes. *5440

       In addition to continuous battery, the prisoners were not allowed to exercise other than occasionally clearing snow with metal cabinet doors. *5441

       Interrogations were reported but it was not clear from the reports how often they occurred. The prisoners were asked questions concerning the number of people they had killed or raped. They were forced through beatings to confess to crimes that allegedly never occurred and were forced to sign the confessions. Allegedly, the investigators would force one prisoner to sign a statement claiming another inmate had committed certain crimes. The accused would then be shown the signed statement and forced, again by beating, to confess to the crime as well. The prisoners were accused of various crimes which were based on where they had fought and what they did. *5442 Among those interrogated were 180 Croatian National Guardsmen. They were maltreated and tortured during the interrogations. *5443

       One room held 34 prisoners and each had a bed. They had to get up at 5:30 a.m. and were given one to three minutes to wash and relieve themselves. *5444 The guards maltreated the prisoners as they went to relieve themselves. If they could not complete their bowel movement in the allotted time the prisoners would have to wait until the next call by the guards. *5445 After using the toilet facilities the prisoners had stand on a vinyl square in their room to wait for breakfast. The guards beat the prisoners during this time. *5446

       The prisoners were forced to run to all of their meals and were often physically abused while they ate. The food was poor and even the soldiers were fed inadequately. *5447 One witness stated that beans were served for both lunch and dinner for two weeks. *5448

       After lunch there was a rest period, however this depended on the guards. The prisoners were made to jump up onto their beds, apparently bunkbeds, and if someone was unable to do so the guards would beat them. The prisoners had to wait until after roll call before being allowed access to the lavatories. *5449

       Nevertheless, one detainee claimed the conditions at Nis were better than at Stajicevo. The cells were warmer and there was a doctor present. *5450

       In the beginning of December 1991, the ICRC visited the camp and three prisoners were hidden in the shooting gallery. They had their hands tied and had to stand below a one and a half metres mark on the wall. *5451 Again on 23 January 1992 the ICRC visited the detention facility. The prisoners showed the representatives their bruises but the representatives were forced to leave. *5452

       A large group of prisoners appears to have been transferred from Nis to Sremska Mitrovica around the middle of February, 1992. *5453 They were transferred by bus and had their hands tied with wire. *5454

       Ozren Monastery: A report indicates there is a POW and civilian prison camp at the Ozren Monastery. *5455 The location of this monastery has not been confirmed, however there is a town in Serbia, near Aleksinac by that name.

       Petrovac: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by mulitiple sources). Petrovac is in north-eastern Serbia, south-east of Belgrade. A member of the Croatian Army, taken prisoner at the Henrikovci agricultural estate in Vukovar on 21 November 1992 by the JNA and unidentified Serbian paramilitary groups, was taken to Petrovac for an interrogation. He claims he was pressured to admit he was a member of the Counter-Intelligence Unit and was threatened with knives by a paramilitary member. He was severely beaten and he claims this left him in a coma. *5456

       The witness was then transferred to a cellar which held another severely beaten male prisoner, the two were not allowed to communicate. Three JNA reservists beat them and pushed guns into their mouths. A sergeant major beat the two prisoners with a club until a captain requested that the beating stop and the prisoners should be «sent on». The sergeant major insisted that the interrogation and beating continue. A man recognized the witness and spoke in favour of him to the captain. The prisoners were transferred to the KPD in Sremska Mitrovica on 22 November 1992. *5457

       Pozarevac: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by mulitiple sources). Pozarevac is located to the east of Belgrade in north-eastern Serbia. A ZNG reservists, taken into custody on 18 November 1991 in Vukovar, was transferred from the KPD to VIZ Belgrade on 13 February 1992. In Belgrade he was tried and sentenced to four years imprisonment on 20 July 1992. From there he was transferred to Pozarevac to serve his sentence. He was held in Pozarevac until 14 August 1992 when he was exchanged with five others from the prison. *5458

       Prijepolje: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, but none neutral). Prijepolje is located in southern Serbia near the Montenegrinn border. According to a report compiled by a Professor at the University of Sarajevo, Serbian «extremists» have transported over 22,000 non-Serbs from BiH to camps in Serbia, one of which is in the city of Prijepolje. *5459 According to another source there were 480 prisoners at the camp sometime before October 1992. *5460 The existence of this camp is also reported by another source. *5461

       Rodnik: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely The Reuter Library Report). Medecins sans Frontieres reports that filmed interviews with some 60 BiH refugees in France indicated that there were several Serb-run camps unknown of before these interviews. One of the camps was Rodnik which was reported to be in Serbia but it is unclear where. *5462

       Uzice: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the National Organization for Victim Assistance). According to information from the Territorial Defence Force in Visegrad, most of the 6,600 Muslim inhabitants of Visegrad were taken by the Serbian Territorial Defence to a detention facility in Uzice, Serbia in western Serbia near the Drina River. *5463 The Uzice Corp was active in Visegrad in April and May 1992, along with the «White Eagles», the «Garavi», and the «Johnsons». *5464

       Valjevo: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including ICRC). Valjevo, a city in north-western Serbia, contained a detention facility. A member of the ZNG, captured in Vukovar on 20 November 1991, was tried in Belgrade and sentenced to five years imprisonment. Following the trial, on 22 July 1992, he was transferred to the prison in Valjevo to serve his sentence but was released on 14 August 1992. *5465 The ICRC visited the District prison on 15 June 1991. *5466

       Sabac: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by mulitiple sources). According to one source «extremists» had moved 22,000 captured civilians to various camps in FRY, including Sabac. Sabac is located in north- western Serbia. It is unclear from where the civilians originated or who their captors were. *5467

       Sabac-«Zorka»: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, but none neutral). According to another source, however, Sabac's «Zorka» detention facility contained 12,000 prisoners sometime before October 1992 and that 2,000 of those in custody had been killed. *5468

       Topola: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the UK Defence Debriefing Team). Topola, located in central Serbia, allegedly contains a camp based at a former pig farm. Many of the inmates were formerly incarcerated in Manjaca camp. *5469

       Zlatibor: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by mulitiple sources, including the Dallas Morning News). One report states that an unknown number of females, captured in Visegrad for the purpose of rape, were allegedly taken to the Zlatibor region in southern Serbia, between Uzice and Prijepolje. *5470 The Uzice Corp was active in Visegrad in April and May 1992, along with the «White Eagles», the «Garavi», and the «Johnsons». *5471 It is not clear which formation had custody of the women.

4. Vojvodina

       Vojvodina occupies the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and is separated from Serbia proper by the Danube and Sava Rivers. It contains approximately 400,000 Hungarians with large Serbian and Croatian minorities. *5472 As with other regions in FRY, the non-Serb culture is actively suppressed by the government. The police and administration are wholly staffed by Serbs and are controlled from Belgrade. According to one source there is increasing conflict between the non-Serb independence movement and the extreme nationalist Serbian organizations. *5473

       Bac: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, but none neutral). According to one report there is a military prison in Bac. *5474 A witness claims that he was arrested by a policeman on 10 October 1991 in Bodjani. He was asked for his identity card and then was driven to Bac for questioning. He was eventually taken to a detention facility in Paragovo. *5475 According to another source there is a prison in Bac which is run by unidentified paramilitary forces. *5476

       Bac Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State). There is one report of a woman being detained in Bac police station. The woman and five members of a ZNG reserve unit escaped from Sotin by boat across the Danube River to Serbia with the intention of going to a Hungarian refugee camp. On 25 October 1992 a Serb villager caught sight of her and called the police. The police arrested her and transported the woman to Bac police station where she was interrogated by a Serb policeman and accused of terrorist activities. The policeman tied her up and beat her severely. That same evening she was transferred to Novi Sad. *5477

       Begejevo: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, but none neutral). In 1991 and 1992 detainees were maltreated by JNA soldiers in Begejevo detention facility in western Vojvodina, near Odzaci. *5478 One witness was arrested in Vukovar on 19 November 1991 by JNA members and left in the custody of «Cetniks». The witness was eventually driven to Bogojevo where he/she was tortured for 10 hours by Arkan's units and «Cetniks», before being transported to another location. *5479

       Begejci: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Helsinki Watch). The village of Begejci is situated near Zrenjanin, Vojvodina. There are several reports of a detention facility existing near Begejci which held mainly Croatian men from Vukovar. *5480 These included an undetermined number of residents of Borovo Naselje. *5481

       A detention facility was allegedly constructed in October 1991 on a deserted farm near the village. *5482 However, there are reports of detainees being held at this farm as early as September 1991. *5483 The facility was operated by the JNA until January or February 1992 when it was closed due to bad publicity. *5484 All evidence suggesting its existence was removed and the prisoners were sent to Sremska Mitrovica. *5485 Another report indicates the prison was emptied of all the prisoners, 117 men and an undetermined number of women on 25 December 1991. All were transferred to Sremska Mitrovica. *5486

       One report refers to the farm as the Marakana Farm which had not been used in 15 to 20 years. *5487 From reports the farm appeared to have been used for livestock prior to being a detention facility. One report made references to cattle while another to sheep. *5488

       The detention facility was surrounded by two concentric rows of barbed wire attached to wooden posts to fence in the grounds. *5489 The JNA officers and soldiers repeatedly told prisoners that the barbed wire was electrified. When the first prisoners were brought there they were made to clear the surrounding bushes and trees to build this camp fence. In addition to the barbed wire fencing the compound was surrounded by ditches and watchtowers, and was lit by spotlights. *5490

       The reports described the buildings in varying ways. There appeared to have been a shed, barn, or stable about 50 metres long and 10 metres wide *5491 in which the prisoners were held. *5492 This building had large doors that were never completely closed. There was no heating in the building so the temperature near the door was close to zero. The reports were not clear as to how many buildings actually composed the facility. One report describes several buildings:

«The compound included a red brick administrative/ interrogation building, five guard posts, an approximately 20 metres long barn which served as the prisoner detention building, a feeding area with tables, roofed by a nylon tarpaulin, a dog run and a garbage pit.» *5493
A gravel path was spread to link the prisoners' housing with the administration building. *5494 One report indicates the facility was made of brick, however it was unclear as to which building(s) were being referred to. *5495 Two doctors who were detained at Begejci claim that more than one structure existed to house the prisoners.

       Dogs allegedly were kept at the camp. The guards were armed reservists which patrolled the grounds with police dogs. *5496 The dogs also appear to have been kept between the two rows of fencing. *5497

       The building where the prisoners slept was overcrowded. The prisoners slept on the concrete floor with straw *5498 and pieces of tent. At night people were taken to a separate room where they were beaten and some died due to lack of medical treatment. *5499

       The bathroom was of the field type, situated two metres from the prisoners' building, with eight places covered by plastic sheeting. *5500

       The detention facility was also used as a rest and recreation centre for Serbian irregulars from the Vukovar front. The soldiers lived in a separate building and every few days two truckloads of troops were brought from the front and two truckloads went back. *5501

       There were conflicting reports concerning the commander of the camp and the guards. According to one report the commander of the camp was a lieutenant colonel whose name is unknown. *5502 Another report claimed the commander was a major who wore a camouflage military uniform whose name was also unknown. *5503 When the camp closed, its director was allegedly moved to Belgrade, where he acted as the commander of a military facility. *5504 It was not clear which individual this refers to.

       Allegedly there were 15 guards at the camp who wore non- camouflage, olive drab uniforms. *5505 The guards were primarily Serbian reservists who had been mobilized. However a report describes these reservists as having worn camouflage uniforms. *5506

       The prisoners were interrogated by three identified Serbs, who wore camouflage uniforms. *5507 These three were transferred to the KPD at Sremska Mitrovica as guards on 25 December 1991. *5508

       Six reservists, all from Belgrade, raped and mistreated a female detainee along with 24 unidentified reservists. *5509

       The reports on the population of the prison vary between 25 initially and 1,600 in November, 1991. *5510 Most of the reports indicate that the prison held between 500 and 600 prisoners at any one time. *5511

       According to one report, before the first agreement on the exchange of prisoners there were 527 people detained in the camp, among them 25 to 30 women. The youngest prisoner was only 14 years old, while the oldest was 82 years-old and about 100 people were over 60 years old. Over 90 per cent were Croatians and over 80 per cent of the prisoners were civilians who had never been members of any military unit. *5512

       The first prisoners incarcerated at the farm near Begejci allegedly were 25 arrested members of the Croatian defence forces, but later many more prisoners, mostly civilians from Vukovar municipality, arrived. Around 25 September 1991, 70 citizens from Tovarnik were transferred from a detention facility in Sid to Begejci and were held until 9 December 1991. *5513 According to a witness who was arrested on 23 September 1991 by military police, 90 detainees from Tovarnik were taken to Begejci on 3 October 1991. *5514

       Another witness claimed that upon arrival in the camp he found civilians from the villages of Svinjarevac, Berak, and Orolik, (villages in eastern Croatia) Some of them were brought to the Begejci camp on 3 October 1991. Until 20 November 1991, 367 or 387 persons were imprisoned in the camp. Another 175 prisoners were brought after the JNA and Serbian paramilitaries occupied Vukovar. *5515 Sixteen people were captured near Priljevo and taken to Begejci on 21 November 1991. *5516

       During November 1991 JNA soldiers brought civilians with bound hands to Begejci on a regular basis. These civilians consisted of an undetermined number of men from Tovarnik and two women. *5517 In the second week of November 1991, 30 women were brought into the camp where they were raped and beaten by the reservists. *5518 Another report claims that there were 25 women between the ages of 50 and 60 who were all civilians. There were many men older than 60. There were also children between 14 and 18 years-old. *5519 In the same room with the men were 17 women. *5520

