This municipality is located in central BiH, bordering Croatia to the west. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the county had a population of 29,261. Croats constituted 86.6 per cent of the population, Muslims 10.8 per cent, Serbs 1.5 per cent, and the remaining 1.1 per cent were classified as «other».
Tomislavgrad has operated as a major transit area since the beginning of the conflict. Some 35,000 people, mostly Croats, have reportedly passed through the region, collecting exit visas, on their way to other lands. *4109 There are, however, several non-Croatians who have not departed the area. And according to area officials, the non-Croatian population of Tomislavgrad, who remain in the region, are not prisoners. They are only «subject to restricted movement», and such restrictions are primarily for their own protection. *4110
To that end, all of the Serbs, approximately 320 individuals from the Tomislavgrad area *4111 were dismissed from their employment and taken to and detained in various Croatian- run camps. *4112 While the details regarding the management of the Muslim population was not made available, there are several reports regarding Muslim-populated facilities.
Old School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch). According to one report, a man from the village of Eminovo Selo recalled being taken to a school in Tomislavgrad, being detained there for one and a half months and then being transferred to another school in Tomislavgrad. It was his understanding that the location was controlled by HVO civil police. *4113
This, the first school location, reportedly had three big rooms. According to the report, for the first month and a half, some 300 people were interned here. The detainees were fed three meals per day and the food was, according to one former inmate, «decent». *4114
The men were put on work detail in a field some two kilometres away for approximately nine hours per day. The report described the treatment by the guards as «excellent». The detainees reportedly came into contact with civilian police and occassionally HOS members. *4115
House in Tomislavgrad: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC). The ICRC reported that it visited a place of detention at a private house in Tomislavgrad. *4116 No additional information regarding operation, control or length of detention was made available.
House in Eminovo Selo: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch.) One report suggests that members of HVO civil police detained everyone in a house in the village of Eminovo Selo for the purpose of holding «a conference». The «conferees» were detained at this location for four days before being transferred to Tomislavgrad. *4117
Tomislavgrad School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC and Helsinki Watch.) According to one report, the Serb men detained at this location were all apprehended with weapons in their possession. The report suggests that the men are detained in three large rooms, two on the first floor and one on the second. The head of military police, and his guards were quartered in another room on the first floor, just near the first containment area. There were reportedly some 50 men detained at this location. *4118
The inmates were reportedly permitted to have visitors and some were even allowed to walk about the halls. The containment rooms themselves had big windows but were unheated. The men slept on platforms covered with blankets. *4119
Inmates in cell/room one were kept there for four to seven months. The men were finally allowed to bathe after four months of detention. *4120
Cell/room 2 contained six men from mixed marriages. There were wash basins available to these inmates, and they were permitted to go home twice in six months. *4121 The men were made to work in the fields digging potatoes. They reportedly had «excellent relations with the guards.» *4122 According to an ICRC report, member representatives visited a place of detention at a Tomislavgrad school. The report was, however, silent as to details concerning the facility. *4123
Tomislavgrad Hospital: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC). The ICRC reported that it visited a place of detention at a hospital in Tomislavgrad. *4124 No additional information regarding prisoner treatment, operation, control or length of detention was made available.
Sekovici Camp: *4125 (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, a Muslim-populated rape facility existed in Tomislavgrad. Three hundred women were said to have been raped at this location. No information regarding its operation, control or location was provided. *4126
Unknown Prison-Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) In another report, prisoners were detained in a prison camp in Tomislavgrad. At this camp, the prisoners were taken one by one to the office where they were separated from their valuables and money and thereafter placed into one of two large rooms. The rooms reportedly contained six small cells which were full of Bosnian males. They were reportedly beaten and abused day and night and those who possessed BiH Army identification were allegedly made to eat their identification. *4127
The HVO soldiers forced the men to fight each other. They shaved the prisoners with knives and burned the prisoners' hair with cigarette lighters. The men were used as forced labour to cut fire wood and to clean the soldiers' shelter. *4128
Unknown facility in Duvno: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to a report, hundreds of Serbs including women, children and the elderly were detained in a camp in the village of Duvno in 1992. *4129 The detainees were reportedly mistreated and tortured. The report suggests that the Croatian paramilitary forces prevented Serbs from being evacuated from the area so that they could be used as hostages. *4130
Camp-Village in Rascani, Duvno: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC, Helsinki Watch, and the United States Government.) Rascani lies in south-west BiH and is reportedly the smallest Serb village in the Tomislavgrad municipality. It is approximately one kilometre long, located on a ridge of stony ground which resembles the typical highland area. *4131
Along the ridge are several stone houses, which came under Croatian control and are now peopled with displaced Serbian families--approximately 15 individuals per house. There were reportedly as many as 261 people interned in the village when the camp was initially established in March 1992. *4132
According to reports, a Croatian guard was placed on patrol at the end of the road which empties into the valley below. The detainees were not permitted to leave but were reportedly permitted to seek and receive medical care. *4133
According to another report the 250 individuals detained here are primarily women and children who were expelled from villages in Tomislavgrad and Rascani. The camp-village itself is surrounded by HVO guards and Croat police. *4134 There is reported to be no communication with the outside world whatsoever and no freedom of movement. The inmates were reportedly used as human shields to prevent possible Serb attack against the region. *4135
The camp initially also detained men from the region, however according to one report, many of the male relatives of the women held in Rascani were released from HVO camps at the end of 1992. *4136
Still another report suggests that the majority of individuals detained in the camp-village were subjected to physical abuse and mistreatment including shootings and rape. *4137
Members of the Thomson Mission visited this location on 1 September 1992 and located some 250 Serb detainees. The Mission confirmed the control of this camp as being had by Croatian forces. *4138
The municipality of Travnik is located in central BiH, just east of Zenica. According to the 1991 Yugoslavian census, Travnik had a population of 70,402; of which 45.3 per cent were Muslim, 36.9 per cent were Croats, 11 per cent were Serbs and the remaining 6.8 per cent were described as «others».
