Annex VIII - part 2/10
Prison Camps

Analysis by geographical location
  1. BiH
    1. Banja Luka

    2. Bihac
    3. Bijeljina
    4. Bileca
    5. Bosanska Dubica
    6. Bosanska Gradiska
    7. Bosanska Krupa
    8. Bosanski Brod
    9. Bosanski Novi
    10. Bosanski Petrovac
    11. Bosanski Samac
    12. Bratunac
    13. Brcko

    14. Breza
    15. Bugojno
    16. Busovaca
    17. Cajnice
    18. Capljina
    19. Cazin
    20. Celinac
    21. Citluk
    22. Derventa
    23. Doboj
    24. Donji Vakuf
    25. Foca
    26. Fojnica
    27. Gacko
    28. Glamoc
    29. Gorazde
    30. Gornji Vakuf
    31. Gradacac
    32. Grude
    33. Han Pijesak
    34. Jablanica
    35. Jajce
    36. Kakanj
    37. Kalesija
    38. Kalinovik
    39. Kiseljak
    40. Kladanj
    41. Kljuc
    42. Konjic
    43. Kotor Varos
    44. Kresevo
    45. Kupres
    46. Laktasi
    47. Listica
    48. Livno
    49. Ljubinje
    50. Ljubuski
    51. Lopare
    52. Lukavac
    53. Maglaj
    54. Modrica
    55. Mostar
    56. Mrkonjic Grad
    57. Nevesinje
    58. Odzak
    59. Olovo
    60. Orasje
    61. Posusje
    62. Prijedor
      1. Omarska Camp
      2. Keraterm Camp
      3. Trnopolje
      4. Other camps
    63. Prnjavor
    64. Prozor
    65. Rogatica
    66. Rudo
    67. Sanski Most
    68. Sarajevo
      1. Small detention facilities in Sarajevo
      2. Other areas of Sarajevo
    69. Sekovici
    70. Sipovo
    71. Skender Vakuf
    72. Sokolac
    73. Srebrenica
    74. Stolac
    75. Tesanj
    76. Teslic
    77. Titov Drvar
    78. Tomislavgrad
    79. Travnik
    80. Trebinje
    81. Tuzla
    82. Ugljevik
    83. Vares
    84. Velika Kladusa
    85. Visegrad
    86. Visoko
    87. Vitez
    88. Vlasenica
    89. Zenica
    90. Zepce
    91. Zvornik
  2. Croatia
  3. FRY
  4. The Republic of Slovenia

2. Bihac

       Bihac is in north-east BiH. As of 1991, its population was 70,896 of which 66.6 per cent were Muslim, 17.8 per cent Serbian, 7.7 per cent Croatian, 6 per cent «Yugoslav» and 1.9 per cent «other».

       Barracks, Bihac: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to representatives of the ICRC, a detention facility was established at the barracks in Bihac. ICRC representatives vistited this facility on 16 November 1992. No information was provided regarding the ethnicity of the inmates or controlling parties nor the conditions or duration of the facility at this location. *320

       Hospital, Bihac: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to representatives of the ICRC, a detention facility was established at the hospital in Bihac. ICRC representatives visited this facility on 26 November 1992. No information was provided regarding the ethnicity of the inmates or controlling parties nor the conditions or duration of the facility at this location. *321

       Military Prison, Bihac: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to representatives of the ICRC, a detention facility was established at the military prison in Bihac. ICRC representatives visited this facility on 15 August 1992. No information was provided regarding the ethnicity of the inmates or controlling parties nor the conditions or duration of the facility's existence at this location. *322

       Prison/Penitentiary, Bihac: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to representatives of the ICRC, a detention facility was established at the local penitentiary in Bihac. ICRC representatives visited this facility on 7 December 1993. No information was provided regarding the ethnicity of the inmates or controlling parties nor the conditions or duration of the facility's existence at this location. *323

       Police Station, Bihac: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to representatives of the ICRC, a detention facility was established at the local police station in Bihac. ICRC representatives visited this facility on 14 December 1993. No information was provided regarding the ethnicity of the inmates or controlling parties nor the conditions or duration of the facility's existence at this location. *324

       Racic: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, however none among them are neutral.) Racic is reported to be a Serb-run camp near the city of Bihac. *325 Apparently, it is run by some of the same Serbian «extremists» who established the camp at Ripac. These individuals are identified in the source materials.

       Ripac: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Thomson CSCE Mission.) Ripac is a village just south of Bihac on the Croatian border. The Serbian «extremists» named above (in connection with the camp at Racic) are said to have also established the camp at Ripac in May 1992. *326 Apparently, at this time the entire village was closed off and segregated by ethnic background. In this way, the entire village functioned as a detention camp. *327 Members of the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) participated in the arrest of activists of the Party of Democratic Action (SDA) and local Muslim police officers. They also employed strict traffic controls and curfews.

       Thomson Mission representatives visited the Muslim section of Ripac in late August 1992. The Mission found this Serb-run detention facility and identified some 60 Muslim inmates in detention at that time. *328

       According to another source, 60 Muslims and an unknown number of Croatians from the village were reportedly detained in Ripac. *329 At one time, the number was estimated to have reached near 200. *330 Prisoners were tortured, raped, and sexually abused. Many of them died. One report claims that approximately 140 prisoners were kept at the «tractor station». *331 Another alleges that much of the sexual abuse took place at a «high school centre». *332

       Orasac Primary School: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Orasac is located in western Bihac province on the Croatian border. There is a report that the JNA held Muslim prisoners at the primary school there. *333

       Jedinstvo Soccer Stadium: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Permanent Mission of Germany.) There are a few reports that the Bosnian Government held Serbs at the Jedinstvo Stadium. *334 Apparently, as many as 900 prisoners were detained. *335

       BiH Government-run camp in Bihac: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) There are also reports from the ICRC that its representatives visited a BiH Government-run camp in Bihac. Representatives visited this camp on 4 and 5 July, 15 August, 20 November 1992, and 5 June 1993. In July, they saw two prisoners, in August they saw 13, in November they saw seven, and finally, in June 1993 they saw three. *336

       Unidentified Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Thomson CSCE Mission.) Thomson Mission representatives visited a detention facility in Bihac on 30 August 1992. The facility was reportedly controlled by unidentified Muslim forces. On the occasion of their visit, the Mission identified 30 Serbian detainees. *337

       Croatian and Muslim «Bordellos»: (The existence of these detention facilities has been corroborated by multiple sources, however none among them are neutral.) Finally, there are reports of «bordellos» operated by Muslim units. *338 Here, Serbian women and girls were raped by members of Muslim and Croat forces who visited the camps in late 1991 and 1992. *339 Detainees who became pregnant were not permitted to leave to get abortions.

       According to the Serbian News Agency, there were 15 bordellos in Bihac. Among them were those owned or operated by the following individuals: Mustafa Vukovic, Abdulah Alijagic, Senad Hadziabdic, Rizvan Zujkic or Zjakic, Husein Lipovaca, Hasan Ziric, Alija Dzeferovic, Ala Besic, Smajo Murtic, Jasmin Harbas, Ekrem Abazij, Hukovic, Civic, Deganovic, and Murtic. *340

       The only specific information regarding these bordellos is that 30 women were estimated to be housed at the Vukovic bordello. *341 Also, according to the Information Service of the 2nd Krajiski Corps, UN Peace-keeping forces were aware of the activities at the Lipovaca camp. *342

       Abdic Camp at Poultry Farm near Croatian border: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Agence France Presse.) Apparently, civilians are being held at a poultry farm near the Croatian border by Muslim secessionist forces led by Fikret Abdic. *343 According to the Agence France Presse, between 400 and 700 civilians have been arrested and detained for opposing the war effort. These prisoners include women, teenagers and elderly people, relief officials and others. *344 While their exact ethnic make-up is unidentified, it has been established that a large number of them include troops loyal to the Bosnian president as well as Muslim inhabitants who have refused to join Abdic's forces.

       Rumours have been circulating in the region of Velika Kladusa, where many Bihac inhabitants have fled, that the prisoners of Abdic are being mistreated and deprived of food. *345 Relatives say that they are being forced to dig trenches on the front lines. At the end of June, a group of civilians were seen on the front lines near the hamlet of Hasici with picks and shovels. There were soldiers watching over them, but there was no way to confirm there status as prisoners. *346

       A member of the ICRC gained access to the camp in early June after nearly a week of pressuring authorities. Following his visit, he related that

«[The prisoners] are men who refused to serve in the military, and political dissidents, but what is worse, their relatives have also been arrested, including women, adolescents and elderly people.» *347

       Apparently, many of the detainees were arrested and taken away from their homes when they would not actively support Abdic's seccessionist effort. One report claims that the arrests began on 10 June, the day that the BiH Army launched a strong military offensive against Bihac. These troops have been attempting to defend the Bihac enclave against attacks by the BiH Army since this time.

       They are commanded by Fikret Abdic, a millionaire businessman who broke with the Muslim-led government in Sarajevo over his willingness to negotiate with BiH's Serbs. *348 He declared the region of Bihac autonomous in September of last year, and fighting between his forces and the army began a month later. The one-month cease-fire agreed to by Muslims and Serbs on 10 June does not cover Bihac since Abdic did not sign the truce. Abdic's forces are reported to be highly outnumbered in the fighting -- 500 versus 15,000 army men. *349

       The speaker of Bihac's self-proclaimed parliament, Bozidar Sicel, admitted that 150 people had been arrested, but dismissed them as «spies or agents spreading disinformation». *350

       In addition to these reports, there is also an earlier press release that these forces and troops loyal to Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic participated in a prisoner exchange around 25 April. *351 This exchange followed the signing of an agreement between the two sides on 23 April. According to the ICRC, forces led by Abdic freed 280 prisoners and troops loyal to the BiH government freed 76. *352

       The report does not positively identify the poultry farm as the place of detention for the prisoners held by Abdic, so it is possible that there is another camp. At the same time, it also failed to include information about where the 76 prisoners of BiH government forces had been held. *353

3. Bijeljina

       The municipality of Bijeljina is located in eastern Bosnia and is bordered by Vojvodina and Serbia to the north and east. According to the 1991 Yugoslavian census, the population of Bijeljina was 96,796; of which 59.4 per cent were Serbs, 31.3 per cent were Muslims, 0.5 per cent were Croats and the remaining 8.8 per cent were described as «other».

       Batkovic: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the UN Special Rapporteur Mazowiecki, Helsinki Watch, and the US Department of State.) Allegedly, Batkovic camp was established in mid-June, 1992. *354 It was located approximately 12 kilometres north of Bijeljina, three kilometres north of the town of Batkovic, *355 two to three kilometres from the Sava river, *356 in what used to be an agricultural facility.

       The main detention buildings were described as two barns *357 or warehouses used for grain storage *358, 50 metres by 20 metres. *359 They were described as hangars by one witness. *360 Two tents were used to feed prisoners. *361 Showers and field toilets were located outside. *362 The facility was surrounded on three sides by a barbed wire fence two metres high, and on the south side was a sheet-metal wall. *363 People were kept from looking either into or out of the compound by piles of hay and straw. *364 The main pedestrian entrance was situated on the west side, adjacent to a building which was used both as a barracks and as an administrative office. *365 A vehicle entrance was located on the west side. *366 A guard tower with spotlights was situated within the perimeter, on the eastern side of the compound. *367 According to a different prisoner, this seven metre tall tower, and one outside as well, were always occupied by guards. *368

       The camp was operated by paramilitary forces involved with the Serbian Democratic Party, *369 with «Cetnik» guards. *370 It is claimed that on 13 July 1992, the director of Batkovic was an officer, who is identified in the materials. *371 The Batkovic director's superior was alleged to be JNA Colonel Petar Dmitrovic, the camp commander. *372 It is reported that as of late August 1992, one Major Mauzer was the camp commander. *373 It is also reported by the US State Department that Ljubisa Savic was known as «Mauser». *374 In a US State Department submission, it is claimed by a former prisoner that one Lieutenant Colonel Vasiljevic became the commander of the camp in August or September. *375 On 1 September Major Scvic, an information officer, introduced a Lieutenant Colonel as the director of the camp, but did not give the Colonel's name. *376

       In addition to guards, witnesses also described Muslim trustees, or «Kapos», the term used for German prisoners who assisted guards in World War II. *377

       Prisoner movements to and from Batkovic occurred both often and on a large scale. Because of this, and probably because of faulty estimates, the reported numbers of the population vary widely. Prisoners from the Susica River valley were alleged to have been detained in Batkovic as early as 30 June 1992. *378 It is reported that there were 740 prisoners in the camp on 1 July. *379 On 5 July, 84 of the more healthy prisoners in a facility in Zvornik were transferred to Batkovic. *380 Approximately 450 Muslims and Croats were brought to Batkovic on 9 July from Zvornik. *381 There were reported to be 700 prisoners already there on that date. *382 On 15 July, another group was transferred in from Zvornik, this time numbering at least 60. *383 It is claimed that three buses, with 70 to 80 men from Celopek, also arrived on this date. *384 This transfer was arranged by Zoran Rekic, a Serb military leader, and reportedly improved the situation of these prisoners. *385 About this time, the population was estimated to be between 1,500 *386 and 2,000 prisoners. *387 It was reported by one man, held there from 18 July until 20 August, that 1,200 men were kept in his building, and the total population during his stay was about 1,700. *388 Early in August, there were reportedly 1,600 detainees. *389 In late August, 1,200 prisoners were held, according to by Major Mauzer himself, two-thirds being former combatants, and the rest being held «for their own protection». *390 On 1 September, there was reported to be 1,280 men held because of their ethnicity. *391 There was a reported population of 1,000 on 19 September. *392

       Food was scarce. One former detainee reported that for breakfast, prisoners received bread with butter, or an egg. Lunch and dinner were bread with soup or stew. Although they were served three meals, the witness claimed that the meals consisted only of one and one-half to two portions. *393 Another prisoner reported that the soup was «funny smelling» and watery. *394

       Abuse is invariably indicated in accounts regarding treatment of prisoners prior to September. According to one detainee, prisoners were forced to perform sexual acts with each other, and sometimes with guards. *395 Detainees were beaten regularly until new guards arrived in September. *396 Reports of the frequency of beatings vary from daily beatings *397 to beatings 10 times each day. *398 Prisoners arriving from Susica were beaten upon exiting their bus. *399 Upon arrival on 15 July, another group of prisoners were beaten with sticks. *400 Thereafter, they were beaten regularly. *401 Thirty-five guards «had a go» at each member of a group brought in July. *402 Beginning in July, 15 Muslims, considered to be extremists, were beaten every day until they were transferred to Doboj in September. *403 In one incident, four men were beaten outside of the camp. Two of them managed to get into the camp, one was beaten so much that he could later not recognize his own father (a fellow prisoner), and the fourth man, about 20 years old, was killed. *404

       Prisoners were also forced to labour. This did not excuse them from other abuse, and, as one prisoner reported, they were beaten while at work to make them work harder. *405

       One detainee reported that it was not the guards, but rather soldiers going to or coming from the front that abused the prisoners. *406 This same man claimed that POWs received that worst treatment, whereas civilian prisoners were not treated as badly. *407 Another prisoner alleged that those prisoners from areas in which Serbs had suffered losses were most harshly treated. *408

       Because of the level of mistreatment, many prisoners died. One man stated that during his stay, mid-July to mid-August, 13 prisoners were beaten to death. *409 Another prisoner died because he had gangrene which went untreated. *410 Five more may have died from hunger. *411 Allegedly, 20 prisoners died prior to September. *412

       The ICRC visited Batkovic twice between 15 July and 23 September. One of these visits was on 15 August. *413 US Congressman Frank Wolf visited on 1 September. *414 Allegedly, guards hid prisoners under 18 years of age or older than 60 before delegations visited. *415 The ICRC could not register prisoners. *416

       However, beginning in September, the situation changed. Local Serb villagers, hearing reports and rumours of activity in the camp, protested. *417 The villagers, led by Ilija Gajic, owner of a vegetable farm and leader of the village assembly, demanded that the prisoners in Batkovic be treated as they wished Serb detainees were treated. *418 Reports claim that by January 1993, Lieutenant Colonel Petar Dmitrovic was the camp commander. *419

       Prisoner movement continued. Dmitrovic admitted that all of the detainees were civilians. *420 On 1 October 1992, there was a prisoner exchange. *421 Another reportedly took place on 6 October. *422 There was an exchange of approximately 600 prisoners on 17 October for Serb POWs. *423 Late in October, the UN Special Rapporteur reported the camp held 1,000 Muslims. *424 Upon one prisoner's departure, on 24 November, there were reportedly 800 detainees. *425 This prisoner claimed that 150 prisoners were exchanged on this date. *426 On 1 December, a 450- prisoner exchange took place. *427 On the same day, 174 prisoners arrived at Batkovic, making the total number of detainees reportedly 620. *428 All of the prisoners were male, except two females who refused to leave their husbands and sons. *429 On 13 December, 532 prisoners arrived from Manjaca. *430 These prisoners were 159 Croats, 242 Muslims from Kozarac, Prijedor, and Ljubija, and 131 Muslims from Grapska and Doboj. *431 Serbs claim that 131 of these were immediately taken to Sarajevo and exchanged, leaving 401 in the camp at Batkovic. *432 However, as of January 1993, the ICRC was unable to confirm this exchange. *433 On 27 December, 700 prisoners from Bosanski Samac came to Batkovic. *434