       At about 5:00 p.m. on 19 November a group of 360 men and one women were sent to the detention facility at Begejci. The women was taken because she allegedly had been helping the Croatian Militia. The group arrived on 20 November 1991. Some 140 prisoners were already at the camp, including about 10 women and a 14 year-old boy who was severely maltreated by the guards. *5521 One report indicated that on 21 November 1991 an undetermined number of prisoners from Borovo Naselje were taken to Begejci. The camp held about 570 prisoners, 35 of which were female. *5522 Five prisoners were transported by bus from Bogojevo to Begejci on 23 November 1991. The witness claims there were 1,600 detainees in one hall at Begejci. He was held there for three months and transferred to Nis in February or January 1992. *5523

       Among the Croatian prisoners were two Sri Lankans who said they had been arrested at Belgrade airport. After the fall of Vukovar a group of 130 prisoners arrived, composed mainly of civilians. *5524

       The wounded were accommodated in the same building together with the other prisoners; they had open wounds which did not receive proper medical treatment. In addition they were regularly beaten. *5525 One source indicates that all the POWs with broken limbs were exchanged on some unspecified date for Serbian POWs. *5526

       The food at the detention facility was very bad. One witness reported that the prisoners were given a little bit of bread, «one paste» for two men, and some bad porridge. *5527 Another claimed that in the morning the prisoners received a small amount of tea, a piece of bread and sometimes a small piece of sausage-type meat. Lunches and dinners were equally meager and sometimes nothing was received. *5528 Another detainee stated that the meals were scanty, usually some kind of greasy water. One prisoner allegedly found a mouse in the food and other detainees could not eat because of hairs in the food. *5529 The lack of food caused all prisoners to lose between five and 10 kilograms in weight. *5530

       There were many old people in the camp who had their medicine taken away from them on arrival at the camp. They suffered from chronic heart and lung diseases. They did not receive any medicine while detained. There were also 25 psychiatric patients, four of whom were schizophrenics with no medication. *5531

       All the prisoners suffered from drastic weight loss and were infested with lice. Ninety-five per cent of the prisoners reportedly suffered from infections of the upper respiratory tract and they did not receive medication for these infections or for fevers. There was an epidemic of diarrhea among the prisoners and those who suffered were not even allowed to go to the toilet. Urinary infections were also quite common. *5532

       The soldiers selected and determined who needed medical help. *5533 One witness and three other detainees were taken to Zrenjanin hospital due to their injuries. The witness claims that the treatment at the hospital was inadequate and the nurses were verbally abusive. The four were taken back to the detention facility near Begejci and situated in an infirmary. There were 25 detainees in one room. A female army doctor arrived four days later to examine the cuts on the witness' genitals and hip which she sprayed with some unidentified substance. A doctor and his assistant came to the infirmary a few days after that to clean and bandage the witness' wounds. *5534 Another detainee also referred to the doctor and a clinic at the detention facility. The detainee was taken to the clinic for treatment of a neck wound and two bullet wounds to the right arm. *5535 There were several other detainees at the clinic, two who died due to treatment they suffered while at Begejci. The doctor allegedly covered one of the fatalities with a blanket and reported the cause of death as heart problems. *5536

       The prisoners slept on the stone floor, in four rows, lying on straw with only one blanket to cover themselves. Because the room was crowded, people were not able to sleep stretched out. *5537 At first men and women slept in the same room. They were allowed to leave the room only for meals and to go to the bathroom if the guards permitted. In three months prisoners were allowed to bathe only once and people slept for a month or two without taking off their boots. They were not able to wash their faces regularly because the water pipes were frozen. Water was available in small quantities for drinking. *5538 During one witness' two months detention in the facility she was allowed to bathe only once before the arrival of the ICRC. *5539

       The prisoners were used for labour at and around the detention facility. *5540 They were forced to prepare the buildings for future prisoners and were kicked, punched, and beaten with wooden sticks while working. *5541 Prisoners were taken to cut trees in the woods. Sometimes prisoners would not return from the woods, and the YPA military police would take those prisoners' belongings out of the shed. The witness claims he knows one man killed in this way. *5542

       JNA police would come at 3:00 am and beat the prisoners and force them to sing «Cetnik» songs. *5543 The prisoners were verbally abused and made to stand or sit with their heads down and their hands behind their backs. Those who stood nearest to the guards were beaten. *5544 According to one witness the prisoners were forced to sing «Hej Slaveni» and to pay respect to the Serbian dead by observing one minute of silence. *5545

       Prisoners were forced to abuse one another as well as being abused by the guards. A man and a woman chosen at random were forced to have sex. *5546 One detainee claims he was forced to beat other Croatian detainees. *5547

       The prisoners were beaten every day. They were ordered to hide their heads so that they could not see who was taken. Men, women and children were all beaten. *5548 Three prisoners reported being beaten by soldiers upon arrival and again while apparently being registered. *5549 On 13 November 1991, 10 or 15 Serbian reservists came to the detention facility and beat the Croatian POWs. Several were killed by having their heads slammed against a wall until they died. Nine of these detainees fainted, were dragged out into the cold until they regained consciousness, and were then beaten to death. *5550

       The civilian police from Vojvodina also entered the camp on many occasions and beat various prisoners with the permission of the JNA officers in charge. Prisoners were taken outside the camp, shown to Serb civilians who were given the opportunity to beat them. These prisoners were put on public display as criminals, murderers. Some prisoners were tied naked to posts and beaten so severely that they suffered from «post- traumatic delirium» afterwards. *5551

       The most prominent characteristic of life at the detention facility was the regular, daily, and systematic mistreatment of the prisoners. Soldiers would come in drunk at night and force prisoners to stand at attention and sing all night, or they would order them to lie down and cover their heads and proceed to call out their names and beat them. *5552 The prisoners were questioned and maltreated by JNA police. A young women dressed in a JNA uniform would force the prisoners to write their personal histories and various confessions. *5553

       Detainees were regularly interrogated at the detention facility by JNA officers. Beating usually accompanied the interrogations and the officers would not discriminate by age, health, or profession who they interrogated. Even arrested medical doctors, minors and wounded detainees were interrogated and beaten. *5554 The prisoners were all beaten and forced to make false confession to killing Serbs. These confession were videotaped and later shown on television in Novi Sad and Belgrade. *5555

       Several individuals were named as interrogators. Three interrogated the prisoners simultaneously and sought to force prisoners to sign statements they had not written and extort confessions. In order to persuade the prisoners to confess, the interrogators hit, kicked, and beat them with batons. One technique these interrogators used was to force a prisoner to lay on the floor on his stomach. One interrogator would stand on the prisoner's back and then pull the prisoner's legs up and back towards his head. Another interrogator would then beat the bottoms of the prisoners bare feet. Another technique used was to bind the prisoner's hands behind his back with plastic flex cuffs and then place him in isolation in the barn for as long as eight days. The three interrogators beat to death a 50 year-old man from Borovo Naselje. It was not known where the body was taken. *5556

       The three interrogators and a first class ensign were also named as interrogators by a wounded detainee. The witness was called for questioning and the doctor was asked if the detainee was ready. The doctor responded that they were doing their job without problems. The doctor left the room and the four interrogators beat the witness until he confessed to the murder of five civilians. The witness told them that he was illiterate therefore could not write a statement which incited the four to beat him again. *5557

       Police from Novi Sad also arrived and interrogated the prisoner about the Democratic Party of Croats in Novi Sad and who the recruits into the Croatian army were in that area. During the interrogations, which usually took place at night, prisoners were beaten. *5558

       There were dozens of prisoners with broken ribs in the camp, and practically every prisoner was marked by bruises from frequent beating. Some prisoners lost their sight, hearing or several teeth, while several suffered broken jaws from the physical abuse they received. *5559

       An undetermined number of prisoners died at the detention facility from physical abuse. One prisoner over 60, a heart disease patient, was beaten to death in the camp and died without receiving any medical care. *5560 At least two men died from beatings at the camp between 22 and 23 November 1991. One was approximately 55 years-old and had lived in Vukovar, the other was about 40 years-old and had heart problems. It was not clear if the men with heart problems were the same individuals. *5561 Another report claims that two others died from their beatings. *5562 The nine prisoners beaten to death by the reservists and the man who disappeared in the woods are also counted among the dead. One report claims the corpses were taken away in a Red Cross vehicle that resembled a refrigerator. *5563

       The women held in the detention facility were interrogated and beaten and they also suffered sexual abuse while detained. The irregular soldiers that arrived at the farm reportedly used the women as sexual slaves. Initially there were very few women in the camp, sources suggest that there appeared to have been over 30 altogether. *5564

       The women were held in the same stable with the other prisoners for 10 days and then moved to another room. There they slept on concrete floors with one blanket. The temperature was close to freezing and the women were unable to sleep due to the cold. The women had diarrheic problems. *5565

       On 1 November 1991, a Serbian reservist told one female detainee that she was to be his slave. He referred to her as «bitch» and she was to call him «master». She was told she would be a whore for 30 reservists and was forced to clean their boots while they wore them. *5566 If the reservists were not satisfied they would kick the witness in the chest and face which caused severe nosebleeds. She was regularly raped, brutalized, sexually mistreated, and verbally threatened by all 30 reservists. *5567

       During the second week of November 1991, 30 women were brought into the camp. *5568 The women were taken out at night by the soldiers but refused to discuss what had occurred. *5569

       The women were also interrogated and one reported that she was beaten in an attempt to force her to admit to killing an unidentified Serb. She was also heard to tell the interrogators not to touch certain parts of her body. One man was overheard as saying the woman had nice breasts. *5570

       One woman from Vukovar claims that because women were not held in Stajicevo she was transferred to Begejci the same night she was captured, 19 November 1991. She was driven in a JNA vehicle which also contained three soldiers. On the way they forced her to kiss them and threatened her with rape and death. Upon arrival at Begejci the soldiers put a gun to her head and played Russian roulette until the morning when she was forced to sing the Yugoslavia anthem. *5571

       Another woman claimed that during the first 14 days of her internment the she was taken for questioning. She reported that she was not beaten but she was sexually abused by one reservist. The other reservists were not allowed to touch her. *5572

       The ICRC representatives reportedly visited the detention facility three times and were denied access on the fourth visit. The reason given for the denial of access was that there were no new detainees. *5573 The JNA officers did not allow private conversations between ICRC representatives and prisoners. *5574

       Every time the ICRC visited the detention facility a certain number of prisoners would allegedly be hidden from them. One report claimed that some prisoners were deliberately hidden from their sight so that their names would not be recorded. *5575 Another report alleges that 15 POWs destined for the military prison in Belgrade were always hidden in a small room during the ICRC visits. *5576 The ICRC visited the camp in early December and about ten prisoners who had been severely beaten were hidden in the administrative building for the duration of the visit. *5577 A group of 17 prisoners were hidden whenever the representatives of the ICRC visited the camp and therefore were never registered by the ICRC. *5578

       After the occupation of Borovo Naselje a large group of civilians arrived but were not listed with the ICRC because the camp officials denied them access until 10 December 1991. *5579

       In December 1991 all but seventy inmates were exchanged for Serbian POWs. *5580 On 10 December 1991 detainees were exchanged on the Bosanski Samac-Slavonski Samac Bridge. Ninety per cent of those exchanged were civilians. *5581 On 23 December 1991 the seventy remaining prisoners were transported to other detention facilities. *5582

       Indjija Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Indjija is a town southeast of Novi Sad, Vojvodina. The Croats in Slankamen, a town near Indjija, began experiencing ethnic problems around 1 August 1991. Shortly thereafter people began to be drafted into the JNA. The Croats allegedly had a difficult time in the military due to their ethnicity. One Croat reports that he moved to Croatia on 10 November 1991 due to avoid military service with the JNA. In January 1992 his wife and children joined him. His parents remained in Slankamen until they were forced to exchange their house. At this time their son returned to Slankamen to get his parents and retrieve some documents from the house. *5583

       He was arrested and detained at the Indjija police station for an undetermined amount of time. There he was beaten and forced to confess to being an «Ustasa». He was also forced to accuse other Croats in Slankamen of the same. He was to be tried for allegedly misusing official documents because he had lost his drivers license and was issued another one after having found the original. He asked permission to speak to his parents and was told to return to the station in the morning. He escaped to Croatia that night. *5584

       Livade: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Livade is located near Zrenjanin in Vojvodina. A detention facility in Livade held approximately 6500 people in October of 1991, 400 of whom were women. The prisoners were predominately from Vukovar, Miklosevci, and Borovo Naselje. The witness was the only Muslim detained there. She was arrested with several Croatian soldiers on 8 October 1991 in Borovo Naselje and taken to Livade the same day. She and nine Croatians were transferred to Livade in a personnel carrier and were physically abused by four «Cetniks» during the journey. The witness claims that the prisoners were driven all over Serbia as the journey took 14 hours. *5585

       Upon arrival the prisoners were lined up against a wall. The witness was taken out of line and searched. She was deprived of a necklace, three rings, and some money. A soldier told her to lie on some straw, and an hour later the captain and seven men raped her. The men were approximately 25 to 30 years- old. They forced her to have oral, anal, and vaginal sex which lasted until 5:00 a.m.. She was then moved to a hog pen. *5586

       The captain interrogated her and forced her to confess that she fed Croatian soldiers in her home. She did not know the names of the soldiers. *5587

       The witness claims that she was raped every night and that the Croatian women in the detention facility were also raped. The youngest was a 17 year-old and the witness herself was the oldest victim. All the rapes occurred in the same room and continued until 10 December 1991 when Captain Dukanovic told the detainees they would be exchanged in Bosanska Samac. The exchange failed and the witness was transferred to the detention facility in Sid. *5588

       Novi Sad: International Society for Human Rights (ISHR) had reports of prison camps at various locations in FRY, including Novi Sad, Vojvodina. *5589 Amnesty International also has reports from Croatian official sources that prisoners were still held by the JNA and Serbian paramilitaries at locations around FRY on 16 February 1992. *5590

       Novi Sad City Jail: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely US Department of State). A detainee was reported to have been held in the Novi Sad city jail and then brought to Foca prison by Foca police in the early summer of 1992. *5591