Several reports describe prisons and detention centres in Travnik; however few details are available as to each of these facilities. For the most part, the reports do not specify the parties in control of the various camps, nor do they specify the dates of operation of these camps. Two prisons located in Travnik area are identified by name and are as follows:
Travnik Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) In June- July 1992, Serbians were detained in the Travnik Prison. It is alleged that Serbian prisoners were «ill-treated and tortured.» *4139
Travnik Barracks: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported that it visited a place of detention at the Travnik Barracks on 1 December 1992. *4140
«Bratstvo» Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Serbian prisoners are allegedly held in large tanks at a chemical factory in Novi Travnik. Prisoners must cling to a ladder leading into the tank to avoid falling into the chemicals below. The tanks are covered and locked so as not be seen by the public. *4141 This detention centre may be the same as the «chemical factory» near Vitez (discussed below) that is said to house prisoners.
Reports identify several other, unnamed camps in the Travnik region. These camps are described as follows: *4142
The county of Trebinje is located in eastern Herzegovina. According to 1991 census data, the pre-war population was 30,879. At that time, the population was 69.3 per cent Serb, 17.9 per cent Muslim, 8.8 per cent other, and 4 per cent Croat. *4148
Military Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) According to the Republic of BiH State Commission for Gathering Facts on War Crimes in the Republic of BiH, a military prison in Trebinje held 1,490 prisoners as of October 1992. *4149
Unidentified Detention Facility: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Thomson Mission.) A CSCE Mission reported a place of detention under Serbian authority in Trebinje closed as of 2 September 1992. *4150
The municipality of Tuzla is located in north-eastern BiH, bordered by the municipalities of Zvornik, Kalesija, Zivinice, Lukavac, Srebrenica and Lopare. The pre-war population of Tuzla was 131,861. Muslims comprised 47.6 per cent of the total population, Serbs 15.5 per cent, Croats 15.6 per cent, Yugoslavs 16.6 per cent and 4.7 per cent referred to as «other.»
According to the ICRC, as of 5 November 1992, 197 prisoners were reportedly held by the Bosnian government. *4151 According to another ICRC report, 183 prisoners were held by the BiH government as of 5 April 1992. *4152
«Dr. Mustafa Mujbegovic» Hospital: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) A report was received which alleged that wounded members of the JNA were imprisoned in this Tuzla hospital before being transferred to the Tuzla Prison. *4153 According to two reports JNA forces leaving the «Husinska Buna» barracks in Tuzla, evacuating soldiers and equipment in accordance with a prior agreement, were ambushed by BiH Territorial Defence Forces on 15 May 1992. A reserve lieutenant was wounded in the leg as he drove one of the JNA trucks. He and two members of the JNA were wounded when the truck veered off the road. They were captured by members of the Territorial Defence. The wounded men were reportedly beaten all the way to the hospital. *4154 The report indicated that other members of the retreating JNA forces were captured and beaten by members of the Territorial Defence as they were being transported to the hospital.