       On 7 January 1993, in Dragolic, 30 prisoners were exchanged as the result of direct negotiations between Croatian and Bosnian Serb forces. *435 As of 10 February, there were alleged to have been 1,163 prisoners. *436 Another 18 were brought from Zvornik on 12 February. *437 It was claimed by one prisoner that he was transferred to Batkovic on 21 February from a prison in Zvornik. *438 After he spent 10 days in Batkovic, he was exchanged with 47 other Muslims for 24 Serbs imprisoned in Zenica. *439 It is also reported by him that there were 2,000 prisoners in Batkovic. *440 On 15 March, there were said to have been 700 prisoners in the camp. *441

       Treatment of the prisoners by the camp authorities apparently improved. The Special Rapporteur noted that, during his visit to Batkovic in October, the prisoners did not complain of ill-treatment and appeared well. *442 One newspaper article claims that the prisoners complimented the new guards. *443 One new guard said that he felt he did not need to beat the prisoners. *444 Detainees could wash with the faucets outside if the weather permitted. *445 In December, prisoners «were not forced to work, but generally agreed to do so in order to combat boredom». *446 On New Years Day, they received slivovitz, and soon also had televisions in the warehouses. *447 Reportedly, several hundred prisoners were working six days a week in January, because they would receive better meals at work sites. *448 By March, 300 were working outside of the camp. *449 Some prisoners who had received money from relatives shopped in local stores. *450 By March, any fence that had enclosed the camp was gone. *451 However, 17 may have died on 26 March when their vehicle was ambushed on the way to work. *452

       None the less, conditions at the camp were still lacking. The Special Rapporteur described the buildings as «cavernous» and «unheated», *453 and there was no electric lighting. *454 Dysentery raged, and sanitation was poor. *455 In the winter of 1992-1993, the outdoor latrines froze. *456

       There was no medical attention given to the prisoners. One source estimated average weight loss among the prisoners to be 20 kilograms. *457 An elderly man died, and both prisoners and guards, unaware, left his body lying in the building for two days. *458 Allegedly, eight prisoners died due to lack of medical attention, *459 including one diabetic who did not receive any insulin. *460 However, medical personnel appeared before ICRC visits. *461

       It is not known if the camp was closed, nor what happened to the prisoners who were last reported to be there.

       Agricultural School, Bijeljina: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) On Tuesday, 6 July 1993, 48 Muslims were taken from Doboj to Bijeljina. They had volunteered to be exchanged in order to be reunited with their families. They were fed and well treated in an agricultural school on the outskirts of town, where they spent three to four days. They were locked up only at night and were guarded by policemen during the day. Those who could afford to spend the night in a hotel were allowed to do so. *462

       On Saturday, 10 July, they each had to pay 50 to 60 deutsche marks to leave, instead of the 30 that the Red Cross in Doboj had indicated. They paid Major Vojkan Djurkovic, the representative of the Government Commission for Exchange, who was reportedly working with Arkan. *463

       From Bijeljina they were taken to the front at Satorovici, where they had to walk across the front-line. There they were met by the BiH Army. *464

       It is also reported that another group of 11 came as far as Bijeljina with the group of 48. These 11 paid DM 200 to go to Hungary. Major Djurkovic reportedly also received this money. They crossed into Serbia at Raca. *465 Nothing further is known.

       Village School, Donja Mahala: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) There is alleged to be a Muslim run «private prison» which held nine prisoners in the village school in Donja Mahala, near Orasje. It is also claimed that a body of a man imprisoned on 28 December 1992, is buried behind the school. *466

       Village Camp, Janja: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) The village of Janja is 12 kilometres south of Bijeljina. It is reported that in May 1992, the whole village was turned into a camp, guarded by Serbian «Cetniks». *467

       Allegedly, there were approximately 5,000 people there, mostly women and children, held in poor conditions. There was a lack of medicine and clothing. There was also a severe shortage of food. Pregnant women received a piece of bread and a glass of water for the day. The old gave their rations to children. Radio Sarajevo reported that 18 people had died from hunger and/or cold. Reportedly, women also suffered rape. One 65 year- old woman, after being raped, bled to death. There were also cases in which foetuses were cut out of wombs. *468

       A source reported that a Serbian man charged DM 1,000 to get people out of the camp. He, in turn, had to pay the soldiers at both Janja and Raja. Another «contact person» was a Muslim doctor. *469

       Storage Facility, Klis: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) It is reported that a former agricultural produce storage facility in Klis was used as a detention facility. The camp was opened at least as early as 26 September 1992. The only information provided about the guards is that they wore solid green uniforms. *470

       One prisoner was a Bosnian Muslim male, who was arrested in his hometown of Bijeljina at the end of September. On the second night that the 48 year-old was there, guards took several prisoners at different times to an adjacent facility, from which there came much screaming. All but one man, a coffee trader, eventually returned. The witness' neighbor, a gold trader, died from his wounds on the fifth night. According to a man imprisoned with the witness, another «wealthy» man died from beating. It appears that these men were singled out because of their wealth. *471

       Military Barracks: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) It is reported that the old military barracks on Marsala Tita street near the bus station was used as a detention facility from at least 8 April to 8 May 1992. Four or five buildings were used. *472

       Although no group is explicitly named as being in control of the barracks, Serb forces were in control of the town at that time. Between 8 April and 8 May, 200 to 300 people were held at any one time. The facility was also reported to be notorious for torturing prisoners. *473

       Members of the Thomson CSCE Mission visited the Stepa Stepanovic Casern (Military Barracks) on 2 September 1992 and, after walking the length of the grounds, found no evidence suggesting that detainees were being held in the army barracks in Bijelina. *474

       Petkovici: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, however none among them are neutral.) It is alleged that Serbian forces detained people in the village of Petkovici. On or about 13 May 1992, 120 people were taken to Petkovici from the Luka camp in the Prijedor region. *475 The women's group «Tresnjevka» also named Petkovici in a list of rape-death camps, but gave no details. *476

       Popovi: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) There was reported to have been a camp between the villages of Popovi and Jasmajlice, in the Bijeljina area. *477 It was a new facility *478, built specifically to be a detention centre and capable of holding up to 1,000 prisoners *479.

       Although no group was explicitly named as running the camp, a US government report says that Serbian forces were in control of the area. Allegedly, Muslims were held hostage there, and would be killed if the Bijeljina area was attacked by Muslim forces. *480

       Secondary School Centre: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by mutliple sources.) The women's group «Tresnjevka» names a secondary school centre in Bijeljina in a list of rape-death camps. However, they give no further information. *481

       Slaughterhouse: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) Allegedly, a slaughterhouse located between Caffee Sezam and the Serb village of Obarska, 12 kilometres north-west of Bijeljina, was used as a detention facility. The building, 70 metres by 20 metres, reportedly held at least 200 Muslims and Croats, probably residents of Bijeljina. The guards were Serbs. *482

       Spanac JNA Barracks: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) According to the US government, the Spanac JNA Barracks, located in Bijeljina, was used as a detention facility from 5 May 1992 until 13 May 1992. The barracks supported an unidentified armor unit and an unidentified pontoon unit. The barracks' sports hall held the prisoners. *483

       The guards at the barracks were allegedly JNA military police. An unnamed Lieutenant Colonel interrogated the prisoners. He was from Tuzla, and wore a camouflage uniform with a Serbian flag on his arm. *484

       Forty-seven males from Bosanski Samac were brought to the JNA casern in Brcko after Bosanski Samac fell to Serb forces. *485 These prisoners were Muslim, with perhaps a few Croats. *486 There were four unidentified prisoners in the Brcko casern when the group from Bosanski Samac arrived. On 5 May, all 51 of these prisoners were transferred to Spanac. *487 In the group of 51, one 70 year-old man was a member of the Croatian Democratic Union. *488

       When the group left Brcko, an unidentified man was placed in the trucks with the prisoners. This man was accused of raping Serbian girls. When the group arrived at the barracks, this man was thrown from the truck and shot dead. *489

       It is reported that at the camp, prisoners were forced to clean the pontoon unit's equipment, including the boats. For food, the prisoners were given leftovers from the soldiers' kitchen. They were interrogated. They were also made to sit with their heads bowed and were beaten while in this position. *490

       On 9 or 10 May, six prisoners were transferred out of Spanac. Five were sent to a camp in Batajnica, and one was sent to the prison in Sremska Mitrovica. *491 On 13 May, the remaining prisoners were bused back to Bosanski Samac, where they were allegedly held in the Secondary School centre. *492

       Velika Obarska: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) It is reported that a former slaughterhouse in Velika Obarska was used as a detention facility. *493 The prisoners were kept in one four metre by five metre room. *494 One guard was always stationed outside the room. *495 There may have been one or two office rooms in the same building, which were occupied by guards. *496

       The room held 15 to 20 Muslim prisoners. *497 The number often changed. One prisoner was arrested on 25 June 1992, held for 15 days, and released on 10 July. *498 He still suffers back pains and has poor memory because of torture. *499

       The prisoners were forced to sleep on the concrete floor without any blankets. They were served two pieces of bread and one cup of weak soup once each day. Diarrhea was caused by the water that was available. Several prisoners were interrogated each day. The interrogations lasted about 10 minutes, and the prisoners were beaten regardless of what their answers were. The questions were generally about political and military affiliations. One prisoner from Bijeljina died in July as a result of torture. *500

4. Bileca

       Bileca is located in eastern Herzegovina. Pre-war population of the county of Bileca was reported as 13,269. Approximately 80.3 per cent of the population was Serb, 14.7 per cent Muslim, and 5 per cent «others». *501

       Apparently, in May 1992, an American witness stated that he saw Serbian soldiers torture a Croatian soldier to death in a camp near Bileca. He saw the same soldiers torture another group of Croatian prisoners resulting in the death of one of those prisoners. *502

       Unidentified Hall: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Buro fur Notleidende Menschen in Osteuropa.) One witness reported that on or about 9 June 1992, six prisoners captured by Serb forces in Mostar and held in the North Camp for a night were thereafter transferred to Bileca. They were first taken to some sort of hall. The captors, who had threatened to cut their throats, placed them against a wall and questioned them. After this questioning, they were detained in the building basement for one week. *503

       The guards told those detained that there were prisoners being held in rooms upstairs. The above-mentioned witness pleaded with the guards to be placed in such a room. Finally, the captors placed them in the above-stated room. *504

       There were approximately 50 individuals detained in one room. The guards would move the prisoners between rooms and the basement from time to time. Groups of three to four men described as «Cetniks» would occasionally question and beat individual prisoners in the presence of the other prisoners. The prisoners were forced to participate in group exercises and were required to follow orders exactly as instructed. *505

       This routine continued until 4 July 1992, when the reporting witness and others heard their names called out and told they could go home. While being transported to Stolac, they were required to keep their heads down or they would be beaten. *506

       One source reported that there appeared to have been three rounds of arrests by Serbs in Bileca from June to December, 1992. The first round took place the week of 10 June 1992. The second around 5 October (apparently after the release of the Sutomore group). The third round of arrests occurred during the first week of December when, for the first time, women and children were detained. *507

       Police Station/Detention Centre: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) The Serbs reportedly took many to the police station first. The captors never told those detained the purpose of their arrest and many believed they were arrested because they were Muslim. Apparently, during the first round of arrests, Muslim men were detained at the police detention centre in small groups of six to seven for about a week and were then transferred to a boarding school that had been converted into a detention centre. It seems that the majority of those detained in June were later transferred back to the police detention centre about four months later after the release of what was referred to as the Sutomore group on 15 October 1992. Many complained of severe beatings and interrogation. *508

       Boarding school: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, a detention facility existed at an unspecified boarding school in the region. No information was provided regarding the location of this facility, however the report suggests that the Muslim detainees were transferred to this location from the police station, detained here for an unspecified period of time and then transferred back to the police station detention facility. *509

       The same source describes the treatment of prisoners in Bileca. However, the exact place of detention, whether the police station or boarding school, is not clear. Some detainees were reportedly held in cells measuring nine square metres and others were held in cells measuring 12 to 16 square metres. The smaller cells contained 13 people, the larger held 16. The captors did not provide food. Family members and friends were allowed to bring meals directly to the detainees except when the detainees had been subjected to harsh beatings. On those occasions the guards brought the meals. *510

       Harsh beatings were apparently not uncommon. Many stated that most of the beatings took place on the first day of detention. Most were kicked on the chest and back after being pushed to the floor. They were also beaten on the head with plastic pipes and were hit in the face. Several showed signs of such beatings and others complained of lasting physical trauma caused by such beatings. *511

       It was reported that in August, 1992, just prior to a visit of Conference on European Security and Cooperation representatives, individuals who had been the most severely beaten were hospitalized for a period of seven to 10 days. *512

       According to the ICRC, Red Cross representatives first visited the police station on 19 August 1992. *513

       Apparently, one 30 year-old man died of injuries suffered as a result of beating. Although fellow detainees brought the victim to the hospital, there was no doctor to treat the man. *514

       A few of the detainees claimed they were tortured with electric shock. Their thumbs were tied to wires and electricity to shock them was generated manually with a telephone like apparatus. *515

       The report states that on 18 November 1992, some detainees suffered harsh physical treatment during a visit of uniformed personnel from Trebinje. *516

       One former detainee stated that some detainees were asked to load food and personal possessions from Muslim homes onto trucks and unload the same at a Red Cross warehouse. Allegedly, the goods were then transferred to the army. *517

       On 5 December 1992, women and children were reportedly rounded up and detained for three days. Several men turned themselves in to be with their families. The men, however, were not released with the women and children. *518

       After meeting with an individual unidentified in the report collected, the prison commander on 17 December 1992, informed the detainees that they were free to leave if they wished but that he could not guarantee their safety outside the detention centre in Bileca. *519

       It seems that on 19 December 1992, 51 detainees who had been held at the police station and boarding school were transferred from Bileca to Montenegro under ICRC supervision. *520

       Civilian jails: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC and the US Government.) Another individual reported that her husband, a Muslim, had been impressed into military service, later escaped and returned to Bileca. There, in mid-June 1992, he was arrested and detained in what is described as one of two civilian jails in Bileca. He was detained there for five months and released on 5 October 1992. *521

       According to the same individual, Muslim civilians from all over eastern Herzegovina were being held at the jails in Bileca. Allegedly, the Bileca chief of police, Miroslav Duko, was responsible for the jails. *522

       The prisoners' families were allowed to bring them food. Women made daily treks to the jails in order to feed the men there held. They would have to stand in line and remain silent, or else, their husbands would not receive the food that they carried. *523

       One wife declared that she witnessed cells designed to hold five people holding 50. On one visit she noticed a bruised prisoner. *524

       Apparently, the women of Bileca banded together and requested the ICRC in Trebinje to inspect the prison. ICRC representatives visited twice. In June, 1992, the ICRC representative was turned away at the Opstina President's door and told that no camps existed in Bileca. The same thing happened the second time. The women continued to report the existence of detention camps for Muslim men in Bileca and demand that the ICRC visit them. In August, 1992, the individual reports that the European Peace Union visited the jail and managed to get all of the sick, wounded and tortured prisoners transferred to the hospital. *525

       In July, an ICRC representative was able to visit the jails, register the prisoners and issue them refugee cards. *526

       Reportedly, between this representative's first and second visits, White Eagles teargassed and fired into the Bileca jail cells with automatic weapons. Some of the prisoners were apparently wounded and taken to a hospital but returned to the jails after two days. ICRC representatives were not allowed to visit the wounded in the hospital. *527

       A document received 27 May 1994, states that the ICRC first visited a prison/penitentiary in Bileca on 7 November 1991. *528

       Another source reported that as of 12 June 1992, the Militia Station in Bileca held 38 prisoners. The militia commander was identified in the source materials. The source also states that a prisoner was killed during captivity. *529

       Djacki Dom (Students' Home): (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) A camp was reported to exist here as of 12 June 1992. *530

       A CSCE mission to detention camps in BiH visited a student dormitory on 2 September 1992 and found 74 Muslim detainees held by Serbian authorities. *531

       Cellar: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Mazowiecki.) Serbs reportedly imprisoned 170 Croats and Muslims in a cellar in Bileca. The cellar measured 120 square metres and had three small windows. *532

       The Serb guards reportedly beat the detainees three times on the night of their arrival. One detainee was reported to have died as a result 10 days later. Detainees were also beaten by three or four soldiers as they went to the toilet. The witness reporting claimed that from 1 June to 10 August 1992 he was allowed to bathe once and never allowed a change of clothes. Apparently, at night, the guards closed the cellar windows and turned on 2,000 watt reflectors. The stifling heat caused the prisoners to dehydrate. The prisoners' dehydration was aggravated by the fact that they would not receive water until late in the afternoon on the following day. Supposedly, one prisoner went into a coma and died as a result. The witness also reports that everything improved when the ICRC arrived and the detainees were registered. *533