       Novi Sad Civilian Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely US Department of State). A witness claims that he was arrested by a policeman on 10 October 1991 in Bodjani. He was asked for his identity card and then was driven to Bac for questioning. He was questioned by the police but believes he did not tell them what they wanted to hear so they took him to the civilian prison in Novi Sad, where he remained for three days. He was questioned and beaten in the Karadjordjevo by an investigator, JNA members, and reservists. He was beaten, he believes, because he did not want to sign a false statement which accused him of being a member of a terrorist organization which operated in Vojvodina. He was told that he was «registered» in a fenced hunting ground and was accused of leaving a path for others to follow. From Novi Sad he was taken to Paragovo. *5592

       Another report appears to refer to the same incident, though the events in the report have not been confirmed. A woman who was arrested and taken to Bac police station was transferred to Novi Sad on 25 October 1992. She spent the night in a cell and was interrogated in the morning by the police inspector referred to above. This inspector is also described as the prosecutor for the Vojvodina region. He told the woman that all members of her terrorist group had been arrested. *5593

       She was taken in a police van by ten Serbian reservists to the Karadordevo Hunting Woods, located on the eastern bank of the Danube River. There she was to show the investigator where she and her companions had crossed and hidden the boat. A Belgrade television crew was already at the woods and handed her a script to read which incriminated her of terrorist activities. When she refused, the investigator and the soldiers beat her while the television crew filmed it. The investigator ordered the soldiers to aim their rifles at the woman when she still refused. She prayed and then told the investigator not to be a coward and shoot her in the front. He allegedly spared her life because of her bravery. He informed her she was a prisoner of war but had no rights. She was then taken back to Novi Sad and incarcerated in Paragaj Military Casern. *5594

       Novi Sad Paragaj Military Casern: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). In October 1992 the Paragaj Military Casern allegedly held five Croats and four Czechs *5595 in unheated cells. A women involved in the Karadjordjevo Hunting Woods incident, was interned there and interrogated continuously for three days. She was accused of terrorism and crimes she claims she did not commit. On 28 October 1992 the woman was told she would be sent to the occupied Ilok, Croatia and was told to write a statement. The Serbians who controlled the prison did not like her statement and beat her severely in the head and abdomen. *5596

       The other eight prisoners were allegedly so badly beaten they could not move. One 70 year-old man fainted from pain and cold and was dragged into an office by a fellow Croat detainee. When the man was revived he was beaten again. One evening all the Czechs were removed from the cells and never returned. The woman was taken to Zrenjanin and incarcerated in Begejci on an unknown date. *5597

       Novi Sad Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). One report describes the arrest of two men in Novi Sad on 2 October 1991. Both men were detained in the Novi Sad police station for 30 hours without receiving any explanation or hearing any accusations. During their detainment one of the men was interrogated and beaten. He was questioned about the Croatian forces and their weaponry in Ilok and the Croatian Democratic Party in Novi Sad. On 3 October 1991 he was released from the police station. The witness was arrested several more times before being transported to Paragovo on 6 November 1991. Before his transfer from the Novi Sad police station he was forced to give a written and signed statement. *5598

       Novi Sad Hospital: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely ICRC). The ICRC visited Novi Sad Hospital, which was listed in the ICRC Places of Detention List, 16 November 1991. *5599

       Palic: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely US Department of State). The BiH Government alleged the existence of a concentration camp in Palic, a town in northern Vojvodina near Subotica. However, certain embassy officials, members of humanitarian organizations, and western journalists visited Palic and did not find a «camp» or imprisoned Muslims. They did find a site where Bosnian Muslim refugees were billeted while waiting for travel documents so they could attempt to travel to Hungary. *5600

       Paragovo: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). According to one source there is a civilian/military prison in Paragovo. Paragovo, according to this source, is located between Novi Sad and Kamenica. *5601

       Paragovo Military Prison in Sremska Kamenica: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including ISHR). Sremska Kamenica is located a few kilometres south of Novi Sad in Vojvodina. Three thousand residents of Borovo Naselje surrendered to the Serbian forces at the new shoe factory on 20 November 1992. The prisoners, some of whom were Croatian National Guards (ZNG-Zbor Narodne Garde), were taken to several locations, one of which was the Paragovo Military Prison at Sremska Kamenica. *5602 Another source describes the detention facility as a military police barracks. In addition to those detainees from Vukovar, Hungarians and Croatians from Vojvodina are allegedly being picked up off the streets and detained in this camp. *5603

       A witness stated that he was arrested on 6 November 1991 in Novi Sad. He was transported to Paragovo Military Police Headquarters where he was forced to give a written and signed statement. The next day he was made to give a statement while a «mayor» held a gun to his head and threatened him with torture and death. The mayor questioned him about the hospital in Ilok. On 9 November 1991 he was transported with three other prisoners to the camp in Begejci. *5604

       Another witness describes how he was arrested on 10 October 1991 interrogated in Novi Sad and transported to Paragovo. He spent three days in a barracks, the first in «the room of some lieutenant colonel» and the subsequent nights in a storehouse which contained three connecting beds. The witness was imprisoned with four others, three of whom were Ruthenes. JNA Reservists appear to have been in charge of the detention facility. The witness was not beaten or tortured though his fellow detainees were. He was interrogated and the reservist in charge demanded that he write a statement about the occurrences in Sotin, beginning with the death of the policemen in Borovo Selo. On 1 November 1991 the witness was transported to Begejci camp. *5605

       Another source claims that as many as 15 detainees are held in a small underground cell. Prisoners are beaten on a regular basis, burned with cigarettes, and made to fight one another. *5606

       Ruma: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). Sometime after 20 October 1991 when the JNA occupied Tovarnik, JNA members and Serb Paramilitary units, interned the local civilians, mainly Croatians, in various detention facilities in FRY. According to a witness account, JNA soldiers brought a group of civilians to a farm near Ruma, 50 kilometres northwest of Belgrade. The prisoners were taken off the bus two by two. The witness was ordered by a JNA soldier to strip to the nude. After that the soldier threatened to castrate him. After the witness, a female neighbour of his was called. The woman was ordered to take her skirt off. At that point the soldier removed the witness from the room but detained the woman for several more hours. The witness states that he saw the JNA soldiers carrying out glass bottles filled with a dark fluid which he thinks was the blood of the prisoners detained in the room. The witness did not see the prisoners ever again. *5607

       Village near Ruma: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). Ruma is a village in Vojvodina, east of Sremska Mitrovica, where prisoners were allegedly held for short periods of time before being transported to Sremska Mitrovica. One witness, who was arrested on 23 September 1991, was taken to Sid and then spent a day in Sremska Mitrovica. On 25 September 1991 he and 90 others were transferred to a village near Ruma. Most of the detainees were from Tovarnik and three of them were women. All of the detainees were physically and mentally abused. The 90 detainees spent two days and one night in the prison before being transferred back to Sremska Mitrovica. *5608

       It appears that Croatians residing in FRY were arrested and detained for use in later exchanges with Croatia. This witness was exchanged on 11 October 1991 in Bosanska Samac and taken to a hospital in Zagreb. *5609

       Ruma Sports Hall: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). Prisoners from Vukovar were separated from the women and children in Velepromet on 18 November 1991. The men were taken by truck to a sports hall in Ruma. There the prisoners had to give their personal data and their place of residence. *5610

       Sid: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Amnesty International). According to one report there is a military prison in Sid. *5611

       On 22 September 1991 JNA soldiers, reservists, and «Cetniks» entered the village of Tovarnik. The captured villagers, mainly in Tovarnik, were detained in a the house of a deceased doctor before being transported to Sid. The reservists and «Cetniks» from Tovarnik mistreated the prisoners, however the JNA Army officers interrogated them without using force. The prisoners spent two to three days in Sid before being transferred to other detention facilities in FRY. All were released on 9 December 1991. *5612 Large groups of prisoners were detained in Tovarnik before being deported to Serbia. *5613

       Croatian officials reported to Amnesty International that there was a prison camp operated in Sid by Serbians sometime before or around February 1992. *5614 The International Society for Human Rights also had reports of a detention facility in Sid. *5615

       A witness reported being arrested in Sid and detained by the military police before being transported to Sremska Mitrovica. *5616 Another witness claims that his mother and son were taken by the JNA, Serbian paramilitary units, and villagers to a detention facility in Sid where they were mentally abused. The witness, himself, was apparently detained in Sid from 12 September 1991 to 27 November 1991 when he was transferred to Sremska Mitrovica. *5617 One report indicates that a women held initially in Livade, Vojvodina was transported to a stable in Sid after a failed prisoner exchange on 12 December 1991 and was held there until 6 January 1992. *5618 One witness who tried to escape from the conflict in Vukovar was captured in Ceric by JNA soldiers around 22 November 1991. He was then detained in the police station in Sid for an undetermined period and transferred to Sremska Mitrovica. *5619 Another witness from Vukovar was captured and taken by JNA army trucks to Sid and then to Sremska Mitrovica prison on 11 November 1991. *5620

       Sremska Mitrovica-«Fruska Gora»: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). There was, allegedly, a detention facility in Sremska Mitrovica called «Fruska Gora». The report did not indicated how many detainees were held there. *5621

       Kazneno Popravni Dom in Sremska Mitrovica (KPD): (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including ICRC). KPD was a criminal rehabilitation centre for civilians prior to the war. *5622 Beginning on 18 November 1991, *5623 Croatians captured at the battle of Vukovar as well as Muslims from Bosnia were detained there. *5624 Reports indicate detainees were being held in the KPD as late as 14 August 1992 by the JNA in conjunction with paramilitary groups and local Serbian civilians. *5625 The ICRC first visited a detention facility in Sremska Mitrovica on 2 December 1991. *5626 This camp is also mentioned in another report. *5627

       The KPD is situated in the city of Sremska Mitrovica in south-western Vojvodina, FRY. The city is approximately 75 kilometres southwest of Vukovar, Croatia.

       The KPD facility located in the centre of the Sremska Mitrovica is an old brick building surrounded by high walls with barbed wire. *5628 It includes a building 60 to 70 metres long and eight metres wide. *5629 There apparently are multiple pavilions with rooms of varying sizes. Solitary confinement cells are located next to hall number 3. There also existed rooms called segregation. Segregation cells containing at least five individuals each, however, their purpose is not clear. The two story structure also contains a basement where prisoners were allegedly tortured. *5630

       The JNA appeared to be in control of the KPD. This was substantiated by several prisoner statements claiming both the presence of the JNA at the detention facility and apparent custody of prisoners by the same. *5631 Also, prisoners compared treatment at the hands of the paramilitary members and JNA personnel, both of which had access to the detainees. *5632 An article in the Belgrade daily Borba quotes at length a civilian held in Sremska Mitrovica attributing his survival to the fact that he was held in a JNA prison. *5633 Further, several reports indicate lists of prisoners were supplied to the prison personnel by the Yugoslav Federal Police (SDS). *5634 In a letter to Human Rights Watch, the Serbian Government clearly admitted to having held individuals from Ovcara. *5635

       The commander of the military guards at the KPD was called KOS by the prisoners, which is an acronym for counter intelligence agency. The guards referred to him by a code name. He participated in the beating of prisoners. *5636 Another document alleged that the camp was run by a JNA Captain. It is likely that they are the same individual as they are both referred to by the guards by the same code name and were at the KPD during the same time period. *5637

       Some of the guards at the KPD were identified by name in various reports. Three were transferred from their positions at Begejci to the KPD around 25 December 1992. *5638 Five prison guards, all about 18 to 20 years-old and JNA privates, were at the KPD for military police training. They regularly tortured prisoners and were responsible for the deaths of at least 18 prisoners. *5639 Another guard was identified only by nickname. *5640

       Sources identify seven others who were not prisoners and who were present during the beatings at the KPD. *5641 A lance corporal was present at the camp from 24 September 1991 to 3 October 1991 and beat at least one prisoner repeatedly. *5642

       A captain, an investigating officer, interrogated prisoners at KPD and apparently supported the methods used by an investigating officer from Begejci--an ensign 1st class. One report indicates that prisoners were being forced to sign confessions written by the captain. *5643

       In November 1991 detainees were beaten by JNA soldiers, JNA military police, and bus drivers of Serb nationality. *5644 Paramilitary units and civilians participated in the beatings and killings the KPD along with the JNA military personnel. *5645 Multiple reports indicate that military police and Serbian policemen beat prisoners on arrival at the KPD. *5646 One report in particular indicated a military police private first class took part in the beatings. A number of reservists acted as guards and apparently treated the prisoners more humanely. *5647 Another report indicated that the 182 MUPs and ZNGs who surrendered to the JNA were protected from the «Cetniks». *5648

       Four Serbs from Vukovar who knew their victims inflicted the worst beatings and tortures on the prisoners of the KPD. *5649 They were brought in to take part in the interrogation of the prisoners. *5650 Two known perpetrators were called «executioners» by the prisoners. They would come into the prison hall and remove men they knew as neighbours from Vukovar. *5651

       It was reported that five women prisoners, taken into custody during the Vukovar conflict, were guarded by two female civilians. These guards forced one women to read a cyrillic Bible and beat all the female detainees in their custody. *5652

       The ethnicity of the prison population was mixed; the majority of the detainees were reportedly Croatians from Vukovar and Muslims and Croatians from Bosanski Samac, BiH. *5653 However, among the population were Hungarians and Croatians from the Vojvodina area imprisoned as part of FRY's domestic policy of relocating non-Serb ethnic groups. *5654 There were also reports of an American, *5655 a Ruthenian, *5656 a Slovenian woman, *5657 and several Albanians being imprisoned. *5658 Several reports mention that Serbs from Vukovar, who refused to collaborate with the Serbian forces, and even a JNA soldier were detained. *5659 The KPD was also populated with civilian criminals, not being held in connection with the conflict. An undetermined number of these criminals participated in the rape of at least one female prisoner. *5660

       The number of detainees reported present at the KPD after the Vukovar surrender in November, 1991 range as high as 5,000 *5661 and as low as 300. *5662 The majority of the reports are in the range of 3,000 to 4,000 prisoners. *5663

       The KPD housed both male civilians and members of various Croatian forces. These included a whole unit of Croatian Army reserves, *5664 300 to 500 Croatian National Guardsmen (ZNG), *5665 Croatian Army members, *5666 and members of the Croatian Security Police (MUP). *5667 In December an unspecified number of Territorial Defence members were transferred from Stajicevo with 500 other prisoners. *5668

       There are also reports of women and children being detained but most do not specify numbers. At least 84 women were imprisoned after the fall of Vukovar and more were transferred to the facility in December 1991 and January 1992. *5669 However, it seemed the majority of women were separated from the men, driven to various locations, and eventually released. *5670

       Among the prison population were a number of civilian medical personnel, patients, and civilians from Vukovar hospital. *5671 The Serbian authorities claim that only 380 patients were taken and 178 were released to Croatian authorities. *5672 According to Amnesty International, by 27 November 1991 only 128 of a total of 440 patients, and 72 out of 320 hospital staff had been handed over to the Croatian authorities. *5673 A major admitted that Serbian troops evacuated a number of people from the hospital to a place called Ovcara but claimed that he turned all these people over to prison authorities in Sremska Mitrovica.