       Unidentified Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the National Organization for Victim Assistance.) There are a few reports of a number of Muslims taken prisoner in Gacko by Serb forces then later transferred to a camp in Bileca. *534 One witness claims that he was included in a group of 100 prisoners being held in Gacko and transferred by truck to a camp in Bileca around 4 July 1992. According to this witness 200 young people from Bileca had been taken to this camp 10 days prior. Immediately upon arrival the prisoners were maltreated. Eighty were held in a small room. They had three meals a day, though the witness complains that the food was awful. No medical help was available. The witness also claims that they were allowed to bathe only twice in 37 days. The room was stuffy because the windows were locked at all times. The prisoners were allowed to use the toilet twice a day, at 5:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. Over a period of 38 days the witness claims that three prisoners in his room died because of malnutrition, the living conditions and torture. Apparently, he was in a room with elderly men, while the younger men were held on the ground floor. *535

       After a visit by representatives of the ICRC, he reports that conditions at the camp improved. After 38 days in the camp, the witness reports that the captors placed those detained in two buses and drove them to a place 78 kilometres from Stolac where they were left. *536

       Another individual reports being arrested at Gacko and transported by truck to a camp in Bileca where he was held for 80 days. He describes being held in a barrack with 160 men. The barrack measured approximately 120 square metres. On the floor were wooden planks covered with thin office carpeting. He describes being packed so tightly that their legs dove-tailed into each other when they all lay down. *537

       They received meals three times a day: one boiled egg in the morning and at 2:00 p.m. a mixture of potatoes and mackerel. The witness did not provide a description of the third meal. Other inmates, assigned the task, delivered the meals to the gate. The captors provided each prisoner a half a litre of water per day. The water was provided at about 5:00 p.m. when the prisoners were allowed to go to the latrines. *538

       Prisoners were allowed about five minutes in the latrine. The witness claims there was no time for any ablutions. In the barracks, there were two tin cans to urinate in. The cans were constantly overflowing. *539

       Prisoners were not allowed to exercise outside. They were often required to assume a crouching position on the floor. *540

       At one point, about 10 prisoners were taken out for questioning. The people taken were from the surrounding villages and were suspected of possessing weapons or arms deals. They returned at the end of the day with signs of a severe beating. *541

       A guard once kicked the witness in the ribs for no apparent reason. Once, the guards beat the entire barrack population when they found the latrine dirty. The guards ordered the prisoners to stand against the walls with their arms and legs outstretched. The guards then reportedly beat the prisoners indiscriminately with belts, sticks, and gun butts. *542

       The witness believes that two inmates died from causes unrelated to the treatment received. He also reports that 12 men once taken for questioning never returned. He claims that the Serbs listed those 12 as having escaped from custody at a POW exchange when he was liberated. *543

       Reserve Officers School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) Reported to be located on the west side of the road from Bileca to Trebinje at the «entrance» to Bileca and in use as a camp as of 12 June 1992. This facility was surrounded by a wall. *544

       A source claims that the commander of the camp in January 1992 was an ex-State Security Service (SDB) officer. He was reportedly scheduled to return to Belgrade after his tour of duty as camp commander. However, he was allegedly killed by his own men because they believed he may reveal atrocities to Belgrade authorities. *545

       Another commander of this camp was reported to be a General Stubicevic. He was allegedly succeeded by a General Stankovic. Supposedly the original designee to replace Stubicevic was a General Vujevic who refused to serve after seeing women and children in the camp. He supposedly pretended to have suffered a heart attack and withdrew. *546

       The camp was apparently controlled by a paramilitary group. *547

       Approximately 130 prisoners from this camp were reportedly moved to Sutomore on the Adriatic Coast, south-east of Titograd. Thirty-eight were reportedly moved to the militia station in Bileca. *548

       The ICRC reported that on 5 October 1992, 109 detainees from Bileca were transferred to Montenegro. *549

       Army Barracks/Former Yugoslav Army Officer Training School: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A British Defence Debriefing team assessed that reports of camps at the army barracks and a former Yugoslav Army officer training school were referring to the same camp, although, the reports of prisoner treatment vary significantly. *550

       In relation to the training school, it reportedly held at least 3,000 Muslim and Croat men and was heavily guarded. *551 Serbs reportedly used the training school only to hold prisoners to be exchanged for Serbian prisoners of war. In July 1992, a large number of the detainees there were supposedly transferred to Titograd.

       According to another source, the Serb prisoner of war camp in the army barracks at Bileca was the site of gross prisoner maltreatment. Allegedly, prisoners were beaten in their cells. They were frequently beaten to death. In order to conceal the screams, camp personnel would park trucks at the back of the camp and rev the engines. *552

       Supposedly, 13 people were beaten to death in their cells on the night of 27 April 1992. The bodies were then taken to a bunker and put in large plastic sacks which were weighted with stones. Helicopters reportedly arrived early the next morning and carried the bodies to be dumped in the sea off of Dubrovnik.

       Prisoners reportedly slept in their underwear on cement floors with no mattresses or blankets. Those prisoners being prepared for exchange for Serb prisoners were held in the fitness centre. *553

       A BBC monitoring unit provided the text of a transmission apparently from Bosnia Hercegovina Radio, Sarajevo Studio that included the claim that 170 Muslims were imprisoned in one military and two civilian prisons in Bileca from the beginning of June until mid-December 1992. *554

       That transmission declared that the Bileca mayor Milorad Vujovic and the head of the public security station Goran Vukovic authorized the torture of prisoners in Bileca. *555

5. Bosanska Dubica

       A United Nations memorandum states that mayors, police and local territorial defence units in Serbian controlled areas in Croatia have been cooperating with their counterparts in Serbian controlled sections of northern Bosnia, including Bosanska Dubica, in an effort to ethnically cleanse the area of non-Serbs, primarily Muslims. *556

       Additional reports suggest that the population of this northern BiH county has been reduced by one-third since the beginning of the conflict. *557 Many residents fled the area with the onset of the aggression between the warring factions. Still others were coerced into captivity. As Serbian forces advanced they began arresting area residents and interning them in detention facilities, including: the local gymnasium, the Kooper building, the sports hall, and a bordello established in nearby Mesetnica-Duboki Jarak. Reports from the Bosanska Dubica area allude to the complete dehumanization of the area's non- Serbian population facilitated to a large degree by the establishment of these concentration camps. *558

       United Nations personnel report that individuals have been fleeing northern BiH and seeking protection in UNPA's. A UN memo dated 3 July stated that «one Mustafa Ogorinac swam across the river Una at 8 in the morning on 2 July from a camp in Bosanska Dubica . . . he showed signs of physical abuse and punishment». *559

       Gymnasium: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) The local gymnasium's purpose appears to have been the containment of non-Serbian prisoners of war following interrogation at the local police headquarters. *560 Specifics as to the operation and length of average detention was not made available.

       Kooper Building: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) While very little information regarding this location was available, the communication that was provided suggests that internment at this facility necessarily included severe physical mistreatment. Reportedly the citizens interned here were brutally beaten, most commonly with iron rods. *561 Following the beatings the victims were reportedly taken to the medical centre where they were allegedly given infusion solutions and then returned to the Kooper facility. *562

       Sports Hall: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Reportedly a number of inmates were held at this location but only for a few hours at a time. Reports suggest that they were occasionally used as forced labour in the town and for other tasks desired by Serbian forces. *563 Allegedly the inmates were given no food or water and on some occasions were reportedly forced to stay in the sports hall through the night. *564

       Mesetnica-Duboki Jarak bordello: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) Following the occupation of the Bosanska Dubica area by Serb forces, a bordello was established which reportedly housed 11 year-old girls. The girls were reportedly subjected to sexual abuse throughout their detention. *565 The report accuses the Serbian forces of premeditating the acts of rape in an attempt to humiliate and degrade a race of people while simultaneously destroying its biological reproductive potential. *566

6. Bosanska Gradiska

       On 18 August 1992, the Bosnian town of Bosanska Gradiska was attacked by Serbian forces using multi-rocket launchers, artillery and tanks. *567 The bombardment started early in the morning and after several hours of vigorous shelling, the poorly armed defenders of the town were captured by the Serbian forces. *568

       Within a few days, the Serbian corps, going house-to-house, rounded up civilians and divided them into groups. *569 Women and children were sent to camps in Uskoci and Donja Varos. Men were sent to locations throughout Bosanska Gradiska including: the Stara Gradiska prison--where as many as 200 prisoners were interned at once, the Red Cross building, a local school, a facility called the Praktikum, a school in Podgrace and a facility in Donja Nova Topola, which also reportedly interned some 300 individuals. *570

       Stara Gradiska Prison: *571 (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) Following skirmishes between Croatian and Serbian forces in northern BiH villages, and the ensuing capture of Croatian forces by the Serbs, Croatian soldiers were taken to the Serb-run prison at Stara Gradiska, formerly known as Bosanska Gradiska. *572

       The Serbs organized the facility for optimal control. The anterior building of the facility was designated the administrative quarters as well as the lodgings for Serbian forces. *573 The prison was a single, two-story, L-shaped building with approximately 17 rooms. *574

       The Serbs compactly contained their prisoners in the left side of the building. Those cells intended to accommodate two inmates were filled with as many as 10. *575 Other cells which measured approximately eight by 10 metres were filled with almost 50 men each. *576 The inmates had to sleep on their sides on the concrete floor and were reportedly fed a piece of bread every four to five days. *577

       The reports state that although only half of the prison was full, prisoners were separated into two groups with one group occupying rooms on the second floor and one group occupying rooms on the first floor. *578 According to the reports, the prisoners were either Muslim or Croat, and all were men. *579 There appears, however, to have been no clear criteria used in separating the prisoners. *580

       On their first night in the prison, inmates were commonly held in a tiny room on the second floor called a Samica. The Samica measured approximately two by three metres and was allegedly used to emotionally and psychologically weaken the prisoners, thereby decreasing their capability to resist interrogations. *581

       Thereafter, the prisoners were interrogated two times per day, once in the morning and once at night. Prior to each interrogation, they were usually put into a Samica. *582 The investigations lasted an average of 30 minutes and consisted of beatings with hands and sticks, especially on sensitive areas such as recently obtained battle wounds. *583

       The Serb in charge was a former corrections officer at the pententiary and currently a unit leader of the paramilitary White Eagles (Beli orlovi). This individual reportedly told the prisoners that they would all be killed. *584

       Additionally, the identified leader allegedly ordered the torturing and killing deaths of three Croatian brothers. Their bodies were thrown into the facility's well which was located between the buildings. Fifty to 60 corpses were reportedly also thrown into the camps' well. *585

       Among the methods utilized by the Serbs in torturing their victims at the facility was the setting of guard dogs upon the inmates and watching the ensuing destruction of helpless victims. *586 Reportedly, the Serb commander claimed that those killed in this manner were to be cut into small pieces and force-fed to other starving inmates. *587

       Red Cross Community Centre: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) During the assault on the villages in northern BiH, a group of Bosnian Serb soldiers known as the Scorpions occupied the Red Cross building in Bosanska Gradiska and reportedly operated a camp at this location. *588 This group wore a combination of camouflage and JNA uniforms and appeared to have been Bosnian Serbs who had been mobilized into paramilitary units. *589 This paramilitary group was comprised of 200-300 Bosnian Serbs, organized in April 1992. These soldiers wore a patch depicting a scorpian on the left shoulder of their uniforms. *590

       The Scorpions were commanded by a former JNA. *591 Local unidentified police personnel assisted the Scorpions in the apprehension and detention of Muslims and Croats in Bosanska Gradiska from April to December 1992. *592 Detainees were first brought to the facility for screening and interrogation. They were held at this location for up to four days, after which they were either released and told to leave or taken to area detention facilities. *593

       Local school: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) A detention facility was established at a school just north of the Red Cross building and some 400 metres from the town's Roman Catholic Church. *594 This facility was operated by the above-mentioned Scorpion paramilitary unit. *595 The school was reportedly used for internment during those times when the students were on holiday. *596

       The Praktikum: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) Another facility which may possibly have been an internment facility was located adjacent to the above- mentioned school. This site known as the Praktikum was said to have been used for interrogations which involved torture. *597 It was also allegedly used for the training of individuals in the operation of various textile machinery. *598

       Podgrace School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) The Scorpions also operated a facility in the village of Podgrace, which was just east of Jelici on the way to Bosanska Gradiska. The detention facility was located at the village school. *599 The seven by eight metre, two-story school building used as a detention facility was called the old school and was adjacent to the main road. A newer, larger, three-story school building which had an asphalt playground existed just south of the old building. *600

       Approximately 10 soldiers from Bosanska Gradiska were transported to the old school building on a daily basis to relieve the previous day's guard component. An unknown number of Muslims were routinely detained at the facility. *601 Some Muslim residents of Bosanska Gradiska believed that many of the detainees were sent to other camps in Bosnia from Podgrace, and that Muslims were being held in the building as of late December 1992. *602

       Donja Nova Topola Facility: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) The Scorpions were said to operate yet another facility just 10 kilometres south of Bosanska Gradiska in the town of Donja Nova Topola. Approximately 300-400 individuals were housed at an unidentified location in the town in December 1992. Reportedly some of the prisoners were transferees from the camps in Podgrace, Omarska, and Prijedor. *603 Reports suggest that the majority of the citizens before April 1992 had been of Muslim nationality. *604

7. Bosanska Krupa

       Bosanska Krupa is located in north-western BiH. According to the 1991 census, it had a population of 58,212. 74.5 per cent were Muslim, 23.6 per cent Serb, and 1.9 per cent «other».

       There are reports of six Serbian-run camps in this region. They are as follows: Bosanska Krupa, the elementary school at Gorinja, Jasenica, the camp in the forest near Jasenica, Petar Kocic Primary School, and the elementary school at Suvaja. These camps allegedly contain Muslim civilians who were unable to escape the region upon Serbian attacks of their villages in May, June, and July 1992. Apparently, those that were able to escape fled to the villages of Cazin and Buzim. *605 There is also one report which suggests the existence of a detention facility in the village of Buzim. The source is silent with respect to information regarding the identity of those controlling this facility.

       Military Prison, Buzim: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) This report was provided by the ICRC, whose representatives visited this detention facility on 7 January 1994. No information was provided regarding the conditions at this facility or the identity of those in residence. *606 This is the only report of a facility in this village, the remaining sites of detention appear to be located within the city limits of Bosanska Krupa.

       According to witness testimonies, prisoners were transferred between the camps of Bosanska Krupa, Jasenica and the Petar Kocic School. The camp in the forest near Jasenica and the elementary schools in Gorinja and Suvaja are not mentioned in connection with any other camps.

       Unidentified Facility, Bosanska Krupa: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) This camp is located in the city of Bosanska Krupa. Its specific whereabouts and dates of existence are not reported although one witness describes his short detention at Bosanska Krupa following the attack of his village in early June 1992. *607 He was taken to Bosanska Krupa from the camp in the surrounding area, and later transferred from there to the Petar Kocic Elementary School. *608

       This unidentified facility is reportedly run by Serbs, yet the only group specifically named in connection with the camp are the White Eagles, a Serbian paramilitary organization. *609 While there is no evidence that the White Eagles actually managed the camp, there is witness testimony that they actively participated in the beating of prisoners there. *610

       In one instance, the White Eagles beat prisoners with sticks, baseball bats, metal rods, and a thick rope soaked in water. Then, after letting the prisoners rest a bit, they took them to a place where 20 men beat them again, this time to the point of unconsciousness.

       Gorinja elementary school: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There are reports that a Serb-run camp was established at the elementary school in Gorinja. Apparently, Muslim prisoners were forced to do hard labor there. *611

       Jasenica: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however, none among them are neutral.) Jasenica is a detention camp near Bosanska Krupa which was established in May 1992. *612 There is no indication whether it is still in existence or not. There is one report that suggests it is at a «high school centre». *613 It is described as a «transit camp» where non-Serbs are interrogated and then sent on to Petar Kocic school for long-term detention. *614 It is run by the Serbian Army, and apparently, Martic's Cetniks from Knin have also taken part in beatings and killings at the camp. *615

       The prisoner population consists of Muslims from Bosanska Krupa, Cazin, and the surrounding region that were captured upon the Serbian attacks of their villages. *616 One report specifically states that 100 Muslims captured at Bosanska Krupa were arrested and taken to this camp. *617

       Once at the camp, prisoners were interrogated, beaten, and raped. *618 One witness describes having his teeth knocked out and ribs broken during a beating there. *619 There are also reports that prisoners are forced to do hard labor. *620

       Camp in forest near Jasenica: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Defence Debriefing Team.) There is one report of a Serb-run prisoner-of-war camp located in the forest near Jasenica. This camp is described as having been «built from nothing», and was supposedly established to hold Muslim men from Sanski Most. *621 It is not clear from the report whether this camp is part of the central camp at Jasenica or managed by the Serbian Army. There is no further information.

       Petar Kocic Primary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however, none among them are neutral.) This school is in Bosanska Krupa. While there are no precise dates of existence for this camp, an ex-prisoner alleges that he was detained here for two and a half months starting sometime after 10 June 1992. *622 One report estimated that at one point 4,000 prisoners were detained at this camp and an additional 3,000 had passed through it. *623 Apparently, some prisoners were transferred to Petar Kocic from the camp at Bosanska Krupa and the camp at Jasenica. *624

       Prisoners were severely beaten and raped at the school. *625 Serbian guards extinguished cigarettes on prisoners' foreheads, chests, and other sensitive parts of the body. They cut crosses in their backs with sticks. Finally, one report alleges they painted the prisoners at the school, dressed them in folk dresses and fezes, and made them sing anti-Muslim songs. *626

       Pero Sunic is alleged to be the commander of this camp. *627 One of the perpetrators assisting here reportedly brought poison to the camp which guards then gave to the prisoners. One ex- prisoner describes the death of a man he was detained with by poisoning. *628 This witness also reports the visit of a certain captain to the school who came with Captain Zdravko Narandzic, the commander of the military police department, and killed many prisoners. There are no further details about how either of these men were involved with the camp at Petar Kocic School. *629

       Suvaja elementary school: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however, none among them are neutral.) This is a Serbian-run camp in Suvaja where Muslim prisoners are reported to be put to hard labor. *630 There is no additional information about this camp.

       According to the Sarajevo-Radio BiH Network, Radovan Karadzic and other members of the Serbian Ministry called a meeting in response to the well-publicized human rights violations committed by the Serbian Army in February 1993. Apparently, they agreed that Miroslav Vjestica should answer for the events taking place in Bosanska Krupa. *631

8. Bosanski Brod

       The municipality of Bosanski Brod is located in northern BiH and is bordered by Croatia to the north and the municipalities of Derventa, Modrica and Odzak to the south. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the population of this municipality was 33,962, of which 41 per cent were Croats, 12.2 per cent were Muslims, 33.8 per cent were Serbs and the remaining 13 per cent were described as «other».

       Bosanski Brod Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) This facility is reportedly a Croatian-run camp with a sizeable containment capacity. Sources suggest that, at one time, as many as 1,000 Serbs from the surrounding area were contained here. *632

       The detainees were reportedly beaten every day and some had broken arms and legs as a result. *633

       The guards reportedly moved the severely beaten detainees from this location when the ICRC and UN Peacekeepers visited the camp. *634 The ICRC visited this facility on 20 July 1992. No additional information regarding the conditions or duration of the camp's existence was provided. *635

       Bosanski Brod Stadium: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, however none among them are neutral.) This stadium appears to have been used by both Serb and Croatians as a detention centre when in control of the region.

       Initially, Croatian forces exercised dominion over the stadium facility. Reportedly throughout the period of Croatian control, the Croatian Military Police arrested men and women from the Bosanski Brod region and detained them at the stadium facility. *636

       Male detainees were contained in the facility's men's room. *637 At night, Croatian soldiers, who returned from the front, were reportedly permitted to take the male detainees to the terrace, the basement, and into the corridors of the stadium where the inmates were then subjected to severe beatings. *638 During the day, the male detainees were relegated to forced labor groups and made to perform tasks which included washing Croatian cars and digging trenches. *639

       Reportedly one incident involved the shooting death of 12 male detainees and the disposing of their bodies in nylon bags and dumping them into the Sava River. *640

       About 13 women were placed in the ladies' room at the stadium. *641 The women were reportedly raped. *642 Muslim and Croatians raped the women in a bathroom where the women were allowed to shower. *643 The women were raped by as many as six or seven men in the same night. *644 The older women were forced to perform fellatio on the soldiers. *645 The younger women were reportedly taken off-site and raped. *646 The victims were returned to the camp the following morning. *647

       When UNPROFOR representatives came to Bosanski Brod, the women were reportedly taken to a kayak club on the Sava River for three days until the representatives departed. *648

       The detainees from the Bosanski Brod stadium were transferred to the Tulek Warehouse in August and later exchanged. *649

       In October, 1992, when Serbs forces succeeded in control of the Bosanski Brod, they reportedly loaded the remaining area residents onto trucks and took them to the stadium detention facility. *650

       Although rather scant information was made available regarding Serb activities at the stadium, reports suggest that women were taken from the stadium to nearby apartments and raped. *651 Sources suggest that they were also kicked and beaten. *652

       Lijesce: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however, none among them are neutral.) The detention camp consisted of small rooms behind a school. *653

       The camp was run by the «White Eagles» that were from Belgrade. *654 Their commander was identified in the materials. *655 At least a couple of Serbian women were with the White Eagles. *656 In addition, some men from Jovic and Seselj paramilitary groups were at the camp. *657

       The White Eagles entered the rooms one at a time, beat the detainees, and then interrogate them about the number of Croatians in neighboring areas. *658 The White Eagles threatened to kill the detainees. *659

       Local Serbs also beat the detainees. The beatings occurred in dark rooms. *660

       Male detainees from Tulek Warehouse may have been transferred to Lijesce after inquiries at Tulek by ICRC and UNPROFOR. *661

       School Bosanski Brod: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to the list of detention places visited by ICRC in the former Yugoslavia, a detention facility was established at an unidentified school in Bosanski Brod. Representatives of the ICRC visited this facility on 12 August 1992. No information regarding conditions, duration, the ethnicity of detainees nor the identities of the controlling parties was provided. *662

       Bosanski Brod Warehouses: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however, none among them are neutral.) This detention camp was located in a warehouse at the Tulek housing estate. *663 Detainees interned at this located were from Novi Grad, Donja Dubica, Trnjak and Lipik. *664 Most of the detainees were transferred from other camps in the area to this facility. *665 The detainees slept on planks under the eaves of a shed containing lime and cement. *666

       The male detainees were sent to the front to dig trenches and many died. *667 The women held in the camp were taken to the warehouse offices and were raped. *668 The detainees were beaten, burned with cigarettes and brutalized. *669 At least one, Milan Jagodic from Donja Dubica, died from his injuries. *670

       Forced Brothels: (The existence of this type of detention has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Croatian forces reportedly held Serb women in Bosanski Brod where they were physically abused and raped between January and April, 1992. *671

       Prison/Penitentiary, Bosanski Brod: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to the list of detention places visited by ICRC in the former Yugoslavia, a detention facility was established at an unidentified prison in Bosanski Brod. Representatives of the ICRC visited this facility on 9 July 1992. No information regarding conditions, duration, ethnicity of detainees nor the identities of the controlling party was provided. *672

       Hospital, Bosanski Brod: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to the list of detention places visited by ICRC in the former Yugoslavia, a detention facility was established at an unidentified prison in Bosanski Brod. Representatives of the ICRC visited this facility on 9 July 1992. No information regarding conditions, duration, ethnicity of detainees nor the identities of the controlling party was provided. *673

9. Bosanski Novi

       The area along the Una River in north-west BiH--which includes the communities of Sanski Most, Kljuc, Prijedor and Bosanski Novi--is said to have been the site of concerted Serbian action intended to bring about an undiluted Serbian Republic. *674

       Serb occupation in the region began in July 1991. *675 It was then that the community of Bosanski Novi became a vital Serbian military base from which Croatian targets were attacked. *676 By June 1992, the strategic function of the mostly Muslim area had changed and the Serbs began to rid the area of the remaining Croats as well as its large Muslim citizenry. *677 Accordingly, on a daily basis, «unrestrained formations of SDS» engaged in looting and burning of non-Serbian homes. *678 The Serbs then collected the citizens and, separating the men from the women and children, sent the former to concentration camps in Bosanski Novi and the latter to camps in Doboj. *679

       Reports suggest that men were detained primarily at the sports stadium *680 but other detention facilities were erected throughout Bosanski Novi to facilitate the Serb expulsion process, including the police station, the Hotel Una, the local fire station, a secondary school, and an area factory. Reportedly some 6,000 inmates were processed through one facility.

       Stadium Mlakve: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Amnesty International and Helsinki Watch.) As early as May 1992, the sports stadium was used as a detention facility. *681 Some witnesses report being held there for as a few as two days while others report being held for as many as two months. *682 The conditions at this location were conspicuously deficient. The detainees were made to sleep in changing rooms, on the floor in corridors and in other spaces under the grandstand. *683 During daylight hours inmates were kept outside in a roughly marked area of the football pitch. *684 On one occasion an inmate fell unconscious, reportedly resulting from the combination of heat and the lack of food. *685

       According to one witness:

«We received food twice a day, usually a seventh of a kilo of bread and gruel with beans and peas; but only the luckiest got that, most of the others got just the watery soup. The men guarding us were reservists of the `Army of the Serbian Republic'. The guards changed every seven days. When a captain of the `Serbian Army' was killed on the front, they reduced our meals to only one a day. It was hot, conditions were bad and older men began to collapse.» *686

       All of the ex-inmates interviewed stated that they were poorly fed and that the stadium conditions were grossly overcrowded. *687 The Stadium was home to both non-Serbian military and civilian police as well as civilians from the surrounding areas. *688 One report suggests that all the men in the villages of Blagaj and Bosanski Novi, aged 15 and older, were collected by Serbian military police and taken to the sports stadium in Bosanski Novi. *689

       There were reportedly more than 6,000 detainees at the sports stadium all of whom were subjected to physical mistreatment. *690

       On 22 July 1992, a large number of inmates were released from the stadium and taken to Croatia in a convoy arranged by international agencies. *691 The survivors were allegedly able to identify many of their captors. *692

       Hotel Una: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Helsinki Watch and Amnesty International.) Sources suggest that camp inmates were transferred between the facilities following interrogations by their captors. *693 Some were transferred to the Hotel Una from the stadium and others to the stadium from the hotel. *694 Regardless of the location, the conditions at both appear uniformly harsh.

       In one account, the victim was blindfolded and beaten both with truncheons and what he believes were bags of sand. *695 The beatings occurred in conjunction with interrogations regarding the victims knowledge of the identities of «extremists» in the area as well as the reason why the victim had not been mobilized to fight against the Serbs. *696

       Following a two hour interrogation, the victim was taken to a cellar where 17 other men were held in a room of about 15 square metres. *697 All were reportedly interrogated, but not all were beaten. *698 On 11 June 1992, the other detainees were released, and the victim was transferred to the sports stadium for further interrogation. *699

       In another account, 16 inmates were transferred from the sports stadium to the hotel. *700 The reporting inmate noted that prisoners were contained in rather poor facilities which consisted of one room in the cellar without windows and which was completely dark. *701 The room reportedly measured four by three square metres, and four men were already detained therein when they arrived. *702 According to the witness, the four inmates were Muslims. *703 One was a soldier, another had been accused of trading arms on the black market and the alleged crimes of the third and fourth were unknown. *704

       The witness noted that there was a candle but not enough air to sustain the flame. It was reportedly also difficult to breath. *705 There was a pipe and a sink in the corner. The sink was used as a toilet and the pipe was used for water. The detainees defecated into a nylon bag and then stored the bag in the corner of the room. The bag remained in the room with the prisoners because the guards refused to remove it. *706 The victims were also poorly fed, receiving no food for the first three days. *707

       On the day after their arrival at the hotel on 23 July, they learned that a convoy had evacuted the men held at the stadium. *708 On the seventh day of their detention at the hotel, the men were removed from the cellar and transferred to another detention facility. *709

       Fire Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch.) Reportedly, the local fire station was among the possible facilities in Bosanski Novi where men from the surrounding area were interned. According to one witness, conditions at the fire station were much better than those at other sites in Bosanski Novi. *710 Although the inmates were required to work at this location, *711 they were fed twice daily and received the same food as the military police. *712 Nineteen inmates were kept in one room which reportedly measured six by four metres in size. They were given pallets of board or cardboard to sleep on but no blankets. Some of the detainees were beaten from time to time, and all were interrogated. One witness recalled that he was released from the fire station on 10 August 1992. *713

       Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Amnesty International and Helsinki Watch.) Several reports refer to a detention facility at the local police station, but specific information regarding its description, operation and control were not made available. The reports allege that only men from the villages and towns in the area of Bosanski Novi were detained at the site *714 and that some inmates were only held here long enough to be interrogated, after which they were transferred to other area facilities. *715

       Secondary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the International Society for Human Rights, British Section.) According to one report, Serbian military and Serbian police collected members of Muslim families from the area of Bosanski Novi and detained them in the local secondary school. The report states that the Muslim detainees were forced to wear white bands around their arms. *716 No information was available as to the conditions at this site.

       Ustasa Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There is only one report of a Croatian-controlled detention facility in the Bosanski Novi area and no specific information regarding location was given. *717 The report alludes to the activities of one of the alleged perpetrators including his culpability in torturing Serbs in this Ustasa camp. He was said to have brutally beaten four named inmates including battering one inmate about the testicles. *718 The report also suggests his responsibility for the killing of another inmate. *719

       Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Only one report makes reference to a detention facility at a factory site. This allegation was made by a Muslim girl who stated that she was detained at this site along with several other Muslim men and women from her village of Blagaj. She stated that while at this location she watched her Serbian captors shoot a man in the stomach and then cut off his head with a knife. She stated further that only unarmed civilian victims were detained at this facility. *720

10. Bosanski Petrovac

       According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, this county had a population of 15,552, of which 75.2 per cent were Serbs, 21.1 per cent were Muslims and the remaining 3.7 per cent were described as «other». *721 The village of Bosanski Petrovac is located at the intersection of two highways just 20 air miles east of the Croatian/Bosnian border. *722 Information of reported internment facilities include camps at Jasikovac, *723 in the village of Vrtoce *724 and at Kozile. There is however no descriptive information regarding the operation or control of the facilities at Jasikovac nor Vrtoce. What follows are several accounts from former detainees in camp Kozile.

       Kozile: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) This prison camp was reportedly located just east of the village of Bosanski Petrovac. The facility was erected along the site of what was formerly a horse farm. *725 Reports suggest that the camp may have come in to operation some time prior to July 1992, but was of rather limited duration. *726

       The report suggests that men from nearby villages were routinely sent to Kozile. *727 Some inmates were said to have come from Sanica, others from Orasac and still others from Bosanska Krupa. *728 The camp was very small, reportedly only capable of containing 200 men at a time. *729 Allegedly, an identified Serbian soldier was said to have acted as chief of interrogations and torture at the facility. *730

       On 6 August 1992, the Serbs discontinued camp activities and transferred all prisoners directly to a camp in Kamenica. *731 Kozile was allegedly closed because unidentified representatives from the ICRC were scheduled to visit the area the following day, and the Serbian forces were concerned that the representatives may have discovered the camp and requested an inspection. *732

       Another ex-detainee recalls that Kozile *733 was situated in an old factory in the woods where some 70 Muslim men were detained. The conditions were poor. The facility contained no beds or blankets. *734 There were no medicines to assist the infirm, and the detainees were frequently beaten and used as forced labor. *735

       In still another account, a former detainee recalled being arrested by militiamen of the Serbian district of the county and taken to the local police station. After a few hours, he and several other prisoners were taken to Kozile by bus. *736 At the camp, the bus was met by 30 armed men. *737 The prisoners were instructed to stand in a line adjacent to an iron fence while the apparent leader called the inmates one at a time. Once identified, the personal articles were reportedly removed from the prisoners. *738

       The former detainee recalls that the facility was essentially a «hut». *739 The hut was made up of six rooms with an adjoining hallway. *740 On their first evening, the inmates were placed into a small room where they remained for the night. *741 Because of the size of the room and the lack of ventilation, the inmates experienced difficulty breathing. *742

       The following day, the prisoners were divided up and placed in different rooms. *743 There were 16 prisoners in the room *744 with the witness. They received no food the first day. On the second day, the prisoners were beaten and eventually given food. They were, however, not permitted to use the toilet. *745

       Following the beatings, they were made to walk on all fours to a trough and to lie down in front of the trough for two hours. They were also forced to bark like dogs and sing Cetnik songs. *746

       According to the witness, guards were on duty at all times. Approximately 10-15 among them were «head guards». *747 They were professionals from the Correctional Institution of Bihac. *748 The above-mentioned perpetrator was reportedly a warden at that institution and was, in the witness' estimation, the most abusive of the guards. *749 The perpetrator reportedly removed from the camp some 43 prisoners whose names appeared on a list. The witness believed that a number of these prisoners were killed on his command. *750

       The remaining 42, including the witness, were reportedly released when the ICRC announced their plans to visit the location. *751 Following their release the detainees were required to report to the police station twice daily. *752

11. Bosanski Samac

       Bosanski Samac is located in northern Bosnia on the banks of the Sava River. It is bordered to the east by Orasje and to the west by Odzak. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the population of this municipality was 32,835. Of that number, 44.7 per cent were Croat, 41.5 per cent were Serbs, 6.8 per cent were Muslims and the remaining 7 per cent were described as «others».