       The majority of prisoners incarcerated at the KPD surrendered at the Mitnica district of Vukovar on 18 November 1991. These included military personnel and civilians. *5674 The JNA had promised to release the civilians if the military forces surrendered but they did not honour this agreement. *5675 Approximately 200 Croatian army reservists who were defending Mitnica, and the approximately 5,000 residents of the town, surrendered to the JNA. Before the surrender some of the reservists had hidden their uniforms and weapons. *5676 One hundred and fifty ZNG members surrendered both with and without their weapons. They were all dressed in civilian clothes as there was a shortage of uniforms. *5677 A European Community observer was present at the time of surrender. All non-Serb residents were separated from the Serbian residents. After that, the non-Serb men were separated from their women and children; all the non- Serbs were then loaded onto trucks and taken to Ovcara. *5678 They were transported from Ovcara in buses to the KPD in Sremska Mitrovica and incarcerated between 18 November 1991 and 22 November 1991. *5679

       On 19 November 1991, Serbian forces (irregular and JNA) occupied Vukovar and rounded up all the citizens and the Croatian National Guardsmen. The men were separated and taken to the warehouse of the Velepromet company in Vukovar. Serbian paramilitary members had access to the prisoners at this point and committed atrocities such as killing 25 young men. On 20 November, a Belgrade television crew and well-known television personality Petar Slovenski interviewed the prisoners. At noon on the same day the Croatian POWs were loaded on to eight or nine buses, 50 to 60 prisoners per bus and taken to Sremska Mitrovica's KPD. *5680 At the prison the men were separated from the women. *5681 Another source claims all prisoners from Vukovar were transported to Sremska Mitrovica in the Negoslavci direction but only the men were removed from the buses. *5682

       In addition to the Vukovar patients, civilians wounded in the mine field in Lovas were taken to Sremska Mitrovica hospital and the KPD. *5683 Wounded individuals spotted near the road were also taken along with the other prisoners and incarcerated. Among them was a man who needed his leg amputated. Many wounded were held in the same room as other prisoners and were without medical care for eight days. *5684 In addition to the wounded, there were two schizophrenics and one epileptic who were released after three weeks. *5685

       Approximately 400 patients, 400 civilians, and some medical personnel were arrested in Vukovar Hospital on 20 November 1991 and an undetermined number were incarcerated by the JNA. *5686 This included the staff and patients of the Vukovar hospital. There are independent reports from at least two doctors and two journalists. *5687 It is not clear if this group also included several hundred military personnel who took refuge in the hospital. Some military personnel were captured while helping to evacuate the hospital. All were taken to Velepromet before being transported to the KPD. *5688 Another source claims prisoners from the hospital were divided in to three groups; women with children, women without children, and men. Women and children were taken to Serbia and from there to Croatia or Hungary. *5689

       Another group of citizens, who were seeking shelter in their cellars, were taken to Drvena pijaca. There the men were separated from the women and children. The men were taken to Velepromet where Serbian reservists perpetrated crimes against them. The next day the prisoners were taken by bus to the KPD by Serbian reservists. During the journey the bus was stopped often and prisoners were taken out and killed. *5690

       One witness was taken prisoner in Petrovci on 17 November and transferred to Sremska Mitrovica on 20 November 1991. *5691 There are also reports that some of the prisoners were not abused because they were escorted by young Serbian soldiers though they were abused by local Serbs. *5692

       On 19 November a convoy arrived at the KPD and the men were removed and the women and children taken in an unknown direction. *5693 The male prisoners were forced to run a gauntlet. They were beaten with clubs, truncheons, axe handles, black jacks, bare hands, and kicked. *5694 Three sources indicate the gauntlet was composed of policemen. *5695 However, another source claims the prisoners were forced to step out one by one and were met at the gate by convicts in blue uniforms who beat them to exhaustion. *5696 One report indicated that the prisoners were photographed shortly after arrival. *5697

       When the prisoners reached a large hall they were forced to undress and were strip-searched. *5698 All their belongings were confiscated. Some of the items were registered with the intent of being returned to their owners, other items, specifically valuables, were never returned. *5699 One source claims documents belonging to the prisoners were returned. *5700 All this was accompanied by humiliations, curses and, some sources reported, beatings. *5701 In addition, lists, contents unknown, were made which the prisoners had to sign. *5702

       After entering the camp, the majority of prisoners were put in rooms with wooden floors and no beds. There were nearly 100 prisoners situated in rooms between 50 square metres to possibly 92 square metres. The overcrowded conditions forced some to stand so others could sleep. *5703 According to one source, there were 120 people in a space of 70 square metres. No one was able to lie on their backs and 20 people had to stand so others could lie down. *5704 Some were made to sleep on metal-framed beds, on the floor, and on tables. *5705 Another source states, 100 detainees from the Vukovar hospital were taken into a room where each had one metre of space. *5706

       Cold drinking water was available from a water installation in a small space at the entrance to the room. The detainees had no soap, towels, toilet paper, or detergent. The rooms had central heating installations. During the night a strong light was turned on (only in a few rooms was the light of lesser intensity). Several days later each prisoner received two cushions, one blanket, towel, soap, and toilet paper. *5707

       Approximately 200 people, who had surrendered with their weapons, were placed in a room with an oily concrete floor and no beds, blankets, or other furnishings. *5708 Around 180 Croatian soldiers were locked in a room with 80 beds, *5709 and 80 women were held in another room. *5710 One source claims he was held in the «ice plant» in cold and damp conditions without a bed. Before that he was in a room with 102 other prisoners. *5711

       All the prisoners claim the food was terrible and the portions inadequate, though they were fed three times a day. *5712 Most prisoners lost weight, some of them up to 30 kilograms. *5713 One source lost 18 kilograms during the nine months of his incarceration. *5714 One source stated that the prisoners were deprived of food for two days after their surrender. *5715 The women held in the KPD claim that the food was horrible, but of adequate portions. *5716

       The prisoners were forced to eat unplucked chicken «with all kinds of crusts and disgusting things». *5717 They never received fruit or vegetables. *5718 Of the three daily meals, only one meal was hot. This meal consisted of broth and bread. One detainee claimed the guards always came up one slice of bread short in order to cause friction among the prisoners. *5719

       One detainee complained that the tea was sour, the food was either too salty or without salt, and the bread was mouldy. *5720 For breakfast the prisoners received a piece of hard, stale bread, a small sausage or a piece of meat from a can. Another detainee complained of no tea or white coffee. Lunch was usually cabbage, beans, or goulash. Another prisoner stated that the food was always too salty, too spicy, too acidic, or too bland; the bread was scarce, half-baked, and hard. The same was offered for supper. *5721

       According to another source, hygiene was non-existent. *5722 For months the prisoners were unable to wash or shave and became infested with lice. They were sprayed with insecticide. *5723 The prisoners were given soap and toilet paper only when the Commission *5724 was expected, but these were taken away the moment the Commission left. *5725 They were eventually allowed to bathe after two and a half months due to the arrival of the ICRC. They were then again not allowed to wash or to satisfy the basic requirements of personal hygiene until the next visit by the Red Cross. *5726

       The wounded were held in the same rooms as the other prisoners and were without medical care for eight days after incarceration. The other prisoners attempted to wash and care for the wounds because, according to one source, the stench of «pus and rotting flesh, was overpowering». After eight days the wounded were treated and their bandages were changed every second day. Some of the prisoners had their limbs amputated. *5727 A prisoner who was held in solitary confinement spent four months in the hospital's infection ward. *5728

       Reports indicate at least some of the detainees were seen by doctors but the frequency was unknown. *5729 At Sremska Mitrovica a doctor gave one of the prisoners a painkilling injection after he was beaten by Serbian irregulars and handed over to the JNA. This was the only medical assistance he was given until the arrival of a doctor from Vukovar hospital who had been incarcerated. *5730

       Other reports claim some prisoners were denied medical help. *5731 One of the imprisoned doctors offered medical care to a wounded child in the camp. *5732 Another prisoner reportedly led a small mobile medical unit within the camp. *5733 There were enough bandages and solutions for the treatment of wounds but the supply of medicine was scant. Later, medicines were supplied according to need. The most frequent reported illnesses were upper respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, urinary infections, and different psychiatric disturbances. *5734

       Prisoners were beaten severely on a regular basis. *5735 Several detainees were allegedly beaten so severely that they suffer from permanent damage. *5736 Some were beaten until they passed out and were revived with water so that the prison authorities did not have to take them to the Novi Sad hospital. *5737 One source claims he was beaten unconscious four or five times; he was beaten on the head, they broke his teeth, wounded his chest and he still has kidney pains. *5738 Another witness claims he was only beaten once and that he was kicked and beaten on the soles of his feet. *5739 Other prisoners were also beaten on their feet. *5740

       Prisoners were also forced to eat pepper and salt, had pistols shoved in their mouths, and one individual had his jaw broken and was unable to lie down due to his beating. *5741 Many prisoners were beaten during their exercise period. *5742

       The beatings were perpetrated by the guards at the KPD *5743 and drunken paramilitary members. The latter encouraged younger JNA soldiers to take part. *5744 The prisoners were beaten with bare hands and various instruments; truncheons, rubber hammers, blackjacks, mace type objects, baseball bats, clubs, and iron rods. *5745 The guards unleashed trained dogs upon the detainees. *5746

       As soon as the guards entered the room the prisoners had to stand with bowed heads and hands behind their backs. *5747 They were made to stand or sit in this position for several hours at a time. *5748 For a full month and a half they were not taken out into the fresh air. *5749 In addition, they were forced to sing Serbian songs. *5750

       Some prisoners were selected for abuse because they wore yellow boots typical of the ZNG, *5751 others were selected for reasons such as not bowing their heads low enough when the guards entered the room. *5752 Those detainees who participated in the defence of Vukovar were held in pavilion three. These 180 were allegedly treated worse than other prisoners. They were beaten with iron rods on both feet and in the groin and kidney areas. *5753 The Croatian soldiers were battered by military policemen, military officers, and bus drivers. *5754

       An undetermined number of prisoners were beaten until dead. One detainee claimed that two prisoners died as a consequence of beatings and were left to lie for 20 hours next to those still alive. *5755 There is another report of a detainee witnessing the death of two prisoners. *5756 It is unclear as to whether these reports refer to the same incident. A woman claims that her brother-in-law from Lovas died in Sremska Mitrovica on 20 December 1992 due to maltreatment. *5757 Allegedly the beatings which accompanied the interrogations often resulted in death. *5758 At least 18 prisoners were tortured to death according to one source. *5759 In contradiction, another source claims that people were killed but never in front of witnesses. *5760

       Prisoners were forced to work in the fields, *5761 clean sewers, and perform other hard labour until they were exhausted. *5762

       In addition to physical maltreatment, the detainees were verbally abused. Often they were called «Ustase» and slaughters of Serbian children. *5763 The detainees were told that the Croats sexually abused both men and women and that all reports of Croatian crimes would be sent to Geneva. *5764 All of those who fought at the Mitnica district of Vukovar were threatened with death if any were found guilty of crimes. *5765

       The women in the prison were given a mattress, blanket, towel, and soap. Two women, who were left in the prison after the exchanges, were threatened with rape, accused of having been snipers, and of having cut children's fingers and ears off and making necklaces out of them. They forced one women to admit she had fired rifles and even attempted to extract false statements from her through beating. *5766

       According to one source all of those who fought at Mitnica district of Vukovar were not registered until mid- January. *5767 Another source indicated that some prisoners were allowed to receive parcels though they had been opened and items removed. *5768

       One witness pointed out that the JNA soldiers were better to the prisoners than the paramilitary members. He believed if the detainees had been in the hands of the paramilitary members they would have died. *5769 The JNA officers told one detainee that the maltreatment of prisoners was forbidden. This was not the case in reality, especially if the prisoners were members of Croatian Police, Croatian National Guard, or Territorial Defence. *5770

       When the interrogations began and how often they occurred is not clear from the reports. Some reports claim that the interrogations began immediately and others claim the questioning began between eight to 15 days after the initial incarceration. *5771 According to several sources the interrogations continued constantly, e.g. every day for six months, *5772 and multiple times during one day. *5773 However, another detainee claims to have been interrogated only five times in seven months of internment. *5774

       The interrogations were allegedly carried out by military investigators, military officers and local Serbs from Vukovar. *5775 The prisoners were allegedly questioned by many consecutive interrogators and statements were taken. *5776 During the questioning the interrogators would accuse prisoners of raping Serbian women, of hiding weapons, and robbing Serbs. *5777 From the beginning, some prisoners were repeatedly investigated and questioned. If the investigators were not satisfied with answers, they insisted on their own versions. *5778 Some prisoners were beaten in order to force false statements and extract confessions. *5779

       The day after being arrested some prisoners allegedly had to fill out a questionnaire providing personal information about their profession, nationality, military activity, and social status or assets and were forced to make statements in front of cameras on two occasions. *5780 According to one source, the prisoners were filmed answering questions such as where they were and what kind of formations they were in. *5781 After the interrogations, prisoners always had to write and sign a statement. *5782

       The method of most interrogations included physical abuse. Some prisoners were beaten continuously with sticks, kicked constantly in the ribs, belly and legs, and had their heads forcefully and repeatedly pushed against the wall. *5783 The Croatian combatants who were not registered with the ICRC were beaten during interrogations, especially on the soles of their feet. *5784 According to one detainee, if they suspected him of lying they would beat him all over the body, on his face and legs, and on the scrotum. *5785 However, there are two reports which claim that at least some of the prisoners were not physically maltreated during interrogations. *5786

       The option of collaboration was offered to some prisoners. The reward was supposed to be release from prison or some privileges within the camp. *5787

       Solitary confinement cells were allegedly used as holding cells while prisoners awaited transfer to Belgrade for trial. *5788 The cells were also used as places to perpetrate crimes against prisoners, *5789 and to force them to sign prepared confessions denouncing their nationality, religion, and right to land. The confinement was often used as punishment for their military resistance. *5790

       There are substantiating reports that many prisoners were held in solitary confinement cells for undetermined periods of time and physically abused. *5791 According to one report some detainees were put in solitary confinement from two to five days and some did not return. *5792 The prisoners were physically abused and were forced to listen to «Cetnik» songs for days on end while in solitary confinement. *5793 They were beaten more severely when Croatia had a military or political success, such as gaining international recognition as an independent state. *5794 Though these beatings were not witnessed by the other prisoners, they could be heard and victims were seen being dragged out. *5795 According to one source, prisoners could not walk or take care of themselves for seven to 10 days after returning from the confinement cell. *5796

       Many prisoners were charged with crimes and sent to Belgrade to await trial. *5797 The detainees were charged with armed insurrection and genocide, for example. *5798 Some of the charges were based on articles in Express Politika and Politika publications, *5799 and false statements forcibly extracted from the detainees. *5800 One prisoner was singled out for trial in Belgrade, and was kept, like other similar cases, in solitary confinement until the day he was to be taken to Belgrade. *5801 Legal proceedings were initiated against another prisoner who was sent to Belgrade but then returned to the KPD. *5802

       Transfers to Belgrade for trial occurred often. According to one source, many of those who were left behind after an exchange that occurred in March were transferred to Belgrade for trial. *5803 Other transfers appear to have taken place shortly after the initial incarceration, for example some 20 prisoners were selected at random and taken to Nis. *5804 At the prison the men were separated from the women and five days later the men were transferred to Aleksinac. *5805 Another group of 180 soldiers were transferred there around the same time. *5806

       There are three reports mentioning mass graves. The witnesses were all detained at the KPD and appear to refer to graves in or around the Vukovar area rather than in Sremska Mitrovica. There are no reports of large scale killing at the KPD, or of how the dead were disposed of at the prison.

       One doctor from Vukovar was detained by the JNA to explain the existence of an improvised, open grave facing the hospital where there were 93 mutilated bodies lying on the grass and to explain the cause of death of 15 children who were found in a house near the hospital with numbered plates around their necks. *5807

       On approximately 22 December 1991 a large number of prisoners captured on approximately 18 November 1992 in Vukovar were transferred from Stajicevo and Begejci to the KPD in Sremska Mitrovica. There were possibly as many as 2,000 Croat Army personnel in the camp as well as civilians. *5808 In addition, there were more than more than 100 wounded from the Vukovar hospital held at the KPD with 1,000 prisoners, most of whom where civilians, after the release of some medical personnel 10 December 1991. *5809

       On 22 December 1991 half of the detainees from Stajicevo were transferred to the KPD and the other half were sent to Nis. *5810 The number transferred around 22 December 1991 and 23 December 1991 was not reported. *5811 A group of 650 captives, who surrendered at the Commerce building, were also transferred to the KPD. *5812

       On 23 December 1991, all seventy of the prisoners who remained in Begejci after the initial exchange were transported to the KPD and about 50 to the military prison at Nis. Those at Nis were again transferred to the KPD on 22 March 1992. *5813 On 25 December 1991, 117 male prisoners (all the men left at the camp) and all the women were transferred to the KPD. At this time three interrogators were transferred as guards from the Begejci camp. *5814

       A female witness was transferred to Begejci from Stajicevo after being captured at the Obucara warehouse in Borovo Naselje. There she stayed for two months before being transferred on 22 December 1991 to the KPD. She was held with five other women in a segregation cell for three and a half months. On 3 February 1992 she was transferred to the VIZ army prison in Belgrade. *5815

       There is little information on the arrival procedures of those transferred to the KPD in December 1991. One witness who was captured at an air raid shelter in Vukovar claimed that upon arriving at the KPD from Stajicevo the detainees spent the night in the buses outside the prison. In the morning they left the buses and, while being beaten, were sorted by name for internment in the prison. *5816

       Those prisoners transferred from Stajicevo to the KPD were held in overcrowded conditions, similar to the detainees who were incarcerated in November 1991. The reports did not indicate whether the transferees were incarcerated in the same cells as the other prisoners from Vukovar. From the similarity in the reports the prisoners appear to have been commingled.

       A witness from the Borovo factory capture was held in a big room, some 100 square metres, with 120 people. They had mats to sleep on, though they had to sleep on their sides. Sanitary conditions were some what better than in the other prisons and it was warmer. There were 136 people in one dormitory until the first exchange. *5817 According to another source, 100 people slept in one room at the prison and had one place to relieve themselves. They also slept on mattresses on the floor. *5818

       Another report claimed that initially there were 125 prisoners in one room (number 8) and that these were later transferred to segregation cells. Then 97 of them were moved to room (number 5) on 26 December 1991 where they spent five days and were again put in segregation cells. *5819 Pavilion number 3, room number 6, on the second floor contained 136 prisoners. *5820 There were «pallets» to sleep on and free access to a washroom and bathroom with potable water. *5821

       Those prisoners who were transferred from Stajicevo alleged that the conditions at the KPD were an improvement from what they had experienced. A member of the reserves who surrendered at Borovo claims the prison was much better because it was warm and the prisoners had cushions on the floor. In addition they were able to bathe for the first time in two and a half months. *5822

       According to a ZNG member, who defended Borovo Selo, the living conditions were better at the beginning of his incarceration at the KPD as compared to Stajicevo. *5823

       A female witness, transferred from Begejci to the KPD on 22 December 1991, was held with five other women in a segregation cell for three and a half months then she was transferred to a solitary confinement cell, which was 1.5 metres wide and very cold. She had a bed in the corner and a vessel to do her «needs», but was only allowed to bathe once in two months and this was due to the visit of the ICRC. *5824

       The food was bad and insufficient, according to various sources, but better than in Stajicevo and Begejci. *5825 They received boiled chicken and vegetables from time to time. *5826 Food was issued three times a day and the detainees had free access to potable water. *5827

       According to the reports the treatment of the transferees at the KPD was a slight improvement over the other two camps. *5828 The prisoners allegedly even joked among themselves until some were removed and beaten, which resulted in completely silencing them. *5829 One detainee claims that the recognition of Croatia's independence had no effect on the treatment of prisoners, though they were now supposedly considered POWs rather then rebels against SFRY and perpetrators of genocide. *5830

       Even though the conditions and treatment were an improvement, the beating continued on a large scale as in the other camps and some prisoners even died as a result of these beatings. *5831 Allegedly, JNA soldiers and Serbian paramilitaries were responsible for the beating deaths. *5832 One source claims to have witnessed 113 prisoners being beaten in room number 13. *5833 By contrast, another witness claimed that only select prisoners were beaten in the KPD and this was conducted in separate rooms. *5834

       Some reports indicate that members of the military forces defending Vukovar were singled out for more maltreatment than others. *5835 According to a ZNG member who defended Borovo Selo, he was beaten on his chest near his heart and on his back with a club fitted at one end with a ball made of lead. *5836 The prisoners were also taken to the basement bathroom of the prison where they were forced to confess to statements written by a Captain Salic. *5837

       The prisoners were taunted with threats of beating, trials and death. *5838 All of them allegedly were forced to stand in a bent position against a wall for anywhere from one half hour to as many as six hours. *5839

       The prisoners transferred in December were also forced to labour in the fields. *5840 According to a captive ZNG member, around the end of June 1992 the prisoners were forced to gather beets from 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. hours as punishment for complaining to the ICRC. The prisoners found this very difficult, they were dehydrated and developed blisters on their hands. *5841

       The personnel of the KPD also took belongings from these prisoners. There were no reports from the transferees of their property being removed and registered as with the November group. Instead the guards reportedly searched the mattresses and other fixtures in the cells while the prisoners were made to wait in another room. The guards stole whatever personal belongings they found. *5842

       Even though the conditions of custody were an improvement as compared with the other camps, the interrogations conducted at the KPD were allegedly more severe. The detainees were supposedly beaten with sticks on their soles, shoulder- blades, hands, and buttocks, but not on their heads. The witness does claim that prisoners were cuffed around the head but the meaning of this statement is unclear. *5843

       A male witness alleges that the women were held in a different place from the male detainees and that they were also beaten. *5844 A female detainee reports that she was held with five other women in a segregation cell. The women detainees were guarded by two female civilian guards who beat them with sticks, as well as hit and kicked them. One woman prisoner allegedly went mad and began to speak to herself. Another was threatened with torture if she told the ICRC about the screams she heard from the other segregation cells. *5845

       The December group of detainees experienced similar treatment during interrogations as the November detainees. Prisoners were beaten on the soles and in the joints during interrogations. *5846 One detainee claims to have been interrogated and beaten two to three times a week. He was made to lie across a chair in order to make the beating worse. *5847 During an interrogation another witness allegedly was asked to describe certain events and give names of Croatian soldiers. When he refused to do so he was beaten on his soles, and was accused of rebelling against the JNA. *5848

       The prisoners believe these interrogations were to gain false statements from the detainees as well as out of hatred. One witness was interrogated by a captain but was forced to sign a statement written by an officer. *5849 Local people would also be brought in to take part in the questioning. *5850 As the interrogations and beatings continued the guards seemed to single out some prisoners for regular beatings. Many prisoners received lacerations, contusions, and fractured bones as a result of this. *5851

       In January or February 1992 the original guards were replaced by several 18 to 20 year-olds who increased the frequency and severity of beatings. *5852

       Female prisoners were also beaten and interrogated. One woman claims she was beaten by a soldier as he escorted her to the interrogation. During the questioning she was accused of armed rebellion. *5853

       The reports concerning solitary confinement of prisoners from the December group concur with reports from the first group. Select prisoners were held in these cells for extended periods of time during which they were beaten and, if female, raped on a regular basis.

       One witness was held in solitary confinement from 15 January to 13 February 1992 though the reason is not clear. During his confinement a wounded man was held with him. *5854 When this man was taken away another was brought in. The witness was tortured on a regular basis and beaten by five convicts *5855. These same convicts raped a woman in front of the witness's cell. He was then moved to the basement of the prison where the beating continued. *5856

       A woman transferred from Begejci was raped in the KPD while she was in solitary confinement. Between 10 to 20 men, both guards and some regular criminals participated in the rape. Her screams could be heard at night by the other prisoners. *5857

       A ZNG member was held in solitary confinement for four months because he allegedly went on strike with others and acted as a liaison during the strike. He was so badly beaten he could not get up for seven days. The prisoners were told by a militiaman that a mentally abnormal woman, unable even to sign her statement, confessed that she killed somebody and was kept in solitary confinement where other prisoners exploited her sexually. *5858

       Some of the December prisoners were held in solitary confinement before being transferred to Belgrade. One detainee was transferred for desertion. *5859 One of the women held in the segregation cell had legal proceeding brought against her. *5860

       Apparently, when absolutely necessary medical assistance was available. *5861 However, some wounded were treated by other prisoners and those who were beaten were given cold compresses from the WC by the other prisoners. *5862 One prisoner who began bleeding through the mouth was taken to Novi Sad hospital, where he was treated fairly. He believes he has suffered permanent damage from his beatings. *5863

       According to one witness there was a woman doctor who used to come every day to examine those prisoners who reported sick. She was described as being very correct. Also there was a dentist who pulled and repaired teeth. *5864

       A few detainees were transferred to the KPD in January and then in mid February there was another large transfer. For the reports there seems to have been as few as 14 transferees in January.