       Bosanski Samac T.O. Facility: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) According to reports, approximately 800 civilian Croats, Muslims, and Albanians were detained in the Bosanski Samac Territorial Defence Building. *753 The detainees were kept in two large warehouses adjacent to the central police station. *754 The buildings had previously been used to store and service territorial defence force equipment and vehicles. *755

       When the Serbian Territory Defence entered the area, they arrested all the Muslims and Croatians who were politically active. *756 The local members of the Bosnian Muslim political party (SDA) were all held in this facility. *757 Next, the Serbs arrested all the intellectuals, and then everyone else who did not have working obligations. *758 The detainees were not charged with any offences. *759

       The detainees were interrogated and beaten primarily in the police headquarters basement. *760 After an inital period, the detainees were then moved to the T.O. Warehouse or to the School. *761

       At the T.O., the detainees were beaten, denied drinking water, denied use of the toilet and proper food. *762 They were given only one meal a day consisting of a small slice of bread with jam. *763 However, some of the local Serb guards were sympathetic and would smuggle in food packets, letters and other items from the wives of local detainees. *764

       The Serbian Special Forces beat detainees at first. *765 Later, the local Serb police guards beat the detainees and were more brutal than the Special Forces. *766 The beatings varied in instruments and number of perpetrators. *767 The detainees were beaten with iron bars, wood planks, and truncheons by between one and 10 men. *768

       For example, one perpetrator reportedly beat detainees with an old automobile shock absorber and stabbed detainees with a bayonet. *769 This perpetrator was also responsible for pouring salt into the deep knife wounds he inflicted. *770 In another instance, another perpetrator killed Father Jozo Puskaric, a religious figure, by picking him up and throwing him to the ground. *771 This perpetrator reportedly injured many detainees in this manner. *772

       The Serbian Special Forces usually beat the detainees during the day in the room in which they were housed or in the yard. *773 The police guards would beat the detainees at night and attack in the dark. *774 When the beaten detainees would fall unconscious as a result of the blows, fellow detainees would have to carry them back to the detention area. *775 A doctor was allowed to treat some of the detainees at the camp for their injuries that resulted from the beatings and mistreatment. *776

       The police guards also forced some detainees to eat sand and forced one prisoner to swallow his own feces. *777 According to one report, the police guards forced one detainee to perform sex acts on a fellow detainee. *778

       In April 1992, 47 detainees from the T.O. Building were transferred by two trucks to the JNA Casern Barracks in Brcko. *779 Some detainees were sent to different detention facilities in the region but were then later returned to this detention camp. *780

       Farmers' Cooperative Storeroom: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Approximately 45 non-Serb people were detained in the Farmer's Cooperative Storerooms in Crkvina. *781 Crkvina is situated about three miles from Bosanski Samac. *782

       On 7 or 8 May 1992, the Serbian Special Force Squad came to the detention centre and ordered the detainees to line up along one side of the room. *783 A soldier shined a flashlight on each of the detainees. *784 He then hit one detainee on the head with his gun and shot the detainee as he was falling to the floor. *785 This procedure was repeated along the line of detainees. *786

       When the soldiers finished going down the line killing certain detainees, they ordered the remaining detainees to line up on the other side of the room. *787 While going down the line this time, the soldiers asked the detainees their names and occupations. *788 The killings were based on the detainees' answers. *789

       After going through the line the second time, the soldiers ordered the remaining detainees to line up on the next wall. *790 The soldiers ordered the younger detainees to place the dead bodies on a truck which was backed up to the doorway. *791 The detainees then had to clean the blood off the floor. *792 Fifteen from among the 45 detainees were reportedly killed. *793 At least one of the survivors was transferred to the Bosanski Samac Jail. *794

       Bosanski Samac Elementary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) The camp was located in the Bosanski Samac School. *795 The camp consisted of three buildings. *796 The gymnasium held between 300 and 500 detainees ranging in age from 18 to 85 years old. *797 The Osnovna Skola (Primary School) Building held approximately 80 detainees that were Muslim and Croatians ranging in age from 18 to 65 years old. *798 The third building was the Spomen Dom (Memorial) Building which held approximately 40 detainees. *799

       Area residents, including women and children, were taken by truck to the school gymnasium. *800 For the first three days, the detainees were not provided with food. *801 After the fourth day at the camp, one loaf of bread per day was distributed for every 12 people. *802 The guards never provided any blankets or bedding to the detainees. *803

       The detainees in the Osnovna Skola Building were reportedly beaten, tortured and some were killed. *804 Although some severe beatings occurred in the gynasium, they were reportedly uncommon. *805

       Initally all the guards were local civilian policemen. *806 In July 1992, the local guards were replaced or supervised by Serbian Reserve Soldiers and the treatment of the detainees became worse. *807 The Serbian soldiers beat the detainees with sticks and burned them with cigarettes. *808 The soldiers threw cold water on the detainees and beat them further.

       The detainees received one meal a day that consisted of a half slice of bread and an egg. *809

       The camp commander was a former civilian policeman. *810 The camp was controlled by the military police of the Serbian army. *811

       The most feared individual at the camp was named in the source materials. *812 Although this individual was not a guard at the camp, he visited whenever he wanted and would proceed to beat and kill detainees. *813 The killings took place in the gymnasium in front of all the detainees. *814

       At times, Serbian Troops would take groups of 15 to 20 men to dig trenches at the front. *815 At least three men from the camp were seriously wounded by cross-fire. *816

       On or about 20 August 1992, 100 detainees from the school were transferred to the T.O. Building in Bosanski Samac in anticipation of an exchange. *817 Some of these detainees were tied up and threatened prior to the exchange. *818

       Bosanski Samac Secondary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) Detainees from Bijeljina were taken to this school where they spent three days. *819 At this time, they were the only detainees in the school. *820 Later, 10 men and two women were brought to the school from the Bosanski Samac Police Jail. *821 A Red Cross visit to the jail prompted the transfer. *822

       The detainees were later transferred to the Bosanski Samac School Gymnasium. *823

       Old Police Building: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) A detention facility was located in Bosanski Samac in the Old Police Building on Titova Street. *824

       When the Serbian Territory Defence entered the area, they arrested all the Muslims and Croatians who were politically active. *825 The local members of the Bosnian Muslim political party (SDA) were all held in this facility. *826 Next, the Serbs arrested all the intellectuals, and then everyone else who did not have working obligations. *827

       The detainees were interrogated and beaten primarily in the police headquarters basement. *828 After an inital period where they were beaten every day, the detainees were then moved to the T.O. Warehouse or to the School. *829

       Five of the detainees were civilans who had surrendered arms to a Serbian Paramilitary Unit. *830 Although they were told by the police that they were to be treated as POWs, these men were tortured and beaten. *831 Detainees were forced to lie face down while guards sliced their knuckles and beat them with wooden and rubber clubs. *832

       The Serbian military would come to the jail at random times each day and force the detainees to sing Cetnik songs for an hour. *833 Detainees who were leaders in the political communities of the Muslims or Croats were taken out of the chorus and beaten while the others continued to sing. *834 Those who had relatives fighting in the Croatian Army were also singled out for harsh treatment, often death. *835 In some cases, Serbs came from the front after fighting to beat the detainees. *836

       Detainees were taken to dark rooms in the upper floor of the jail and beaten from behind. *837 Detainees were forced to eat hot chili peppers to cause additional pain to the cuts they had from the beatings. *838 Reportedly some detainees died or disappeared during their internment at the jail. *839

       The camps were controlled by the military police of the Serbian army. *840

       According to the list of detention places visited by ICRC in the former Yugoslavia, a detention facility was established at a local police station in Bosanski Samac. Representatives of the ICRC visited this facility on 13 May 1992. No information regarding conditions, duration, the ethnicity of detainees nor the identities of the controlling parties was provided. *841

       House Arrest: (The existence of this type of detention has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) The women and children from the Bosanski Samac area were detained in houses in the village of Zasavica. The village was policed by Serbian Soldiers and Serbian irregulars. *842

       Sources suggest that the women were repeatedly raped while detained under house arrest. *843

12. Bratunac

       This municipality [¤] is located in the central eastern part of BiH, bordered on the east by Serbia. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, there was a population of 33,575 before the war. Of that number, Muslims constituted the majority with 64.2 per cent, Serbs made up 34.2 per cent, and the remaining 1.6 per cent described themselves as «other».

       At the end of April 1992, Bratunac was occupied by former JNA Novi Sad corps and the Seselj and Arkan formation from Serbia. The majority Muslim population failed to resist occupation, mostly out of fear of Serb retaliatory action. *844 Two weeks later, the process of «ethnic cleansing» began, and was reportedly completed in less than one week. *845

       By early May, Serb forces had robbed, burned, destroyed, and ethnically cleansed the villages of Hrancic, Glogova, Bijecevo, Krasnopolj, Miholjevici and a large part of Bratunac itself. *846 The Serbian extremists and aggressors have effectively forced 20,332 Muslim citizens, or 92 per cent of the Muslim population from the Bratunac area, into exile. *847

       Serbian extremists arrested Muslims en masse. Many were taken to the stadium or sport grounds and stripped of their possessions. *848 The men were separated from the women and children and then transferred to other detention facilities. *849 A camp whose location is unknown is alleged to exist in one report. *850

       FK «Bratstvo» Stadium: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Austrian Mission.) According to one report, «Cetniks» from Serbia instituted a manhunt throughout the area inspecting one house at a time, collecting residents and sending them to the local stadium for «consultations with the new authorities». *851 When the citizens arrived, their names were read off, they were divided into groups, and the men were transferred to the gymnasium of the local elementary school. *852

       According to another report, some 6,000 to 7,000 Muslims were interned at the stadium by «Cetniks» on 10 June 1992. *853 They were reportedly forced to serve as blood donors, and some did not survive because so much blood had been withdrawn. *854 Reportedly, the bodies of hundreds of individuals have been burned or thrown into the Drina River. *855 This camp is also reported in a list of camps. *856 Other reports also allege the existence of this camp. *857

       «Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic» Primary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Austrian Mission.) Muslim men were detained at this location in the centre of the village following «consultation» and assignment at the stadium. Many were subjected to beatings. Several were reportedly tortured and killed. *858 Allegedly the richest among the detainees were killed first. According to one report, detainees numbered approximately 800. Four hundred among them were later transported to Pale for prisoner exchange. *859

       Many of the allegations concerning this camp are corroborated in the Special Rapporteur's report of 10 February 1993. It was reported that after the mass arrest of about 2,000 Muslims by Serb police in Bratunac on 9 May 1992, 500 to 600 men were detained in the hall of an elementary school. Those who could not fit inside were reportedly shot with automatic weapons in front of the hall. Beatings were carried out according to lists naming the most influential in the community. Between 30 to 50 people died from injuries the first night while nine others suffocated in the crush as the 500 to 600 struggled to escape the beatings. An Imam was allegedly beaten and stabbed to death after refusing to take the Christian faith and raise three fingers in the Serb manner. After three days of beatings, the group was transferred to Pale. *860

       In another report, some 600-700 male Muslims were brutally tortured and killed by Serb paramilitary units and local «Cetniks». Some victims were beaten with wooden and iron poles, others were taken to the «so-called investigation» room which was full of dead bodies where they were made to jump up and down on the bodies of the dead. *861 Witnesses claimed that the corpses were «butchered», with noses, ears and genitals cut off and crosses cut into their skin. *862

       According to another report, on 12 May 1992, several individuals from the village of Rakovac were arrested by Serb police *863 and detained at this location. Their personal effects were removed, they were beaten and then made to remain in a squatting position without food or water for some 30 hours. *864 Two among them were reportedly set afire. Two other detainees were also killed. *865 In the witness' estimation, some 21 individuals were killed during the course of the evening. Some days later, several prisoners were taken to Pale where they were exchanged. *866

       In another report, a witness/victim was brought to this location in early April 1992. Reportedly hundreds of men between the ages of 16 and 50 were interned here. *867 Every day a group of inmates were removed from the camp, and never returned. The witness was detained at this location until mid-May, at which time he was transported to Pale. *868 During his detention at the school, he witnessed summary executions and arbitrary killings of other prisoners. *869 Several individuals suffered from starvation. The witness was reportedly forced to bury many of the dead and was made to clean up the bloodstains left behind with his clothing. *870 Another witness testimony provides similar details and it is unclear if it is the same witness. *871

       In another report, after being transferred to the school from the stadium, some 500-600 men were forced into one main hall. *872 The aggressors beat the detainees to try to squeeze them all into the hall. Those who could not fit, were shot in the doorway with automatic weapons. *873 Consequently, many died from the suffocation which resulted from individuals squeezing others into the corners of the room to escape death. According to the report, those men who survived were beaten throughout the night. *874

       In the days that followed, inmates were reportedly taken outside, beaten, placed into garbage containers, and burned alive. *875 The open containers were then placed under the windows of the containment area causing the smoke to fill the room. The dead were later transported by trucks and disposed of in the river Drina. *876

       According to several reports, the Imam, Mustafa Mojkanovic, from Bratunac was killed by Serb extremists on 10 June before thousands of Muslim citizens. *877 Reportedly, the Serb extremists ordered the Imam to cross himself, when he refused they beat him. They reportedly also stuffed his mouth with sawdust, poured beer in his mouth and then cut his throat. *878 That same evening some 200 other Muslims were also killed, but not before being subjected to extreme abuses and physical mistreatment. *879

       One witness reported that he and 120 other inmates from this camp were due to be exchanged for «Cetnik» prisoners at Kladanj on 14 May 1992. The source believed that they were actually taken to the village of Donja Vratnica, near Visoko, where they were untied and handed over to Bosnian soldiers wearing «fleurs de lis» badges. The source did not see any of the «Cetnik» prisoners they were to be swapped with. *880

       This camp is also reported in a list of camps. *881 Other reports also allege the existence of a camp here. *882

       Military Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to the ICRC, there is a camp in the Military Prison in Bratunac. The ICRC first visited the Military Prison on 14 October 1993. *883

13. Brcko

       Serbs have used and may still be using detention camps to facilitate the destruction and expulsion of non-Serbs from Brcko. Serbian conquest of Brcko is strategically significant in that it provides one link in a chain ensuring contiguous borders and access to FRY for Bosnian Serbs. Brcko lies on the southern bank of the Sava river which serves as the boundary between BiH and Croatia. Pre-war population of the city and county of Brcko was about 87,000, 40,000 in the city. Approximately 44 per cent were Muslim, 25 per cent Croat, 21 per cent Serb, six per cent Yugoslavs and 3 per cent «others». The county is part of the Sava River valley and supports mixed farming. *884 The city was a light industrial centre. *885

       The political and military objectives of the Bosnian Serbs are clear. The creation and preservation of Serbian dominated and controlled territory within what had become BiH and its direct geographic and political link with FRY. Brcko Serbs expressed their intention toward the end of April 1992. SDS Assemblyman Ristanic declared that Bosnia's Serbs wanted to be part of Yugoslavia. He announced that Brcko's Serbs wanted the city broken into three parts, one each for Muslims, Serbs, and Croats. This announcement was covered on local television and in the newspapers Gradiety and Brcanske Novine. He insisted that division must take place by 3 May or there would be war. *886

       Their demand for ethnic division either unanswered, unmet, or unimportant, Serbian forces destroyed the two bridges over the Sava River, on or about April 30, 1992. Fifty to 100 people were killed by the explosions. Body parts were scattered nearby and windows in downtown Brcko were shattered. The Serbs bombarded Muslim areas with artillery. After about a day, Serb forces secured downtown Brcko and the predominantly Serb areas east of the main road to Tuzla. The Serbs also began to round up Muslim residents. *887

       For several months before April 1992, JNA equipment (including artillery, tanks, and small arms) from Slovenia and Croatia was brought into the Brcko area for storage. Buses carrying Serb forces (probably paramilitary) reportedly moved from Bijeljina toward Brcko in the days just before the end of April. By late April, the Serb leadership in Brcko appears to have had both experienced forces and a ready stockpile of arms at hand. *888

       Reportedly, the JNA had begun to patrol around the city and county of Brcko in January and February 1992. The reserves were called up in February, soldiers were told they would fight in the Osijek area. Most Croats and Muslims left their units and escaped to Croatia. At that time, the JNA confiscated all of the weapons and materiel of the Bosnian Territorial Defence Force and began to arm local Serbian civilians. Small squares were placed on every house and apartment building to identify the ethnicity of its inhabitants. Ethnic lists were compiled for every village and town in the area. *889

       As described above, Serb forces commenced their attack upon Brcko with the destruction of the two bridges (road and rail) that cross the Sava at Brcko, on April 30 or very early in the morning of 1 May 1992. *890 The Serbian forces proceeded to bombard Brcko with artillery. Fighting reached the centre of the city on 1 May, when Serbian reservists from Bijelina positioned artillery around the train station and began firing into Muslim parts of the city. The shells landed at a rate of 75 every 45 minutes. In some parts of town, local Serbs who had obtained weapons beforehand began arresting their Muslim and Croatian neighbors. *891 After the bombardment, Colonel Pavle Milinkovic and his garrison troops occupied the city with help from local mobilized Serbs. Muslim men were placed under house arrest. *892

       The battle for the city of Brcko was over for all practical purposes by 4 May 1992. Victorious Serb forces began rounding up Muslim and Croat residents. The captives were taken to several holding areas, including the Brcko police station, the local bus depot, a former sand and gravel depository, the hospital, a former textile factory, a mosque, a hotel, and a pig farm south- east of the city. Killings and beatings allegedly took place in each. *893

       A Bosnian Serb from a village populated entirely by ethnic Serbs, who participated in the takeover of Brcko provided the following account: Bosnian Serbs in Lukavac received a shipment of weapons from the JNA base in Brcko at the end of April 1992. The weapons, mostly AK-47's and M-48's, were delivered by JNA military trucks to a house in the village. The owner of the house, his brother and their friend then reportedly distributed the weapons in Lukavac. *894

       On April 30, 1992, JNA forces stationed in Brcko destroyed the two bridges over the Sava. Approximately 3,000 paramilitary troops from Serbia came from Bijeljina and attacked Brcko from the south-east. Bosnian Serb irregulars from Gornji Bukvik and the surrounding area attacked from the west. The two attacking forces met at the JNA military base in Brcko to further coordinate the takeover of Brcko with local JNA forces. *895

       The president of the local Serbian Democratic Party then allegedly announced the mobilization of all Bosnian Serbian male residents of military age. On 7 May, about 600 gathered. According to this witness, within the next seven days all Muslim and Croatian residents were rounded up and taken to the Luka port camp. *896

       Another witness reported that in the first half of May, Serbs searched for weapons, registered the local population and restricted movement in the city. *897

       According to the same witness, successive waves of military and paramilitary forces came to Brcko. Every few days a different group appeared to be in charge. At one time or another, the men of Dragan Kalinic, Arkan (Zeljko Raznjatovic) or Vojislav Seselj were in charge. Martic's people from Bosanska Krajina were supposedly the last to hold the city. *898

       Each weekend groups of Serbian «weekenders» (vikendasi), armed Serbian men, not necessarily soldiers, allegedly descended upon the area from Bijeljina to plunder and vandalize. *899

       Reportedly, during the first few days of May, the local Serbs established what was called the «War Presidency», a committee of local leaders representing important sources of authority in the region. These allegedly included: the chief of uniformed police, Veselin Veselic, the commander of the military garrison, Colonel Pavle Milinkovic, the commander of the Luka camp, Dzokic, the commander of the fire brigade, Kristo Puric, the head of health, Milenko Vojinovic, aka Dr. Beli and reportedly in the Bosnian Serb Assembly in Pale, the head of the judiciary, Todor Gavric, the information director, Bosko Lomovic, the head of defence, Milutinovic and the police commander, Drago Vesiljevic. Djordje Ristanic was reported to be the head of the executive body. The War Presidency may now call itself the «Executive Committee». *900

       JNA Casern: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State and Helsinki Watch.) As stated previously, the collection and imprisonment of non-Serbian residents began immediately after Serb conquest of the city. In fact, there is at least one report of Muslim detention at the JNA casern prior to the outbreak of armed hostilities in the city. *901

       Allegedly, on 26 April 1992, 47 prisoners from the Bosanski Samac T.O. Building were transferred by two trucks, one civilian and one military, to the JNA casern in Brcko. The casern was still a JNA installation and supported an unidentified armour unit and an unidentified infantry unit. Some soldiers wore a star on their uniforms, while others had a star with the Serbian tri-colour in the middle. The detention facility took up half the casern and it already supposedly contained four unidentified civilians from the Brcko area. *902

       The alleged camp commander was a JNA counter-intelligence major who wore civilian clothes. Guards were JNA military police. *903

       The prisoners were reportedly interrogated and beaten. Interrogators included the camp commander and the commander of the Bosanski Samac fourth detachment who was also a member of the city's crisis headquarters, who traveled to Brcko on at least two occasions for the purpose of interrogating prisoners. The goal was collection of information regarding Muslim/Croatian military posture and capabilities. *904

       One prisoner was allegedly maltreated because he was a member of the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) in Bosanski Samac. *905

       On 5 May, all 51 prisoners were reportedly transferred to the Spanac JNA barracks territory in Bijeljina. *906

       It was also reported that on about 1 May 1992 about 200 men were held in the casern movie theatre from an ethnically mixed apartment building. *907

       Many were placed under a sort of house arrest, ordered to stay within their homes or a small area around their homes. It was reported that bands of Serbs entered Muslim homes, took away young females, raped them and returned them after two or three days. *908 Most who found themselves alive and subject to the authority of Serbian forces were put in a number of places for several days before being shipped to the primary detention camp in Brcko, at the Luka port facilities.

       The number of detainees was reported to have grown so rapidly that a number of facilities in and around Brcko were designated as holding areas. Accounts of the locations of these holding areas vary, but the following have appeared in a variety of reports and interviews received.

       Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Helsinki Watch and the US Mission.) Reports suggest the detention and execution of hundreds of people at the Brcko police station probably located on Majevicka Brigada Road in Brcko. *909

       One man claims to have been held there for seven days in May 1992. He stated that Serbian forces used this police station as a killing centre from 7 May 1992 until 1 June 1992. He may have loaded bodies into trucks during his seven day period of incarceration at the rate of 100 bodies per day. He claims to have survived only because of the intervention of a Serbian Orthodox priest who apparently secured his transfer to the Luka camp, which was located in a quarry and brickyard outside Brcko. The witness claims that he was later transferred to a camp in Serbia; where after a period of time he obtained his release. *910

       Apparently, the same individual recalls the execution of several Muslim teenage boys after they had been ordered to sing a Serbian song. He was also told that specific rooms in the police station were used for torture and execution. A guard at the facility supposedly claimed that 300 people were killed each day. The majority of killings seemed to take place around a series of stalls or elevators. *911 A second individual apparently detained at the same place declared that he was responsible for unloading bodies from an elevator. He estimated that he loaded about 500 bodies onto trucks over a three day period. *912

       Several individuals were also reportedly beaten, interrogated, and forced to work. *913

       Slaughterhouse/Abattoir: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the UK Defence Debriefing Team.) According to a British report, the Abattoir, adjacent to the wharf complex in Brcko, was set up as a torture camp where the slaughter equipment was used on the inmates. *914

       The fact is, the slaughterhouse may have been used by the Serbs in conjunction with the police station as a detention and execution complex. Apparently, a slaughterhouse is located next to the police station. *915 Also, another individual reported that he visited a cattle slaughterhouse near Brcko, near the Luka camp. He heard screams and shots. He also spoke with an alleged survivor of the facility who said that 100-300 people were killed there each day from 7 to 14 May 1992. *916

       A Former Sand and Gravel Depository: *917 (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Mission.) It was reported that in late April 1992, the former sand and gravel depository «Luka-Skladiste Sljunka i Peska» was turned into a detention camp where, within 30 days, more than 1,000 Muslims were sent. Inmates were fed once every two or three days. Every night a group of prisoners was taken away and not seen again. In late June, this camp allegedly held over 5,000. In a two day period in late June- early July, over 2,000 people from this camp were allegedly killed. New arrivals in the camp kept the population at roughly 5000. *918

       Former Textile Factory Interplet: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Mission.) Over 2,000 people, mostly women, were reportedly held in a former textile factory in Brcko. About 1,000 women there were allegedly subject to constant rape by Serb gangs. *919

       The Fesfema Restaurant: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) The Fesfema restaurant was reported as a place of detention in Brcko. *920 No additional information was provided regarding its operation or control.

       The Fraser (or Faser) Car Service Company: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) This facility was reportedly operated as a place of detention in Brcko. *921 No additional information was provided regarding its operation or control.

       Sports Hall/Stadium complex «Partizan»: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State and the Danish Helsinki Committee.) A sports hall and/or stadium complex called Partizan allegedly held over 500 people.

       Reportedly a group of 96 Muslims were transported to this location immediately afterwhich two were killed and the remainder were forced to beat each other. A Major Dragan was said to have cut one prisoners' ear off and forced another prisoner to lick the wound. A machine-gun was supposedly placed in the middle of the hall and the guards threatened to kill everybody on the spot. Allegedly some guards placed pistols in prisoners' mouths, while others combed prisoners' hair with bloody combs. The report states that of the original 96, 26 survived two days of torture. Some were then reportedly taken to Bijeljina, others to the Luka camp. *922

       The Hotel Galija: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Mission.) Where more than 500 female Muslims were allegedly held for the sexual entertainment of Serb forces. *923

       Luka: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Mazowiecki and the British Defence Debriefing Team.) The brick factory and port facilities located on the Sava River; the primary detention camp in Brcko, notorious as a death and torture camp. *924

       The Serbs detained prisoners at the Luka port facility from at least 8 May 1992 until late July or August 1992, when, it seems, the Luka camp was shut down, and surviving prisoners were transferred elsewhere. Reports suggest that the camp population ranged from 1,000 to 5,000 inmates with the total number of people who passed through unknown. Supposedly about 95 per cent were ethnic Muslims and the remainder Croatian; however, there are reports of Serbs held and killed at the Luka camp also. Additionally, it seems that all those detained at the Luka camp were from around Brcko. *925

       During the camp's operation, many prisoners were released, some bribed their way out and others were saved by personal intervention of influential Serbs. Up to three thousand prisoners may have been killed in the Luka detention complex and all inmates were subjected to inhumane living conditions and a variety of brutal assaults, including rape and torture. The perpetrators of such acts were guards, administrators, soldiers and paramilitaries. Many survivors have rendered statements and may be available to testify. *926

       The Luka camp had five main parts: an administration building, which included barracks, offices, interrogation rooms, and rooms where women were held to be raped; a large warehouse divided into three compartments, where the detainees were held; a police barracks; a small building used as barracks by groups of front-line soldiers who visited the complex; and a second large warehouse, where visiting soldiers could obtain small arms and equipnment. (The warehouse held a new model of rifle manufactured by the company in Serbia that usually supplied the JNA; some trucks making deliveries to the warehouse had license plates from Serbia.) The visiting soldiers, especially members of Arkan's forces, appear to have been responsible for many of the beatings and killings. *927

       From early May, Luka's commander was reportedly Major Petar Djokic; the Deputy Commander was an identified Captain. Both men wore JNA uniforms. The Major was known by locals to be the richest man in the Semberi region of Bosnia and had a house in Dvorovi. *928 They appeared before the prisoners sparingly. Djokic reportedly oversaw or participated in some beatings and at least one killing of prisoners. They did not inform prisoners of their rights and responsibilities, nor did they apparently take necessary steps to maintain discipline within the Luka camp. They were directly involved in arranging for the transfer to the «Serbian Republic» of the property of at least some Muslims interned in the camp, in concert with representatives of the Arkanovci. They appear to have had repeated, direct contacts with various paramilitary leaders (including Arkan, Captain Dragan, and Captain Mauser, a local paramilitary). *929

       Until late May, the commander of the halls in which prisoners were held was an identified individual who reportedly committed numerous beatings and killings and was present for many others. This man had keys to the second warehouse, where arms were stored. He was reportedly succeeded as commander by a young man. This young man was from Brcko, was well known to detainees, and had worked in Luka from early May. After assuming command, he registered detainees; which the former commander had not. Both men were members of the local police (SUP). Nearly all guards in the camp (and all those seen after Kosta took command) wore blue SUP uniforms. Paramilitaries, in particular the Arkanovci and Draganovci, participated in the transportation of detainees to and from Luka. *930

       A Bosnian Muslim from Brcko provided an account of his arrest and imprisonment at Luka from the inception of its use as a camp. He stated that Serbian forces stormed into the suburb of Novo Brcko. «Cetniks», including White Eagle forces, shot rifles into the windows of residences and drove people into the street. All residents were put into six trucks, which made about three trips to ferry the people to an area where three schools were collocated. *931

       The residents of Novo Brcko were gathered onto the combined athletic fields of the schools. With megaphones, the captors directed Serbs to one part of the field, Croats to another, and Muslims to yet another. Members of mixed marriages and children were not permitted to remain together. Along with a group of males aged 13 and older, the witness was among the first prisoners taken to the Luka camp. He was forced to sign documents «selling» his property in Novo Brcko at a low price to a Serb. *932

       During his first days at the camp, the captors called out names of prisoners from electoral rolls. All those who were members of the SDA (a Bosnian, primarily Muslim, political party) or who had held positions of leadership in business or industry were killed. Shootings often occurred at 4:00 a.m. The witness estimates that during his first week at Luka more than 2,000 men were killed and thrown into the Sava River. *933

       After four days of mass shootings, there was a lull. From the fifth day, prisoners who were ethnic Serbs and were accused of being disloyal to the «Cetnik» cause were taken for interrogation and beatings. *934

       The witness was interrogated on the seventh day of his captivity. This was the stage when detainees with property or money were subjected to questioning and torture. The witness, who was affluent, would not describe his own beating. By this point, all prisoners known to have been politically active had already been killed. *935

       Following his second week in the Luka facility, the witness saw guards torture or kill Serbs who had hidden or helped Muslims. The camp commander designated a Bosnian Serb who had been a waiter at a Brcko hotel to seek out specific ethnic Serb prisoners for interrogation because he knew most of the Brcko area residents by name. *936

       After the witness had been interrogated, he was taken with other prisoners to Hanger Two of the loading dock, where they were forced to look at a pile of more than 200 corpses or torsos. Most of the body parts had been chopped off: hands, arms, and genitals. The prisoners standing outside Hanger Two were told they would end up like that if they told lies while being interrogated. *937

       Looking out the window during one of his interrogations, the witness saw the soldiers gang-rape a woman whom he had known since his high school days, and murder her husband. A Brcko school teacher among the guards, an ethnic Serb, was shot dead for refusing to join in the torture and killing of this couple. *938

       The witness identified the second camp commander, among others as responsible for the atrocities at Luka. This commander showed serious concern over the fact that some guards carried out their «duties» with knives. Most other guards at Luka were also visibly afraid of the knife-wielding guards, who were regularly seen castrating male prisoners. *939

       He also observed the beating of «handsome» male prisoners, aged 20 to 30, on the genitals repeatedly and for extended periods of time. *940

       The witness reported that on Wednesdays and Saturdays, guards raped teen-aged girls. Also, certain other guards routinely lined up handsome young men, Croat against Muslim, in rows of three or four. The male prisoners were forced to perform sodomy on one another while being taunted by laughing guards. *941

       According to the witness, the younger handsome males at Luka suffered the most horrific abuses by far of any group of prisoners. *942

       This witness observed eight to 10 teen-age girls brought to the camp commander's office building on Wednesdays and Saturdays, between about 1,400 and 1,800 hours. The teenagers came only two days of the week. *943

       The camp commander would take his time selecting a girl, who was then escorted upstairs. Once the commander had made his choice, three or four guards selected one girl to share among them, and so on. Only the commander was permitted a girl to himself. *944

       The witness identified one perpetrator as the well-known daughter of Brcko's leading prostitute. She bragged about her job of going around town to «buy and prepare» the girls, and she was assisted by three men who participated in the «delivery service», as well as serving as «police» at the Luka camp. The witness identified all of the aforementioned people, and provided names of girls known to be dead and presumed to have died from being gang-raped at the Luka camp. *945

       The female perpetrator reportedly brought a nurse to Luka to «prepare the girls and make them calm». The girls apparently had no idea what was going to happen to them because they were only slightly frightened. The witness implied that the nurse was coerced into «treating» the girls. *946

       The nurse, also a fellow refugee, said that this female perpetrator had stabbed one girl, who had resisted being sent to the soldiers, on the breast and in the vagina with the broken neck of a glass bottle; the girl bled to death. The nurse personally witnessed this incident. *947

       He reported that in the first week of June, the bodies of most of the 2,000 that he estimates were killed were thrown down a well and emerged later floating down the Sava River, surfacing at Brezovo Polje and even as far away as Belgrade. As Luka guards became aware of the surfacing corpses, they took to cutting open the bodies and packing them with sand to keep them submerged. This effort did not always succeed. The third approach was to chop up corpses and burn the bodies. *948

       It seems that upon arrival at the Luka-Brcko camp, all internees were questioned by one of the three inspectors, who then decided their fate. Internees who were members of the SDA or HDZ political parties were usually executed at the camp. The internees were also questioned as to whether they, or their neighbors, possessed any currency, gold, or weapons. Prisoners could only be released by a signature from either the police chief at the camp or from the major or captain in charge. The Inspectors themselves did not have such authority. Approximately 1,000 prisoners were released though, by having a Serbian person vouch, with his or her life, that the internee would not leave Brcko, not discuss politics, and not own any weapons, and by having these Serbian sponsors sign a document to this effect. *949