       On 1 January 1992 a Croatian man from Vukovar, arrested in Backa Palanka as he returned from registering his car in Sarajevo, was transfered from Ilok, where he had spent six days, to Sremska Mitrovica. At the KPD he was held in solitary confinement for 56 days and afterwards in a room with other prisoners. At that point he claims that he was no longer beaten though others were. The prisoners were fed three times a day but the food was inadequate, usually some kind of soup that tasted like dishcloths. The witness lost 12 kilograms. *5865

       On 2 January 1992 a small group of prisoners was transferred from an army barracks (location unknown) to Sremska Mitrovica's KPD. Among them were 13 adults and one child. *5866 First they were taken to pavilion number one and then for a bath. The ICRC registered them and they were transferred to another room (number 14) where a doctor, who was also present at Vukovar Hospital and dealt with the negotiations, was being held. The doctor asked the witness to write statements of everything that occurred in Vukovar. The witness refused to do so as she believed the doctor was collaborating with the prison personnel. Pictures were taken of the witness and she was forced by her female guards to read a cyrillic bible. *5867

       The January group was allegedly interrogated by majors and colonels of the JNA and were not maltreated during the interrogations. The prisoners sat in chairs and were given statements to read aloud for a camera. These films would later, be shown on Serbian television. One witness claimed that she was required to state her name, how many people she killed, and claim to regret her actions. *5868

       In the middle of February 1992 a large number of prisoners were transferred from the detention facility in Nis to the KPD. Most of these prisoners were transferred on 15 or 16 February 1992 and had been detained in Stajicevo prior to their detention in Nis. The majority of these prisoners were Croatian ZNG reservists from the battle of Vukovar. The reason for the transfer is not clear however the camps in FRY had received unflattering media attention around that time resulting in the closure of at least one camp. *5869

       Nine Croatian reservists made statements in Zagreb concerning their transfer from Nis to the KPD. *5870 One reservist claims he was transferred by bus with 260 other male prisoners from Nis to the KPD. *5871 Among the reservists who were transferred there was one member of the Croatian Interior Ministry's military police (MUP) and one freelance photographer from Zagreb who was in Vukovar to film the battle. *5872 One Croatian soldier believes he was transferred to the KPD on 26 February 1992. *5873

       Little information on the living conditions experienced by this group of transferees was available. Apparently these transferees reported that the cells at the KPD were overcrowded though the food was slightly better than in Nis or Stajicevo. The prisoners were never allowed to see any visitors though they did receive food parcels from them. The parcels often had items missing. In addition to the food parcels the detainees were allowed letters which were opened by the guards. At night the guards would force some prisoners to bathe, however it is not clear whether this was part of the maltreatment or if the bathing was in consideration of hygiene. *5874

       As with the other groups of detainees this group was also maltreated, beaten, and interrogated on a regular basis. *5875 The guards would often remove prisoners from their cells to beat them. One reservist claims he suffered permanent damage to his kidneys, eyes, and general health as a result of his beatings. *5876 The freelance photographer allegedly has visible scars on his face and cigarette burns on his arms. *5877 Four soldiers died in Mitrovica between 16 February 1992 and 28 March 1992 due to beatings they had received while in custody. *5878

       During the interrogations the detainees were accused of offences they claim not to have committed. These accusations would at times result in the transfer of prisoners to Belgrade for trial. A member of the Croatian Army Reserves, held at the KPD until 2 March 1992, was taken to Belgrade for trial. In Belgrade he was sentenced to seven years in prison but was exchanged with 105 prisoners from the military prison in Belgrade. They were exchanged on 14 August 1992. *5879

       On 22 March 1992 a man from Vukovar, an eyewitness and survivor of a mass execution carried out at Dalj, was transfered from Nis to Sremska Mitrovica. At the KPD he claims to have been beaten, questioned, and threatened. On 22 May 1992 he was exchanged at Lipovac. *5880

       Three reports indicate detainees were being transferred to the KPD as late as 18 April 1992. An article published in the Belgrade Daily Borba indicated that some of the prisoners were Bosnian Muslim Green Berets and Bosnian Muslims civilians from Bosanska Samac. The leader of the Muslim party of Democratic Action (SDA) in Bosanski Samac was quoted as saying that the Muslims in the area gave up their weapons without a fight when Serb forces took control of the town on 18 April 1992. The witness was taken for an informational discussion at the police station and then transferred to various prisons. He ended up in Sremska Mitrovica where he attributes his survival to being held in a JNA prison. The ICRC was aware of 15 Bosnians being held in the KPD as a result of the fighting in Croatia. *5881

       Another source indicates that the leader of the SDA was incarcerated with an American, a Croatian soldier and 12 Bosnians. Initially the group was searched and beaten. Then the BBC and the ICRC arrived. A man named Panic told the journalist he would offer a sizeable amount of money to anyone who could find a Bosnian in a Serbian prison. The prisoners were registered with the ICRC and not beaten on that day. The SDA leader claims that he refused to talk to the ICRC for fear of being killed or beaten. The commander of the camp requested that the SDA leader give a statement to the BBC claiming that the conditions at the camp were fine. The commander suggested that if the witness did so his chances of being exchanged would be improved. The witness did so and the statement was allegedly broadcast on Croatian television. *5882

       The prisoners were beaten regularly and made to strip before being beaten. Sometimes the guards would line the detainees against a wall and beat every second or third individual. Some prisoners were taken outside to be beaten. *5883 The American was beaten more severely than the other prisoners. Another prisoner from the group was accused of killing Serbs. The guards held a mock trial in which the SDA leader was forced to be the judge. During the trial the accused prisoner was beaten severely and forced to confess to killing Serbs. The morning after the trial he was found dead. *5884

       The witness claims that he was never forced to perform sex acts, but that the Croatian soldier and the American were forced to engage in fellatio. *5885

       The ICRC delivered parcels to the prisoners which were confiscated by the guards. The witness claims that upon release the commander told him to write a statement about being robbed by the guards but the guards ordered him not to do so. This group was released in an all for all exchange on 14 August 1992. *5886

       In late April 1992, when prisoners from Stajicevo were to be released in a prisoner exchange a Serbian lieutenant colonel in charge of the prisoners transferred all the men between 17 and 45 years old to other camps. The prisoners were then transferred to Nis, Aleksinac, and Sremska Mitrovica. The report does not indicate how many prisoners were involved in the transfer. *5887

       The role of the ICRC in relation to the KPD was three fold: register detainees, monitor their treatment, and observe the exchange of prisoners. Apparently the KPD personnel expended a considerable amount of energy to deceive the ICRC. *5888

       For the first two months, December and January, the camp personnel would not allow the Red Cross access to the prison. *5889 In January 1992, the ICRC requested admission to hall number 3 but was told that there was no one there. All the prisoners, who were in fact in that room, were moved out and shortly thereafter, the Red Cross was permitted to enter the emptied hall. On a second visit, the ICRC was allowed to see the prisoners. *5890

       Once the ICRC had gained permission to enter the camp, representatives interviewed the prisoners and took written statements; but the JNA officers were very successful in hiding some prisoners and misleading the representative. *5891 For example, some of the prisoners were forced to dress in military uniforms over their civilian clothes to enable the JNA to present them as POWs rather than civilians to the ICRC and other international organisations. *5892 The ICRC sent inspectors to the facility every 30 days which temporarily improved the lot of the prisoners. About 125 prisoners who were not included on the list given to the ICRC were hidden by prison officials in cellars and attics during the Red Cross visits. *5893

       In addition, prisoners were given soap and toilet paper only when a commission was expected, but these were taken away the moment the commission left. At all other times hygiene was kept at a minimum. *5894 In March, though, the guards were changed and the food improved on the request of the ICRC. *5895

       According to one source the ICRC escorted some prisoners from Ovcara to Mitrovica, during the journey they were not maltreated. *5896 Another source was told that the prisoners would be exchanged by means of the Red Cross. *5897

       The presence of the ICRC appears to have maintained the morale of some prisoners. One source claims that he was beaten severely but his spirit could not be broken as they were under the protection of the ICRC. *5898

       Other international organisations appear to have had access to the KPD as well as the ICRC. *5899

       The ICRC appear to have been present and involved with the exchanges of prisoners between the Croatian authorities and the FRY authorities. *5900

       The reports indicate there were several exchanges between 18 November 1991, when the first group from Vukovar were incarcerated at the KPD and 14 August 1992, when a well publicized «All for All» exchange took place. *5901

       The first exchange took place in December 1991 when and undetermined number of medical personnel from Vukovar hospital were released. There is little further information related to this release though at least 1,000 prisoners remained detained. Included in the release were several female medical doctors. Another group of prisoners from the town of Ilok was also exchanged in December of 1991 though no details are available on the exchange. *5902

       The second exchange occurred on 7 February 1992 involving another undetermined number of detainees who were among the first from Vukovar to be incarcerated. On 7 February 1992 the prisoners entered a room at the KPD and the guards read out the names of those who would be exchanged. They were told as they were leaving that exchange was by way of the Red Cross. *5903

       One report indicates that a small exchange occurred on 27 March 1992. On the morning of that day the prisoners had their bags returned to them but only a few were on the list for exchange. According to the witness, many detainees remained in the KPD. *5904 Again on 28 March 1992 a group of prisoners was exchanged. It is likely that these two reports refer to the same exchange though the dates differ. The witness in the second report claims that he was exchanged with 340 men and that around 900 detainees remained in the prison. *5905 Another source who was exchanged on the same day claims he has possession of a list of 100 prisoners who remained in the prison after the exchange. *5906

       Around 22 May 1992 another large release or exchange occurred however there is little information concerning it. From reports it can be pieced together that an undetermined number of Croatian reservists were released and at least one female detainee. *5907

       The largest and most publicized exchange brokered by the ICRC, occurred on 14 August 1992. The prisoners were to be released under an 7 August 1992 agreement signed by the Yugoslav Prime Minister Milan Panic and the former Croatian premier Franjo Greguric in Budapest. *5908 The exchange reportedly involved approximately 1,500 prisoners from the Croatia/Serbia aggression. *5909 Another source claims that 418 Croatians and 765 Serbian prisoners were exchanged, all of whom were registered by the ICRC. *5910

       The exchange took place at Nemetin near Osijek, Croatia and the prisoners were transported there by bus. Each prisoner was free to renounce his repatriation, and 174 exercised this option. *5911

       At about 5:00 a.m. on 14 August, the Croatian prisoners from Sremska Mitrovica were loaded onto buses and sent towards Osijek, Croatia for a prisoner exchange. The prisoners were loaded, in alphabetical order on about eight buses. *5912 Mistreatment on the buses included forcing the prisoners to hold their arms over their heads for long periods of time. The buses arrived at Bijelo Brdo, Croatia, about 9:00 a.m., and the prisoners had to wait aboard the buses for about six hours, until the exchange commenced. During that time, the guards would not let the ICRC on the buses to bring water to the prisoners. Serbian soldiers arrived at the bus convoy and asked the prisoners if they wanted to get off the buses to go to the bathroom. Those who left the buses were beaten. At about 3:45 p.m., the exchange process started, three Russian UNPROFOR troops boarded each bus and the convoy slowly made its way through Bijelo Brdo and Sarvas to Nemetin, outside of Osijek. *5913

       Other reports claim that those released on 14 August 1992 as part of the «all for all» exchange, were driven on buses for seven hours with their heads bowed and hands on their backs. They were beaten, cursed, forced to sing Serbian songs and shout «Long Live Serbia!». The JNA military police were on board the bus until it stopped at Sarvas where two members of UNPROFOR came on board. The bus was stopped by the SAO Krajina police who threaten to kill the 15th prisoner they counted and beat the prisoners on the bus. The Russian UNPROFOR members watched and offered the prisoners water to drink, but did not interfere otherwise. *5914

       Another report claimed that one of the members of the UNPROFOR team asked a Serbian, who was watching over the prisoners on the bus, to give him the boots that had been taken from a prisoner. It is not clear from the report what purpose the UNPROFOR member intended; whether take the boots back from the Serbs or to keep them for himself. The same UNPROFOR officers watched the Serb forces abusing the prisoners during the journey and took cigarettes. *5915

       Stajicevo: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Amnesty International). Stajicevo was located at a deserted farm some 15 to 20 kilometres south of Zrenjanin. *5916 The ICRC first visited a camp in Stajicevo on 20 November 1991. *5917 This camp is also reported by another source. *5918 It consisted of several buildings called pavilions, and one or two buildings used by the administration. Each pavilion was surrounded by a three metre high barbed wired fence which the prisoners were forced to erect. One building was a cowshed some 100 metres long and 12 metres wide, with the remains of cow dung on the concrete floor, cobwebs on the walls and four to six broken windows. *5919 One of the farm buildings was brick and had a tile roof. This structure had a concrete floor and was 200 metres long and 15 metres wide. *5920

       The facility was operated by JNA military personnel and reservists. *5921 It was functioning as early as 20 November 1991 and was alleged to have closed in January 1992. *5922 The facility contained between 1,000 and 2,000 male prisoners between the ages of eight and 80. *5923

       In the beginning they were guarded by the regular civilian police who were said to be cruel. They would beat the prisoners to death and steal from them. They were especially cruel to prisoners from Varazdin who wore grey uniforms. One witness believes that the guards became wealthy from stealing from the prisoners. *5924 Other reports indicate that the detention facility was in the control of the JNA reservists. It is not clear if there was a change of guard or if the civilian police and the reservists were active in the detention facility at the same time. Ethnic Serbs from Vukovar would bring lists of names of those inmates they wanted to have tortured or killed. The worst mistreatment was inflicted on the Croats by their former Serb neighbours and co-workers. *5925

       The truth, according to one witness, was that they were terribly afraid of the prisoners. The witness got to know a Hungarian who served in the military police at the detention facility. He was fair, according to the prisoner. He told the witness that the guards were brought to the facility fifteen days before the fall of Vukovar and they were told that 1,500 «butchers» were to be interned there and the guards were scared of the prisoners. When the guards found that the prisoners were not so dangerous one guard would escort 10 prisoners at once. *5926

       The detention facility commander was a lieutenant colonel. *5927 According to one report, if any one felt for the prisoners it was the commander. He forbid the policemen to enter the premises with their arms and beat them. The alarm was sounded one night because the local residents came by tractor and car with the intention of killing the prisoners. He set the entire army on their feet. Also when the ICRC arrived the commander was obviously embarrassed. He arranged running water for the prisoners. *5928

       Another lieutenant colonel was also described as being an interrogator at the detention facility. The lieutenant colonel wore a green camouflage uniform and held an electric cattle prod. *5929

       The guards consisted of some 20 individuals who were primarily police reservists of the JNA Army. *5930

       One guard reportedly treated prisoners decently. *5931

       Another guard was a lieutenant colonel. *5932 He allegedly killed three men in one night. *5933

       Another guard at the detention facility was humane in his interaction with the prisoners and gave them small gifts such as cigarette lighters. He was later transferred to the military investigative prison in Belgrade. *5934

       Another guard was called the butcher. He buried the corpses and was known to apply heating elements to the bodies of dead or dying prisoners, cut off pieces of heated flesh and force starving inmates to eat them. *5935

       A guard whose name was not known was described in detail. *5936 Five other guards were identified. *5937 Seven individuals were all allegedly involved in the maltreatment of the prisoners but their roles at the detention facility is not clear. *5938 There were also unidentified guards who carried and used electric cattle prods on the men. *5939

       The majority of the prisoners held in Stajicevo were Croatians from the Vukovar area, including Borovo Naselje. They were almost all captured in November 1991. There were between 1,000 and 2,000 prisoners held there, and the majority of the sources report the number to be 1,500. *5940 The prisoner population was predominately male and at least one report indicated that the women, children, and older people were sent to Novi Sad. The women and children were eventually released. *5941

       Included in the prison population were patients and medical staff from Vukovar hospital and Croatian military personnel from Vukovar and its suburbs. *5942 There was also an imprisoned Syrian doctor and a Jewish Doctor. One report says the detention facility contained 1,300 prisoners, 200 were older than 70, and 170 were wounded. *5943

       However, one report asserts that on 8 October 1991, a group of civilians were arrested in Borovo Naselj and transferred to Stajicevo. The witness stated that some 6,500 persons were interned in the detention facility among whom were many females. He also stated that the interned persons were mostly from Vukovar, Borovo Naselje and Miklusevci, Croatia. *5944 This source offers the earliest date the detention facility was open and the largest number of internees held. There are no other reports to substantiate this claim.