       Allegedly, a Serbian police officer, provided his signature to authorize some executions; however, it is understood that many killings reportedly occurred without any such signature being provided, required or even sought. *950

       The Serbian police seemed to have administrative control of the camp, and it was reported that Serbian police officers were always present when atrocities occurred. One witness, saw camp guards at Luka-Brcko wearing black berets, which at that time indicated membership in units belonging to Zeljko «Arkan» Raznjatovic. However, the witness also described the administration of Luka-Brcko as changing at least once a month. *951

       Apparently, the camp itself measured approximately 230 by 150 metres and was enclosed by an electrified fence constructed by the detainees. Mines were supposedly buried around the exterior of the camp. The internees lived in one of three hangers: the first, 20 millimetres by 28 millimetres in size, housed 650-700 Muslim men from Brezovo Polje; the second 20 millimetres by 40 millimetres, housed 120-180 men; and the third 20 millimetres by 40 millimetres housed 300 men, women and children. Women and children were also held in one other undisclosed area. *952

       The second and third hangers were connected by a large door through which the internees could see each other. Internees in the first hanger usually slept standing up because of the limited space. In the other two hangers the internees were allowed to sit along the wall, but their legs had to remain straight out along the ground. The internees were allowed to use the toilet, located in a different building, only once a day and for no longer than one minute. *953 After 25 May 1992, each hanger was given five 10 litre buckets, which then served as their toilets. As of June 1992, goats were also placed in the hangers and lived with the internees. It was reported that combined stench of goat and human excrement, and dead internees from behind the third hanger, was overpowering. Blood was also reported to be ankle deep from behind the third hanger where the dead bodies were usually kept until later disposed. *954

       It was reported that in the beginning of May 1992, each intern received food rations of 50 grams of bread and .15 litres of thin bean soup each day. This ration was later changed to 80 grams of bread per day and .08 litres of spoiled bean porridge soup per week and later drastically cut to 70-80 grams of bread only every four to five days. *955

       Apparently, murder and torture were a daily occurrence. Such activity often appeared to be random. Reports received describe a plethora of various acts of violence and degradation. For example, witnesses reported ears and noses cut off and eyes gouged out. Some of the internees were killed for such slight infractions of camp rules as raising a leg off the ground. Many prisoners were killed by being shot in the back of the head. Such killings were usually carried out near floor drains which emptied into the Sava river. Knives were reported to be used to cut into the skin of the internees all the way to the bone and others had their fingers cut off. *956

       Guards regularly beat prisoners with different types of clubs. Some prisoners were reportedly beaten with clubs to the point that their faces caved in and were then simply left to die. Another form of maltreatment was to jump from tables onto internees breaking their ribs and other bones. Many men were allegedly castrated. Such atrocities were almost always reported to have been committed in front of other detainees. The bodies of the dead, or dying internees, were often taken to the camp dump or moved behind the prisoner hangars. Other internees were required to move the bodies. Sometimes the prisoners who carried the dead were killed while carrying such bodies to the dump. The dead were also taken and dumped outside the Serbian Police Station located on Majevicka Brigada Road in Brcko. *957

       One source indicates that these daily atrocities were committed by 10-15 Serbian paramilitary soldiers and an unknown number of Arkanovci, Seseljovci, and Yugoslavian Federal Specijalci soldiers, as well as by Serbian police. Internees were often told to sing and those that did not sing loud enough were shot point blank. After the singing started the guards would often come in and start randomly shooting the internees. In one undated incident, approximately 50 men, women and children were killed. The internees were told that this was in retaliation for the deaths of 12 Serbian paramilitary soldiers killed at the front. This type of random shooting was reported to have occurred on a daily basis with anywhere from 15-50 victims. *958

       There was also reported to be a torture room at the camp, and those internees taken there never returned. Those tortured were either killed immediately or left to bleed to death in pools of their own blood. No other prisoners were allowed to help them and if they did not die on their own within two to three days, they too were then shot to death. *959

       It was reported that dozens of Muslim prisoners had crosses engraved into their foreheads with knives and were then given Orthodox names such as Aleksander and then required to repeat, for example, «I am Aleksander». *960

       Apparently, several camp guards would enter the third hanger on a daily basis and force a prisoner to drink some sort of alcoholic beverage and swallow white pills. They would then order the prisoner to beat his fellow prisoners. *961

       One report estimated that «Cetniks» were involved with approximately 70 per cent of the tortures at the camp. Fifty to 60 per cent of the killings were estimated to be done by Arkanovci; however, other Serbian paramilitary forces such as, Seseljovci, Specijalci, and Draganovci were also involved in the killing and torture and Serbian Police were often present. *962

       According to the report «Cetniks» and «STDF» forces guarded the camp and internees often unloaded ammunition from civilian trucks which was stored directly next to where the detainee's were housed. This ammunition was reported to have been used by Serbian forces belonging to the Brcko garrison. *963

       A Bosnian Serb who joined Serb forces and worked as a guard at the Luka-Brcko port facilities provides one of the most detailed descriptions of the camp located on the west bank of the Sava River. This description both corroborates and contradicts certain aspects of other reports on the camp. He stated that the camp was approximately 500 metres long and 100 metres wide and was surrounded by a two metre high chain-link fence with barbed wire outriggers (fence appeared part of the original port facilities). *964

       A single gate was located on the north-west side and provided vehicular and pedestrian access. The INA-Luka gas station was located immediately adjacent to the gate and on the same side of the road as the camp. Facing the gate from the outside of the camp, the gas station was to the left of the gate. The gate was five or six metres wide and consisted of two hinged doors, made of spaced vertical metal rods mounted on a metal frame, which moved on rollers. The gatehouse was located on the outside of the gate. The camp accomodations consisted of two one- story warehouse buildings, each measuring approximately 40 metres long and 20 metres wide. Between the two warehouses but closer to the river were the ruins of a building. *965

       The outside perimeter was guarded by six guards who worked in pairs in two hour shifts. These guards were lodged in a nearby house outside the camp perimeter. All six were Bosnian Serbs from the Brcko area and were ordered to participate in some of the rapes, torture and killing of male and female prisoners held at the camp. *966

       Male and female prisoners, no children, were delivered to the camp in military trucks and unloaded in the warehouses. No effort was made to segregate the sexes. Between 300 and 400 prisoners were confined inside each of the two warehouses, where they were kept at all times. The prisoners were provided one meal a day and forced to sleep on concrete floors. No bedding or blankets were provided. *967

       Between 100 and 150 Serbs from Belgrade worked in shifts of about 50 men inside the camp. They wore green camoflage uniforms and green berets bearing two white eagles. They were armed with AK-47's with folding stocks and knives that they carried either at their waists or in their boots. They were the only Serbs allowed to operate within the camp. Every day, they carried out the interrogation, torture and killing of prisoners in the small office rooms at the inside end of each of the two warehouses. *968

       The rapes of young female prisoners were carried out in a room known as the rape room that was an annex, measuring 2.5 by three metres, at the corner of one of the warehouses. *969

       The screams of prisoners and sound of shots being fired from the warehouses were very common. Bodies of killed prisoners were immediately loaded onto military trucks and taken to the Kafilerija Farm for disposal. Some were buried in mass graves; some were placed in a garbage truck, compressed, and dumped at a dump site; some were processed for use as livestock feed. *970

       The witness also stated that the camp was visited daily by two or three high ranking civilian officials, in civilian cars, who remained on the camp premises for approximately two hours before leaving. Twenty-four hours a day, trucks, in convoys of two to four, brought new prisoners in while other trucks took prisoners out. Some prisoners were taken in civilian cars to the JNA base in Brcko for additional interrogation. He reports that an identified individual was in charge of the "S" Local Community in Brcko. The "S" Local Community was the fourth of four administrative divisions in Brcko. The first was the Serbian Varos Community; the second was the Tuzla Road Community; the third was the Bijeljina Road Community. Brcko camp was located within the jurisdiction of the "S" Local Community. *971

       One of the more notorious incidents to have occurred at the Luka-Brcko camp was related by a Bosnian Serb who joined the Serbian forces and worked as a guard at the camp. On 17 May 1992, in the afternoon, six guards at the Serb detention camp in Brcko, selected 12 female prisoners between the ages of 12 and 25 and took them to what was known as the rape room. A small room attached to the corner of one of the two warehouses used for housing prisoners at the camp. The room had no furnishings. Part of the floor was covered with cardboard. Five of the guards were from a group of guards that had come from Belgrade. The sixth was from Bosnia. Once inside the room, the girls were forced against one of the walls. Two of the guards grabbed a 12 year-old girl, removed her clothes and pinned her to the floor. One held her hands while the other held her legs. The Bosnian guard was ordered to rape her. The other guards watched to ensure compliance with the order. After the rape, the victim dressed and the prisoners were removed. *972

       About an hour after the rape, a group of 80 male Bosnian prisoners, Serbs and Croats, between the ages of 20 and 50 were lined up against the wall of a ruined building located close to the river and in line with a point halfway between the two warehouses. Three prisoners between the ages of 35 and 40 who were standing closest to the guards, were separated from the group and brought to the Bosnian guard about 20 metres away. One of the other guards gave the Bosnian guard a knife about 30-35 centimetres long and ordered him to kill all three by slashing their throats. The Bosnian hesitated. The other guard grabbed his hand and forced the knife through one prisoner's neck below the ear. The knife was pulled out and the victim fell into convulsions for 30 seconds before death. The Bosnian guard was ordered to kill another prisoner in the same manner, he again hesitated so another guard pushed the knife into the prisoner's neck killing the man instantly. The Bosnian guard then tried to kill the third prisoner with the knife, failed, so finished him off with his rifle. The three bodies were loaded onto a military truck. The Bosnian guard was then ordered to kill the remaining 77. He did so with his rifle. The bodies were placed on trucks and brought to the Kafilerija farm for disposal. *973

       A Bosnian Serb forcibly conscripted into the Reserve Contingent of the Serbian Territorial Military Police by «Specijalci» described a situation indicative of the atmosphere at the Luka camp and amongst the guards. He was assigned to the camp on 15 May 1992, because of a shortage of guards. Upon arrival at the camp, he was picked up by a «specijalci» *974 soldier in a camoflage uniform and posted on an open street about 50 metres from the warehouses. He replaced another guard who left with the «specijalci». After about two hours on guard, around 9:00 a.m., another soldier in camoflage came to the guard post and told him to follow. This soldier appeared to be one of those in charge. About 10 metres from a hangar, the other soldier told him it was time to have some fun. He was told that as a Serb it's his duty to rape several Bosnian Croatian or Bosnian Muslim women to show his patriotism to the government in Belgrade that had sent «Specijalci» to Brcko to liberate local Serbs. He was told that unless he got his hands dirty like the rest he would be shot as a traitor. After threatened with death, he agreed to commit rape. *975

       He failed in his first attempt to rape a young woman about 25 who seemed to be Muslim. He successfully raped a 15 year-old girl who fought back and had to be held down by four soldiers. Ten to 12 «specijalci» stood outside the warehouse indifferent or bored, jeering and cursing the conscript when he protested. Over a period of one hour, he raped five women between the ages of 15 and 22. Not totally convinced of his loyalty and saying the rapes were just for fun the soldiers informed him that he must now do something more serious. *976

       At about 1,000, two well dressed men between the ages of 30 and 50 were brought out from one of the warehouses and placed in front of its wall. The conscript was ordered to shoot. He resisted. He was then threatened with a pointed rifle, at which time he did the job. Then to further prove his loyalty to the Serbian cause he was told to cut some throats. He couldn't do it so the soldiers guided his hand to cut the two throats of the prisoners. *977

       The following account of a Bosnian Muslim civilian male from Brcko who was arrested by Bosnian Serb Forces on 10 May 1992 displays the humiliation and degradation commonly reported as being suffered by prisoners at the Luka camp.

       The man was ordered into one of a series of connected warehouses each approximately 20 by 50 metres in size. There were already about 100 prisoners there. For the first 15 minutes, the prisoners were forced to sit with their heads down while Bosnian Serb Army soldiers hit them with rifle butts and executed several of the men by shooting them in the head. After about 15 minutes, the man's name was called for a hearing. When he entered the room he saw another man on the floor pressing a cloth to his bleeding head and a pool of blood on the floor. He was immediately hit from behind with a rubber truncheon and fell on top of the other man. He was asked where his video camera was hidden. He was accused of filming events for Croatian TV. When he responded that he never had a camera, he was kicked and beaten by guards who were all from Bijeljina. The guards then asked him where they had hidden arms. He responded that he did not have any. The guards then beat and kicked him until he bled from the ears. He was next ordered to make the orthodox sign of the cross. He genuflected several times. When he made a mistake a guard kicked one of his teeth out. When he left, other prisoners were brought in. A prisoner unable to walk was killed. He was returned to the warehouse. *978

       A policeman from Bijeljina entered the warehouse and told the prisoners to pair off and then punch one another in the face. Other policemen would stand behind the prisoners and beat them if they did not hit hard enough. This lasted about two hours. The witness was severely beaten by the younger and stronger man he had paired off with. The guards then arranged forced boxing matches. In one case a 70 year-old had to fight a 20 year-old. For the rest of the evening, so-called Cetniks would enter the darkened warehouse and beat people randomly. At about 2,200, four men referred to by the witness as Cetniks entered and took all valuables to be found on the prisoners. *979

       The next night and each proceeding night for the rest of this man's time in Luka, men he referred to as «Cetniks» came in with flashlights and took 20 to 30 prisoners. Shouts and screams would then be heard. In the days that followed, groups of four men were taken either to load bodies into refrigerator trucks or to throw them into the Sava River. *980

       The witness recalled that one prisoner was beaten by 12 «Cetniks» clad with black baseball bats. They systematically broke his fingers, arms and knees. Then one man, who the witness calls one of the main «Cetniks» from Brcko, killed that prisoner with a pistol. *981

       The witness reported that two days later, the «Cetnik Captain», who had worked in the same factory as the witness, requested that seven men from among the detainees go over to the medical clinic to clean up broken glass. The witness volunteered. Upon his arrival at the clinic, the witness found 70, so-called, «Cetniks» waiting in two rows to beat the male detainees. *982 The witness recalled seeing a number of men already beaten who were unable to stand. One of these «Cetniks» refused to allow them to be hit more than once. This «Cetnik» retrieved the witness from Luka on 14 May and put him under house arrest until 14 July when, the witness reported, all Muslim men from Brcko were taken in three buses to the Batkovic camp. *983

       Another alleged prisoner at the Luka camp reported that he was never registered, interrogated, beaten or tortured while there. However, the prisoner reported that he witnessed the gross maltreatment of other prisoners, including killing, on a daily basis. *984

       According to this witness, he was transferred from «the military headquarters» in Brcko to the Luka camp on 7 May 1992. He remained there until 12 July 1992 when he was transferred to Brezovo Polje. He states that at Luka his personal documents were taken away from him and he was placed in Hall 2. He could witness the events going on in front of the halls through a large gate in his hall that was open during the day. Because of what he witnessed he lived in constant fear. *985

       He reported that «Cetniks» tortured and killed prisoners with an iron spiked mace. He also reported that prisoners loaded 200-300 dead bodies onto refrigerated trucks every day from 4:00 to 5:00 a.m. According to this witness the bodies were taken to the Kafilerija food factory to be burned. *986

       He states that he was assigned to load dead bodies twice. He claims that 80 per cent of the dead had had their throats cut while 20 per cent had been shot or had been beaten or tortured to death. He said that almost all of the victims had been inhabitants of Brcko. *987

       He also provided some specific examples of brutality committed in the camp. Once, guards entered Hall 2 and randomly picked five prisoners. The guards ordered the five men to stand facing a wall. A guard or some sort of military member then drove a truck inside the hall and crushed the men up against the wall. The driver put the truck in reverse and repeated this maneuver until all five were dead. While this was going on, the 150-200 other prisoners in the hall were forced to sit down and avert their eyes. *988

       This witness also claims that on about 10 May 1992, «Cetniks» delivered a truckload of 30-40 Muslims and Croatians to Hall 2. One of the «Cetniks» called out the name of a family, a husband, wife and their five year-old daughter, and took them outside in front of the hall. The «Cetnik» then held the daughter by the hair and allegedly cut her throat. The mother fainted. The father then had his throat cut. Other guards revived the mother, and then she was killed in the same way. When this was going on, the witness describes a sort of chaotic situation in the camp. Guards were drunk and drinking and firing shots into the air. *989

       The prisoner claimed that a Serbian front line soldier visited the camp almost every other day. On each visit, the soldier allegedly shot and killed four or five detainees in the back of the head with his pistol while the detainess sat on the ground with their heads down. He describes another front line soldier visiting the camp on at least three occasions and executing prisoners he had apparently knew and had identified to be executed before his arrival. *990

       The same prisoner claims that his brother was also detained at the Luka camp and informed him of other acts of brutality. For example, on 12 or 13 May 1992, the brother supposedly claimed that «Cetniks» ordered about five detainees to lie down in a line on the tar road in front of Hall 1 inside the camp. A Serbian guard then allegedly drove a truck filled with sacks of sand over their necks, killing them instantly. *991