       According to one report, on 19 November 1991 JNA soldiers and Serbian paramilitary forces transported civilians, wounded, and members of the Croatian police and Croatian National Defence to Stajicevo. At that time, there were approximately 1,400 detainees in the detention facility. *5945

       The prisoners arrived at the detention facility on 19 and 20 November 1991. *5946 Approximately 10 buses transported an undetermined number of prisoners to the facility and arrived around 8:30 p.m.. As the prisoners emerged from the buses they had to make their way through a corridor of militia, soldiers, and possibly civilians who lined either side of the passage and beat them with clubs and sticks. *5947 There were between 20 and 40 people forming this corridor and beating the prisoners. *5948 When the female witness passed through she was taken aside and told to sit. The female was transferred to Begejci because women did not remain long at the Stajicevo. *5949 They continued to bring other prisoners into the 100 metres long and 10 metres wide stable. People of all ages were situated inside the stable. *5950 Two doctors and three medical technicians were the last to leave the bus. They incorrectly thought they would not be beaten because the were wearing the insignia of the Red Cross on their arms and were carrying their first aid kits. *5951

       They were told to bow their heads and put their hands behind their backs. After they passed through the corridor of police, JNA soldiers forced them to sit on a concrete floor. *5952 It took hours to fill up the stables and they always slept under flood lights. *5953

       The first night, the JNA military police, young men wearing the usual white belts, were in charge of the prisoners. The Croatian National Guardsmen were separated out and people were beaten until they admitted to being with the National Guard. *5954 Those prisoners who wore uniforms suffered the most. There were 30 guards who were beating the prisoners at random. *5955 There was no order in this process and the chaos lasted for 24 hours. One witness realized it was best to keep quiet and pretend he was invisible. *5956

       There were a few imprisoned soldiers who incriminated about 50 other prisoners. Those accused could not see their accusers as they covered their faces with masks and bags. By the second or third day the guards had separated some of the prisoners into groups of National Guardsmen, militia members, and members of the Croatian armed forces. The witness claims the prisoners were made to sing by group. Some were taken away and never seen again, others were taken away and brought back. *5957

       Some of the detainees claimed they were Serbian and were either situated in a warmer part of the stable or removed. They were not maltreated. Those who did not have papers to prove they were Serbian suffered the same fate as the Croatians. *5958

       During this initial treatment of the prisoners, many of them suffered severe injuries. Prisoners were made to sit on the concrete floor with their heads bent and hands crossed behind their necks. They were physically and verbally abused. The guards walked around yelling, punching and kicking the prisoners. Some prisoners, mostly National Guardsmen, were taken to the central floor area and beaten unconscious. Around 1:00 a.m., there was gunfire outside and a terrible commotion ensued. The guards brought in dogs and said they had shot a prisoner attempting to escape. *5959

       The prisoners had no rights according to their captors. They were beaten and clubbed in the presence of officers, and sometimes on their order. The prisoners did not know what to enter under the heading «status» on the ICRC form. They were treated as insurgents against the state although the Army promised during the negotiations that they would all be treated as prisoners of war. *5960

       The detainees were beaten constantly and most were chosen at random for this treatment. *5961 Some were wounded and some were killed. The perpetrators were JNA and Serbian reservists. *5962 A witness testified that he was beaten on his back and others were beaten on the soles of their feet. *5963 Older people seemed to be beaten more often than younger people. Many had broken bones and one witness reported that three individuals died from the beatings. *5964 Some individuals were beaten so badly that they could not walk. *5965

       All the prisoners were beaten except those that were doing things for the detention facility authorities. *5966 The guards were usually drunk and had dogs with them. *5967

       According to one of the doctors, a number of prisoners were singled out for persistent beating by the prison guards. Every night such prisoners would be taken outside at about two or three in the morning. There they were met by a dozen soldiers who proceeded to kick and punch them and to beat them with truncheons until they lost consciousness. They aimed at the victim's chest, belly, back, kidneys, arms and legs. When the victim lay motionless, they would leave him to regain consciousness and return inside. People would totter back into the pavilion, groan, and fall down. The next night it would all be repeated over again. One of these prisoners gave his watch to the person next to him and said that he could not take any more beating. He planed to run away from the soldiers so that they would kill him. He asked that his watch be given to his wife. Amnesty International reports that the detention facility commander was informed of the ill treatment suffered by this prisoner and the prisoner was transferred from the pavilion. *5968

       Most frequently they were beaten on the hands and feet with iron rods. The beatings lasted until the victim passed out; then, the prisoner would be revived with water and taken back to his cell. *5969

       The first three days they were invariably beaten whenever they had to use the toilet and later the prisoners would be awakened at night to go to the toilet and to be beaten on the way. *5970 The prisoners would also be awakend at midnight and taken to a beating session under the pretext the they should go to the toilet. *5971

       They were beaten with clubs and sticks, they were forced to work in the fields, for example harvesting sugar beet and uprooting hedges around villages. *5972

       People were taken away and it was not known whether they were returned. All the prisoners were beaten regardless of age or physical conditions. *5973

       Prisoners were interrogated from the beginning of their internment until their release. The interrogations were always accompanied by physical abuse and confessions were sometimes videotaped.

       They were interrogated during their first days in Stajicevo. The interrogations occurred in separate rooms as well as in the stable. The detainees were accused of crimes and association with groups such as the «Ustase». There were no real efforts to extract military information from them. If the interrogator thought the interrogation went well, the captives were beaten only slightly. If the interrogator was dissatisfied, the prisoners were sent to the basement for beatings and more severe treatment. *5974

       When the interrogations began all the prisoners held in the warehouse wanted to be questioned even though they were physically abused. A rumor had circulated that all those found innocent would be released. Thirty prisoners were frequently summoned, they would be forced to write statements and were beaten. *5975

       One room was equipped with a television camera. Prisoners were brought there and given scripts to read denouncing the Croatian Government and nation. They were also forced to renounce claim to personal property in Vukovar. *5976

       Out of 300 combatants, only four surrendered in their uniforms, according to one witness. The witness, being one of these four was the first to be interrogated. The first evening the interrogators took his jacket and vest, which he claims was worth a lot of money. He believes that because he surrendered in his uniform he was beaten three or four times a day, and two times at night. He was beaten with clubs and rifle butts and even hit over his head. *5977

       At this first interrogation an ensign confiscated his personal belongings; a watch, money, a «chainlet», and a rosary. He was given a receipt as proof that his belongings were taken away from him. They did not take his wedding ring because he could not get it off due to his weight. He had three billion dinars he had brought from Zagreb which was also confiscated. After a week the ensign told the prisoners they were going to get a canteen. The witness asked the ensign for his money back and it was returned to him. *5978

       During the interrogation the witness found it strange that his interrogators already knew a lot about him. They knew he was a fireman, and that he had brought a M-53 (gun) from Zagreb. The witness told them it was a pure accident, and that his entire training consisted of cleaning and taking care of the gun. The interrogators knew the exact date when the forces had arrived and how many there were. He was accused of chopping off a tanker's head and playing football with it. He was also accused of cooking the head and giving it to his commander. *5979

       On the 10th day he was interrogated for a second time. He was told that they had proof that he had killed two children and that was why he was being interrogated. This time he was interrogated by a lieutenant colonel who did not maltreat him. He was asked if he was hungry and was given a huge patty of meat, a quarter of bread and a pack of «Partner» cigarettes. The conversation was normal and the lieutenant colonel knew all his personal data. He told the witness that he could not understand why he had gone to Vukovar as it was Serbian territory. The witness explained that it was Croatian territory and he had come to defend it. He was told that he would be charged as a war criminal and was then taken out to be beaten. *5980

       On 29 November 1991, a prisoner testified to having survived four separate, severe beatings following an interrogation session. At about 4:00 p.m., an unidentified lieutenant colonel from the counterintelligence service Kontraobavjestajna Sluzba (KOS) asked to speak with the prisoner. *5981 The witness went with him to a room in an administration building where the lieutenant colonel took a seat behind a desk. A soldier with a baton in his hand which he constantly beat against the palm of his other hand, was present. The lieutenant colonel began the questioning by asking the witness to tell everything he knew about the ZNG and its leaders. The witness did not reveal any information about the ZNG in Borovo Naselje and the lieutenant colonel accused him of lying. The soldier kneed him in the kidney. After about 90 minutes, he was taken back to his detention area. *5982

       He was then brought to another interrogation session, where another lieutenant colonel sat behind the desk. He wore a green camouflage uniform and held an electric cattle prod. Again the witness provided no information on the ZNG and was released back to his detention area. *5983

       The same day, six soldiers came for the witness, the leader of this group was the unidentified guard who was a martial arts expert. The witness was beaten for what he believes was two and a half hours in a small patch of woods next to the detention facility. He was asked how many «Cetniks» he had killed. He was then threatened with a knife to his throat and threatened that they would cut off his fingers. He was told to run but was unable to as the guards had injured his legs. They carried him back to the detention area on a blanket and he was beaten again later in the night. The prisoner urinated blood for the next two days and has scares on his left calf and right leg from the abuse. An imprisoned doctor convinced the detention facility administrator to take the witness to the hospital. *5984

       In one small room, there was a leather chair used for torture with electric shock. Prisoners would be put in the chair and strapped down above the wrists and elbows. Clamps were then attached to the fingers on one or both hands and electricity was introduced by turning the knob of a dimmer switch. As the victims began to quiver the Serb guards would laugh and increase the power. Just before the prisoners passed out water would be thrown on them and the process would begin again. *5985

       On the fifth or sixth night *5986 of internment the militia in blue uniforms and some civilians arrived. The prisoners had been given salty tinned meat for breakfast and were very thirsty. The militia and the civilians told the prisoners they would play a game called the «waterbearing rite». The prisoner who lost was allegedly the one with blood on his hands and would have to pay. *5987

       The prisoners were made to stand with their heads bowed and their hands behind their backs. A book was placed on their heads one by one and a witness heard the soldiers say «that the blue was all right, that he passed and was given some water, black was no good and he could not drink.» This was repeated three times and they appointed one prisoner who had «passed» to distribute the water from a wineskin without spilling any. The first prisoner to drink consumed a large portion of the water so there was not enough for the last prisoner. They took him *5988 behind some troughs and said he would be crucified. The prisoner was heard screaming for help and pleading with them to kill him. He was heard saying his throat was full of glass and called out to a woman, Milica, to bring him water. At dawn, the witness claims, his screaming stopped. *5989

       While this game was in progress some of the militia and civilians chose to harass a women accused of being a sniper. The witness could not see who she was, as she was hidden behind a partition. He heard them beat her and pour water over her. He also heard words to the effect that they were taking her to a bunker. She was never heard from again. *5990

       An undetermined number of prisoners died at the Stajicevo detention facility due to the maltreatment they received from the guards. *5991 According to one witness 10 to 20 people were killed. *5992 One prisoner was killed by having his thorax crushed. *5993 Other reports indicate that eight people died in Stajicevo. *5994 One detainee claims that three prisoners died during his month in the detention facility. *5995

       Allegedly, in the first couple of days 17 people were killed. Three were shot and the others were beaten to death. Alcoholics began to go through withdrawal and hallucinate. One alcoholic tried to leave and was beaten to death by six guards. *5996

       On the second day of internment the soldiers killed an electrician from Borovo. The electrician had diarrhea and was on his way to relieve himself when he was caught by the soldiers and taken behind the troughs. They yelled that he had been trying to escape and beat him. He attempted to defend himself and four of the soldiers killed him. The corpse remained on the concrete until morning. There was no investigation though the lieutenant colonel inquired about the deceased the following day. The remaining prisoners were questioned regarding the deceased's identity as well as his place of origin. In the prisoners' estimation, the lieutenant colonel concluded that the man was killed while trying to escape. *5997

       In addition to physical abuse the detainees were subjected to humiliation. They were forced to stand with their heads down and hands behind their back. They had to sing the anthem «Hej Slaveni» and some «Cetnik» songs. *5998 The people from Varazdin were forced to sing «Hajde da ludujemo ove noci», a well known song sung by a Croatian singer Tajci. *5999 At night, the guards forced the prisoners to read Serbian newspapers which described the Croats as individuals responsible for killing Serbs. *6000 One evening villagers arrived to view the prisoners and the women spat on them. *6001

       While interned at the detention facility one prisoner was ordered by a paramilitary leader to kiss a Serbian paramilitary emblem. When he refused, the paramilitary leader cut the left side of his mouth and stuck the emblem between his teeth. When he refused again, the paramilitary leader dug out three of the prisoner's teeth with a knife from which the prisoner bears a four inch scar on the left side of his face. *6002

       The prisoners were held in a stable with concrete floors covered with livestock dung. It was cold and they did not have running water. They were given a ration of water twice daily. *6003 The water they were made to drink was yellow and caused stomach upsets. *6004 According to one doctor the prisoners received drinking water on the second day of their imprisonment and water for washing only five or six days later. *6005 The standards of accommodation were minimal. Three hundred people were kept in one stable and 900 in another. *6006

       The first night was spent on the floor and the prisoners slept in two metre wide rows. There was a passage in the middle and the prisoners were laying down on both sides. *6007 Twelve prisoners slept in the area of nine square metres. *6008 Another report indicated that each person had less than one half square metre in which to sleep. *6009 Spot lights were turned on day and night and the prisoners were beaten. *6010 As it was very cold, they received some straw, a blanket and some military coats. *6011

       All accounts described extremely harsh, cold and unsanitary conditions. Prisoners in the first pavilion (some 900) slept on a concrete floor. The day after their arrival they were issued a blanket and a week later they were issued a second blanket. After some 10 days, when the weather turned very cold, most prisoners were given a military overcoat and straw on which to lie. Prisoners attributed these improvements to the prospect of a visit by the ICRC which took place on 2 December 1991. *6012

       Neither bath nor toilet facilities were provided for prisoners on their arrival. The first three days of their detention, prisoners relieved themselves on the floor in an area in the centre of the pavilion, where there were no doors or plumbing. *6013 Another report indicated that from the beginning they urinated inside the stable, near the wall and one metre away from the place where they slept. *6014

       The prisoners were held for two days before being allowed to relieve themselves. Some people defecated and urinated in their clothes. *6015 The urine caused the stable to reek so that the guards allowed the prisoners to go outside to relieve themselves. *6016 Prisoners were taken outside under guard to relieve themselves against the wall of the pavilion. *6017 Another report claims they were taken out in groups and allowed to relieve themselves behind some troughs. Even outside the smell became unbearable after the fifth day. The prisoners were often abused as they went to relieve themselves. *6018

       Conditions improved on the 16th day when the ICRC's arrival was announced. *6019 The ICRC arrived on 12 December 1991 and registered the prisoners. *6020 Red toilet cabinets were installed, running water was provided, and a kitchen was opened. *6021 One witness claims that he relieved himself for the first time after the toilet was constructed. The prisoners were led out in groups of 10 or 20 which prevented all of them being beaten. *6022 A day or two after the ICRC visit the children and those over 60 years-old were released. *6023

       Eventually they were allowed to use the toilet only once a day at noon and in pairs. One prisoner who constantly had to urinate was forced to do so in a bottle and beaten frequently to disabuse him of his problem. *6024

       On the seventh day the wounded, old, and children were moved to a warehouse. It was the lieutenant colonel who chose the people to be transferred. The witness asked if he could be transferred and was. He spent the remainder of his stay in the warehouse with 200 others. On the tenth day they were given some hay and a blanket to be shared by two inmates. There was no ceiling only a roof and when it became clear that the prisoners would freeze they were allowed to construct two stoves out of barrels and allowed to walk around the warehouse. There were several doctors among the detainees who had been arrested and they collected medicine from the prisoners. *6025

       One report claims that the prisoners smuggled several transistor radios into the detention facility. They listened to radio Zagreb at 10:00pm, while during the day they listened to Radio Belgrade and Novi Sad. *6026

       Some of the prisoners reported being allowed to smoke. While other claims they had to stand in the snow in their bare feet as punishment for smoking. *6027

       The prisoners were made to run for their breakfast to get there and back in five minutes. They had to stand up with their heads down and their hands behind their backs until breakfast was served and then had two minutes to eat it. The witness had serious difficulties with his stomach. The breakfast was accompanied by physical abuse by the guards. Their chairs were slipped from beneath them. They were then taken back to their room and forced to stand. The guards would enter the room periodically and beat them. *6028

       During the first two to 15 days the prisoners received two meals each day. The meals consisted of a cup of tea, a slice of bread and some form of meat. The portions were small and the quality of the food poor. *6029 According to one source, breakfast was a slice of bread, half a slice of salami and some tea. Dinner was a slice of bread with something spread over it and some tea. *6030 Another witness claims that during the first 10 days, each prisoner got a deciliter of tea and a slice of bread every morning around 8:00 a.m.. The prisoners knew that there was not enough food to feed all of them and reportedly the last group of 20 or even 100 people received nothing. They were fed the same thing around 5:00 p.m. and would also get a slice of salami so thin one could see through it, or one frankfurter which was split among three or four prisoners. *6031

       After that, the ICRC visited and the prisoners received warm food for the first time, usually potatoes in water. *6032 One report claims that later on the prisoners cooked potatoes and bean soup for themselves. The food was dished out in open air in front of the stables regardless of the weather conditions. *6033

       Prisoners appear to have been treated by detained medical personnel from Vukovar Hospital. The detention facility commander cooperated with these detained doctors to a certain extent.

       In the poor conditions which the inmates lived, the suffering of the sick, wounded and elderly was particularly severe. According to the two doctors and a medical technician, among the total of 1,300 held in Stajicevo there were about 170 wounded, including people with serious bullet wounds and amputated limbs and several hundred sick inmates. There were also about 150 people over 60 years old. Many of the sick suffered from chronic illnesses, including diabetes, heart and lung disease, active tuberculosis, and epilepsy. One of the prisoners was semi-paralyzed and two were schizophrenics. The detention facility's inmates included 23 young people under 18 years of age. *6034

       As the weather became colder, many inmates succumbed to diarrhoea. At one end of the pavilion captured doctors and medical personnel set up an improvised medical station, with five doctors and five technicians. They had just one bag of medicine they brought with them from Borovo Naselje and some medication they collected from other prisoners in the detention facility. When they requested medicine from the detention facility authorities they were reportedly told that the JNA did not have the drugs they required and they should obtain them from the ICRC. After about a week, an infirmary with places for some 20 patients, was set up with the help of a military doctor. At the end of two weeks about 80 prisoners were released, mostly the elderly and prisoners under 18 years-old. The first exchange of prisoners took place a week later, involving eight medical workers. *6035

       Conditions were the worst for the first seven days. Prisoners were physically and psychologically ill-treated daily, and as a result four died. In the first few days at least two prisoners came to the medical station with severe psychological disturbances reportedly due to severe physical mistreatment. *6036

       According to one of the imprisoned doctors a prisoner came to him on the second evening of their internment complaining that his arm was broken during a beating he received from guards. The doctor bandaged it and told guards to take the prisoner to the detention facility commander, a lieutenant colonel, to make a complaint. Ten minutes later shots were heard and the doctor was summoned. He found the injured prisoner with a bullet wound to his chest and the guards claimed that the prisoner had attacked them. The prisoner was taken to the hospital for four days and later the doctor learned from a military doctor the man had died there. *6037

       One prisoner was severely beaten and covered in vomit when he was found by one of the imprisoned doctors. The doctor woke a colleague and they put him on a door they used for an improvised stretcher. In the morning they demanded that the ill prisoner be seen by the official military doctor, a woman, and they also informed the detention facility commander. The female doctor claimed that the prisoner was not seriously ill and said she would bring medicine for him the next day. The next day he was dead. *6038

       The imprisoned medics left after 10 days and the prisoners were without medical help. The detention facility doctor was there but he was not very good. He would only give the prisoners an occasional pill. In the meantime, the prisoners discovered lice in a warm part of the shed while those situated near the door were freezing. The second exchange was around the twentieth of December when the remaining prisoners were sent to SMKPD and Nis. *6039 Another exchange occurred in late April. When prisoners were to be released the young men were sent to other detention facilities. *6040

       On the 15th day of internment the ICRC insisted that all people over 60 years-old and all minors be released. They took away one or two busloads of men but many elderly people remained and most of those were sick. *6041

       In December 1991, an ICRC representative arrived at Stajicevo and came to the medical clinic. The detention facility official had intended to hide some prisoners from the ICRC but did not do this in time. An unidentified guard told the representative that one of the injured prisoners was insane and had fallen down some stairs. When the guard left the room he told the representative that he was not insane and that he had been beaten. He asked them to contact the Croatian government or army. He was transferred in December to Belgrade. *6042

       Some people were released during that time but refused to leave unless escorted by the ICRC as it had been rumored that those initially released were killed by the locals. A group of detainees, 270 civilians, were released in Bosanski Samac and were escorted by the ICRC. *6043

       Subotica: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including ISHR). According to one source «extremists» have moved 22,000 captured civilians to various camps in Serbia, including the Subotica region in northern Vojvodina near the Hungarian border. It is unclear from where the civilians originated or who their captors were. *6044 Another source reports that there were 5,000 prisoners held in a concentration camp in Subotica before October 1992. *6045 ISHR also has reports of prison camps at Subotica and various other sites in FRY. Those held are believed to be Muslims from Serb-held BiH and Croatia. There also appear to be non-Serbs arrested in Vojvodina among the prison population. *6046 Another source also reports the existence of this detention facility. *6047

       Zrenjanin: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). According to one report there is a military prison in Zrenjanin. *6048 It is not clear if this refers to the same detention facility as Livade.

       Zrenjanin-Ecka: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). According to one source there is a civilian/military prison in Zrenjanin-Ecka. *6049

       Zrenjanin Hospital: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely ICRC). The ICRC listed Zrenjanin Hospital in its report on detention facilities it visited. The hospital was visited on 25 October 1991. *6050

5. ICRC visited camps

       Unidentified locations in FRY Visited by ICRC: (The existence of these detention facilities has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely ICRC). The following detention facilities were listed as having been visited by the ICRC:

  1. Derventa prison was visited on 29 April 1992;
  2. Gnjilane prison was visited on 2 December 1992;
  3. Istok prison was visited on 20 May 1993;
  4. Karaburma military hospital on 14 November 1991;
  5. Mitrovica Kosovska prison on 24 March 1992;
  6. Padinska Skela prison on 19 June 1992;
  7. Pec district prison on 3 July 1991;
  8. Prizren district prison on 4 July 1991;
  9. Sombor district prison on 19 March 1992. *6051

D. The Republic of Slovenia

       On 25 June 1991, Slovenia declared independence from Yugoslavia. *6052 A brief military conflict between the elements of the Slovene Territorial Defence Force (TO) and the JNA ensued. After 10 days of fighting, the JNA agreed to withdraw all troops by October 1991. Reports suggest, that in those 10 days 7,900 men, including 1,000 officers, either defected or were captured by the TO. *6053

       Reports suggest further that Slovenes used at least eight camps to detain captured personnel of the JNA and Yugoslav government.

       Dol pri Hrasniku: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, but none neutral.) Dol pri Hrasniku, a deserted mine, was allegedly used as a detention facility from 27 June 1991 to 1 July 1991. A report stated that 150 detainees were held in a room 14 metres long and six metres wide. The detention facility was controlled by members of the Ministry of the Interior and the TO. *6054 The identities of the commanders and guards were not reported. *6055

       The ethnic make up of the prison population is not known, however some detainees were identified as military personnel, JNA soldiers, and officers of the Federal Secretariat for Internal Affairs. *6056 Some of the prisoners were arrested in Maribor, Slovenia by the Slovenian Ministry of Interior. They were transported to the mine after being detained and interrogated in the Maribor police station. *6057

       On arrival at the mine the detainees were, allegedly, met by members of the Ministry of the Interior and deprived of all their belongings. They were taken to a small room where they remained for the duration of their incarceration. The room had no toilet facilities, an inadequate water supply and only hay or concrete to sleep on. The detainees were all photographed with prison numbers and fingerprinted. *6058

       The group was subjected to physical torture and threats of execution. Several times a day they were forced to stand in the heat outside and then immediately taken back to the abandoned mine where the temperature was approximately eight degrees Centigrade. *6059

       Hrasnik: Hrasnik, a deserted mine in Slovenia, was a detention facility where as many as 200 people were detained in a 50 square metre room on an irregular basis. The reports were unclear as to whether this detention facility is the same as the Dol pri Hrasnik mine. Some of the prisoners were identified as military personnel. They were threatened with death if they attempted to escape. These 200 prisoners were asked to give military information concerning the JNA. *6060

       Ilirska Bistrica prison camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the UK Defence Debriefing Team). The location of this camp is unknown, although there is some indication that it is located in Slovenia. A source reported that medical supplies were available in Ilirska Bistrica prison camp but prisoners often had to pay for them. Hepatitis, head lice, and rashes are commonplace and two people were reported to have died from illnesses. *6061

       Ljubljana: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including ICRC). Prisons in Ljubljana allegedly existed between the end of June and the beginning of July, 1992. Little information has been provided on these detention facilities. They were apparently controlled by members of the Ministry of the Interior and the TO. *6062 One of the detainees was detained for 36 hours in a catacomb-like room where he was physically and mentally abused. *6063 The ICRC indicated that representatives visited the prison/penitentiary on 2 July 1992 and the Clinic University on 7 July 1992. *6064

       ICRC visited camps: The following information on detention sites was provided by the ICRC. No information is available other than the name of the detention site, date of the ICRC's first visit, and type of facility:

       Celje: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC). The ICRC visited Celje on 10 July 1991, the type of facility was not determined. *6065

       Dob Mirna: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC). On 5 July 1991 Dob Mirna, a prison/penitentiary, was visited by ICRC. *6066

       Kocevska Reka Barracks: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC). Kocevska Reka barracks was visited by ICRC on 24 October 1991. *6067

       Nova Gorica Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC). Nova Gorica prison/penitentiary was visited by ICRC on 13 November 1991. *6068

1. Unknown

       Kozine: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by mulitiple sources). The location of this detention facility was not reported. From IHRLI sources it is either in Slovenia or Vojvodina, FRY. One report indicated a Muslim male being deported to the camp of Kozine sometime between July 1992 and September 1992. The detainee claims to have been forced to sleep on the floor. The food was bad, too salty, or tasting of petrol, and insufficient. All the prisoners were repeatedly beaten on the head and back. The beatings occurred at night, usually between 1:00 a.m. and 2:00 a.m.. The prisoners were also made to crawl and bite like dogs. *6069

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