       The brother also supposedly reported that on four or five different evenings in the middle of May, 1992, approximately 15 young prisoners (from 15 to 20 years old) were forced to get into a closed delivery van and transported away. The next morning, prisoners who were assigned to load dead bodies on to the refrigerated trucks noticed that among the dead bodies were the 15 young men taken away three or four hours earlier. The bodies were naked and each had two openings cut into their backs. *992

       Many of the prisoners killed in Luka-Brcko were allegedly buried in a series of four mass graves situated behind a local drinking establishment on the road between Brcko and the village of Brezovo Polje. The road runs parallel to and is about 500 metres from the Sava River. The mass graves lie in a wooded area between the road and the river. *993

       The bodies of internees from the Luka-Brcko camp were also reported to have been transported to and burned at the old «Kafilerija» animal feed and rendering factory in Brcko. *994 This factory was approximately four miles from the camp and located where Bijeljinska Cesta ended and Vase Pelagica street began. Refrigerated and TAM-110 trucks were reported to leave Luka-Brcko camp at 4:00 a.m. each morning with approximately 20 bodies each. Additional refrigerated trucks, from other unknown locations, also arrived at this factory. When the bodies arrived at the factory they were first dumped by 10-12 internees inside a building where three large furnaces were located. Unnamed Serbian paramilitary forces then stripped the bodies of valuables before dumping them into the furnaces. This facility was also guarded by unnamed «Seselj's» forces. The burning of the bodies started in May 1992 and prior to this time the bodies had been dumped into the Sava river until the number of bodies needing to be disposed of became too high. *995

       Apparently, the ECMM reported an allegation that Serbs in Brcko destroyed the cadavers of their Muslim victims by throwing them into machines designed to grind up dead animals to make animal feed for cattle. Other Muslims were allegedly forced to operate this machine and later allegedly also killed. This may very well be a description of the Kafilerija plant. *996

       It seems that yet another source had heard that children at the Luka camp had been killed and then thrown into cement mixers; their remains used as food for poultry. *997

       There was also reported to be a mass grave located on the southern side of of a local street, in the eastern part of Brcko. *998

       Another witness who allegedly spent some time at the Luka camp claimed that from nine to 11 May 1992, he and three other Luka prisoners were taken to the Brcko hospital to load dead bodies into a furnace. According to this witness, the bodies had been cut into pieces and placed into 50 kilogram nylon sacks. He saw body parts from men, women, and children, most with civilian clothing. The sacks were brought to the hospital in small trucks. The witness claims that he personally loaded about 200 such sacks into the furnace over the two day period. When his group left, they were replaced by another group of four men. The men were always under armed guard.

       Other unnamed sources have stated that as of August, 1993 there were over 3,000 ex-detainees in the free territory of Brcko (not counting detainees who have left the area already), 1,200 of whom are women and 500-600 of whom are children. Approximately 500 of these women have been reported to have been raped while imprisoned. *999

       The Bimex Agricultural Complex: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State and the US Mission.) A pig farm south-east of the city, about three kilometres from Brcko, was reportedly used as an interrogation and torture centre for Muslims. Those sent there never returned. *1000 However, several Luka prisoners were transferred to the pig farm where they were required to work and continued to be subject to maltreatment at the hands of their captors. One witness reported that between about 18 May 1992 and the Spring of 1993, 32 Muslims and six Croats performed forced labour there. The men worked day and night and were allowed to sleep four to five hours a night. The prisoners were often beaten. A mass grave is reported to be located there. *1001

       Another witness reported three mass graves on the way to the farm. He said that he often passed three large pits, at least 15 metres long, to which bodies were taken in a certain TAM truck. He passed these pits on the way to the Bimex swine breeding farm from Brcko, three kilometres east of Brcko. *1002

       A mass grave was also reported to be located not far from the pig farm. Refrigerated meat transportation trucks were reportedly used to haul bodies to this mass grave. *1003

       Unidentified Detention Facilities: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely US Mission.) Two other unidentified Serbian detention facilities, near the Bimex pig farm, were reportedly located about 200 metres further west of an area restaurant at a small river port on the river Sava. *1004

       The Laser Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) One witness was hiding with neighbors at home when Serbs came to his neighborhood with a TAM truck, saying they were to take everyone to a factory called «Laser». Because there was not room enough to carry everyone in the neighborhood, the Serbs took only men. They took them to the restaurant at the Laser factory where there were already 200 men, women and children. The next day, 7 May buses arrived. Women, children and the elderly were taken away. One bus headed toward Celic, the other toward Brezovo Polje. That night, two individuals and a Serb from Brcko allegedly came in to the factory, took out four prisoners, beat them and took their valuables. On 8 May, the prisoners were given the choice of going to Celic or Brezovo Polje. Most chose Celic because it was located in the «free territory». The witness boarded a bus and was taken to the Luka camp. *1005

       Another witness describes a group of 100-120 people being held at the Laser factory restaurant, on or about 6 May 1992. He reports that at night a Serb arrived. This Serb supposedly called out people's names and killed those he called out in front of the building. The other prisoners were told to keep their heads down inside the building and not to look out. Those killed had their throats cut. In a room next door about 10 women of different ages were held. This Serb reportedly raped a woman in front of her mother. *1006

       The Hotel Bosna: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Committee on Foreign Relations of the US Senate.) Thirty-three civilians from Brcko were reportedly held in the attic of the Hotel Bosna in Brcko for seven days. Neighbors served as their guards. After seven days they were transferred to the Luka camp. *1007

       Three Mosques of Brcko: (The existence of these detention facilities have been corroborated by multiple sources, including US Department of State and Helsinki Watch.) The three mosques in Brcko were also reported as places where Serbs housed prisoners. *1008 One witness reported that between 100 and 150 men ages 15- 80 were held in a mosque for a night after the town fell to the Serbs. According to this witness, the prisoners were forced to sing «Cetnik» songs. They were ordered to squat in a single line and told that if they fell asleep they would never wake up. During the night, local Serbs from Brcko who were dressed in «Cetnik» uniforms would arrive and beat the prisoners with their boots. Men, including some old men, were beaten at random by groups of three or four Serbs who entered every 10 minutes. They beat each person for about 10 minutes. One man had his teeth knocked out. Seven or eight men were taken out of the mosque never to return. A paramilitary called «Mauzer» from Bijeljina seemed to be in command. JNA recruits responded to his orders and the witness reported the visit of JNA generals to the mosque who surveyed the situation and left the paramilitaries in control. The paramilitary captors also supposedly tied a white ribbon around a prisoner's arm and sent him out of the mosque to see whether he would draw the fire of a Muslim sniper. In the morning, the prisoners were taken to the basement of the local hospital. *1009

       Some of the women reported to have been held at the Hotel Bosna were also later transferred to a mosque. *1010 Another witness reported that a group of 180-200 men were held in «the» mosque for four days where they were forced to go to the bathroom on the «abdesthana», a place for religious ritual. *1011

       Hospital/Health Centre: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch.) Those that were reportedly held in the mosque for a night were taken to the basement of the local hospital the next morning, where they were interrogated. According to the same witness the prisoners were questioned every two hours for two days. The interrogators were two Serb men from Brcko and two other men. The interrogators first beat the prisoners then asked them questions. They wanted to know who had weapons in the area and who had shot at Serb forces. The witness was beaten until unconscious, revived and beaten again. *1012

       At the time of this captivity, Muslim forces, trying to retake the town, attacked the hospital. Serb defenders placed the witness in front of a window vulnerable to fire from the Muslim forces. A Serb paramilitary held a gun on the witness at all times. The witness reports that the Muslims stopped firing after they saw him standing in the window. The witness escaped torture at the hospital by trading his watch to a paramilitary for transport to Brezovo Polje. *1013

       Another witness described punishment for the smallest remarks ranging from beating on the palm of the hands with a truncheon to cutting off ears and noses and jumping from a table on to prisoners' chests. This occurred at the Brcko Health Centre. *1014

       Es Naselje Ghetto: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) On 13 July, 1992, Serbian forces swept through the Es Naselje Ghetto, a block of apartment buildings that they regularly patrolled, located near the casern, and that Serbs had turned into a small ghetto for Muslims and Croats. The Serbs collected about 450 Muslims and Croats and bused them to the Batkovic camp. *1015

       An Ethnically Mixed Apartment Building: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) Local Serbs held Muslim and Croat residents of the building in the basement for six days then turned them over to Arkanovci. They were then transferred to the JNA casern. *1016

       The Hotel Posavina: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) Serbs reportedly took some of the Muslims and Croats that they had rounded up to the Hotel Posavina in Brcko. A massacre is also reported to have occurred there. *1017

       The Village of Brezovo Polje: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) Serbs occupied the village of Brezovo Polje on 15 April 1992. Allegedly, the entire village became a concentration camp for two months, after which, on 17 June the Muslim and Croatian populations were evacuated. The Serbian force that occupied Brezovo Polje consisted primarily of paramilitary forces, Arkanovci, Seseljovci, White Eagles and the Srpska Garda (Mauserovci). The commander of the latter and some regular JNA troops was identified in the report. *1018

       Serbian forces immediately declared martial law and confined the citizens to certain areas within the village. Apparently, about 2,750 Muslims were held prisoner. Male Muslims were interrogated at the local police station, where some were also beaten and one or two killed. Food in town ran low. Electricity and telephone service were cut off. *1019

       According to one source approximately 1,500 people were detained in Brezovo Polje from around 7 May 1992 to 1 June 1992. That witness also states that four or five people were taken away daily never to be seen again. According to two witnesses, the JNA was in charge to begin with; however, Serbian paramilitaries soon assumed command and the local JNA soldiers appeared to subordinate themselves to the paramilitaries, most of whom were members of the White Eagles. *1020

       Another report declares that some Muslim and Croatian prisoners first taken to the Luka camp were then selected for transfer to Brezovo Polje and there tortured. *1021

       Another witness claimed that about 1,000 people were held at Brezovo Polje. Some later removed to Tuzla. The witness also reports that 150 girls ages 12 and above were raped by gangs of 30 or more men at a time. *1022

       The greatest number of prisoners claimed was 5,000 Muslims. That report also alleges the occurrence of massacres and other violence visited upon the Muslim prisoners. *1023

       Apparently, On 17 June 1992, the men between 18 and 50 were transferred to the Luka-Brcko camp. Women, children and some old men were transferred to Loncari *1024, a village north of the city of Brcko.

       Automobile Maintenance Shop, Loncari: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) Once in Loncari, 70 old men and two boys were placed in an automobile maintenance shop. All 72 slept on the concrete floor of a room five by six metres in size. *1025

       Elementary School, Loncari: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) Twelve hundred women and children were placed in three rooms of a small elementary school next to the car shop. The two boys mentioned above were later transferred to the school. There was not enough room for all in the school, so some had to sleep outside on the sidewalk in front of the school. Everyone else had to sleep on the floor with no blankets. *1026

       It was an old school with no water supply or toilet. Two latrines were set up in the field next to the school. Guards brought water for the prisoners to drink. Food was delivered twice a day from a local farm, at 1,100 and 1,900 hours. Each prisoner received a small portion of bread with butter or lard. Sometimes, boiled eggs, hot tea or hot watery soup were provided. *1027

       Twice, a local Serbian Orthodox priest brought the 250 children fresh milk. Otherwise, children received no special ration. *1028

       Prisoners were generally hungry. They were required to work in the fields of a local farm and otherwise told to remain in the car shop, school and police station. Guards warned the prisoners not to wander because mines were located outside the perimeter (A statement later discovered to be false). *1029

       Six guards of the local police (SUP) watched the area at all times. Captain Dragan was the SUP commander in Loncari.

       No prisoners in Loncari were ever questioned, tortured, killed or raped. *1030

       On 20 June 1992, 48 females between the ages of 13 and 30 were selected and taken away by bus to Karakaj where they were reportedly raped in the Glinica factory. On the same day, approximately 900 of the remaining women and children were loaded on buses and transported to a place near Tuzla. There, about 150 girls aged 12 and older were allegedly raped by gangs of 30 or more men at a time. *1031 After 20 June, only about 300 old men and women and some younger women remained in Loncari.

       On 29 June 1992, Loncari was abandoned as a place of detention and all remaining prisoners were transferred to Ugljevik. *1032

       The Restaurant «Westphalia»: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) The Westphalia restaurant was reportedly located near Stolina across from the Bimex Pig Farm and Agricultural Complex on the road between Brcko and Brezovo Polje. Supposedly, Serbs began using the restaurant as a place of detention immediately after the occupation of Brcko. The detainees were reportedly from East and West Bosnia. From this camp, women and girls were reportedly distributed to other Serb run brothels. Girls as young as 15 were reported to be held and abused there. Those who resist the sexual acts are said to be tortured. For example, womens' breasts were cut and crosses were carved into their bodies with knives. *1033

       A Coffee House Near Skijana: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely an official UN source.) Skijana is a Brcko suburb in the direction of Bijeljina, where a large number of girls were allegedly held and abused by Serbian soldiers. *1034

       A Coffee House Near Stolina: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely an official UN source.) This alleged place of detention may be the same as the restaurant Westfalia. *1035

       A Private House in Grcica: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely an official UN source.) Grcica is an intercity neighborhood of Brcko. A detention facility was reportedly established in a house which was located 20 metres from an unidentified paint shop. This location was reportedly a site where Serbs detained females for rape. *1036

       Another source describes a detention facility in a home in Grcica used as a residence and headquarters by a Captain who served as the head of the Draganovci in Brcko. She also stated that a Lieutenant Colonel who was the garrison commander, often attended parties there. She states that she was raped repeatedly and forced to keep house for the four men who lived there. *1037

       Dragan Training Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) One witness claims that her teenage daughter had been detained at the Dragan training camp for local Dragan supporters at a storehouse complex near the old Kafilerija. Her daughter allegedly watched repeatedly as Muslims were brought to an area in front of the camp and killed with a gunshot to the back of the head. These and other bodies transported to the area were buried in a hole called the «rupa», dug by bulldozers. The bodies were then covered with truckloads of refuse and dirt. *1038

       The Hotel Elvis: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) This hotel is also identified as a place used by Serbs immediately after the occupation of Brcko to hold women and girls from east and west Bosnia for the purpose of rape. *1039

       The Hotel Galeb: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) This facility was identified as a place used by Serbs to hold females for the purpose of rape. *1040

       Private House Behind SUP Headquarters: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) After a few days detention at the Luka camp, a woman reports being transferred to a house behind SUP headquarters in Brcko on 17 May 1992. There she was detained several weeks, and then she was moved to a home in Grcica. *1041

       She claims that the house was occupied by 14 Draganovci who were part of a special unit that carried out arrests for the SUP. *1042

       The Tanjug news service reported on 29 September 1992 that the Serbian leadership in Brcko denied an allegation by the United States administration that there were concentration camps for Muslims in Brcko. According to the report, the Brcko Serbian leadership requested international organizations to send their officials to the Muslim part of Brcko where, again according to the report, approximately 1,500 Serb women, children, and old people were being held prisoner. Also, the Serbian leadership of Brcko apparently asked international organizations to visit Brcko and see for themselves that there were no concentration camps for Muslims and that Muslims who remained in the Serbian part of Brcko lived normally. *1043

       According to another report, Radovan Karadzic rejected as completely unfounded the American accusations that 3,000 Muslims were killed at the Brcko Luka camp. In addition, the report states that an American from Brcko inquired amongst friends and family in Brcko of such allegations and discovered that they were not true. *1044

       A Bosnian Serb Army officer believes the initial apprehension of Muslims legitimate. He concedes that later confinement may have become illegitimate. BSA forces apprehended civilian Muslim men of fighting age. Any such Muslim man found in the «combat area» around Brcko was taken into custody and delivered over to the civilian authorities. The purpose of such detention was two-fold. First, the Serbs defended themselves against potential adversaries, and second, the Serbs protected the non-combatants from the dangers of combat.

       The Serb Captain described a situation in Brcko conducive to lawless activity and victimization of civilians. With regular army units busy on the front lines, ill-disciplined and criminal paramilitaries were free to wreak havoc in the town. Effective and law-abiding civilian authority was absent. Arkan's men, other volunteers from Serbia and local toughs took advantage of the situation, and innocent people suffered. He corroborates the stories of several alleged victims that an identified individual murdered more than a hundred Muslims. He denies the allegation of 3,000 killed at Luka, believing perhaps 600 killed at the camp and in the town between May and July 1992. *1045

       Gornji Rahic: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Reportedly, Bosnian Croat forces took the village of Bukvik, county of Brcko, in mid- September 1992. Allegedly, commanders of the 108th HVO Brigade issued orders to effect the transport of the entire Serbian population there to a camp in Gornji Rahic and to other camps. They also allegedly ordered the torture and inhuman treatment of the civilians detained. The source identifies three who then tortured and beat up civilians detained at the camp in Gornji Rahic. Apparently, they inflicted severe injuries on several people. *1046

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