An identified physician allegedly tortured JNA prisoners at the hospital. *4155 JNA prisoners were placed in various departments of the hospitals along with wounded members of the Territorial Defence Forces. This arrangement reportedly gave the Territorial Defence members an opportunity to take out their personal vendettas against the JNA soldiers. *4156
The JNA soldiers were later transported to the Tuzla Prison where they were tortured by a named man. *4157 He allegedly stated that his «greatest pleasure» was to «kill Vlach babies in cradles». *4158 Another guard identified only by nickname from the eastern part of Tuzla, allegedly tortured the JNA prisoners also. *4159
Military Hospital: ICRC representatives reportedly visited a detention facility at a military hospital on 14 March 1994 in Tuzla. No information regarding treatment of prisoners, identity of prisoners nor length of detention was provided. *4160
Hospital: ICRC representatives reportedly visited a detention facility located in a hospital in Tuzla on 10 August 1993. No additional information regarding treatment of prisoners, identity of prisoners nor length of detention was provided. *4161
Tuzla Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) A report was received that Serbian prisoners have been detained in the Tuzla prison. *4162 Serbians from the village of Stupari were allegedly detained without trial. Two Serbian prisoners interviewed in the Tuzla prison reported that they had been detained in an unidentified building by authorities in Stupari on 28 May 1992. These prisoners stated that they were never informed of the legal justification for their detention. They were reportedly transferred to Tuzla in February 1993 and tried and convicted for illegal possession of weapons. A judge sentenced the prisoners to one year's imprisonment beginning on 17 February 1993. *4163 During sentencing, the judge informed them that he was unable to take into consideration the 9 months they had spent in detention because no records existed of their detention. *4164
The Serbian civilians in Tuzla were subjected to forced mobilization into the Bosnian government army. *4165 Those who refuse to be drafted were reportedly tried and sentenced to three to 10 years in prison. *4166 Serbian civilians from the surrounding areas who refuse to respond to the draft, particularly those from Banovici, were allegedly mobilized by force and taken to the front lines to dig trenches. *4167
Members of the ICRC reportedly visited a detention facility in Tuzla on 28 May 1993. No additional information regarding the operation of this facility nor the duration of its existence was provided. *4168
In an open letter, Serbian Orthodox Bishop Vasilije of Tuzla asked the Holy Synod of the Serbian Orthodox Church to protest the treatment of Serbs in Tuzla on 11 March 1993. *4169 The letter reported that 300 Serbs were imprisoned in the main prison and that the Tuzla Serbs were subjected to physical abuse and forced conscription into the Bosnian army. *4170
The letter also reportedly stated that trials were rigged and that many Serbs had been sentenced to 15 years hard labour. Most prisoners were allegedly executed shortly after imprisonment, and others were so debilitated from physical and psychological torture and starvation that it took them several months to recover. *4171
Barracks: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) Members of the ICRC reportedly visited a detention facility in a barracks in Tuzla on 15 September 1993. No additional information regarding the operation of this facility nor the duration of its existence was provided. *4172
Military Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) Members of the ICRC reportedly visited a detention facility at the military prison in Tuzla on 23 September 1992. No additional information regarding the operation of this facility nor the duration of its existence was provided. *4173
Private Muslim Prisons: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A report concerning the existence of Muslim prisons in the town of Tuzla was received. *4174 The BBC reported that Serbian sources reportedly had information concerning the owner of private prisons for Serbs who is also allegedly in control of a private Muslim militia in Tuzla. *4175 According to Vojislav Djurkovic, head of the State Commission of the Serbian Republic of BiH, another man allegedly ordered the execution of many Serbian families in Tuzla working in conjunction with the man who owned the private prisons. *4176 Also according to Djurkovic, Tuzla's Mayor allegedly organized a training centre for Islamic terrorists in Tojsic near the town. *4177 Djurkovic accused the Bosnian Muslim authorities of blocking the delivery of humanitarian aid.
Tuzla Brothels: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) A report was received concerning the existence of Muslim and Croatian run brothels in Tuzla. *4178 Another source reported that «bordellos» for Serbian women were reported in Tuzla in late 1991 and 1992. *4179 The BBC reported that Serbs who escaped from Tuzla reported that young Serbian women were forcibly taken to brothels by Muslim soldiers. *4180 In his letter, Bishop Vasilije stated that the Muslim soldiers had a «schedule» for kidnapping the Serbian women. *4181
According to another source, 60 women, three to four months pregnant, were sent away from a Serbian run camp in the Tuzla region in 1992. *4182
A separate report indicated that members of Croatian and Muslim forces were sexually abusing Serbian women in Tuzla brothels. *4183 The women were captured by soldiers and allegedly imprisoned at the brothels until their fifth month of pregnancy. After release, they were reportedly kept under house arrest to prevent them from obtaining abortions. *4184 The report estimated that more than 1,000 Serbian women were imprisoned in such brothels. The report also alleged that members of Muslim and Croatian forces that had contracted AIDS or other communicable diseases were purposely sent to the brothels to rape the women. *4185
Lomnica, near Sekovici: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) A 1992 report establishing the existence of a rape/death camp in Lomnica where over 200 girls up to 15 years old were held. *4186 No additional information was provided regarding this facility.
Tusanj Stadium: *4187 (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) A report that 4,000 Serbian civilians were imprisoned at the stadium was received. *4188 This rather astounding figure, while cited in several other reports, has not as yet been corrorabated.
Sloboda Football Stadium: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A report was received which suggested that a detention facility existed at the Sloboda Football stadium in Tuzla where at least 25 to 30 women were held. The women were raped in front of an undetermined number of other prisoners. *4189
Secondary School Brothel: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) A report was received indicating that 100 Serbian women were held in a brothel in the Tuzla Secondary School. *4190 No additional information was made available regarding this facility.
Private House: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A report received indicated that 15 Serbian women were imprisoned in a private house located on the road towards Srebrenik, near Previla. The report did not provide the dates that the women were imprisoned or the identity of the owner of the home. *4191
Tunnel Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, however none among them are neutral.) A report was received containing testimony from a Serbian woman held taken to a prison in the city of Tuzla and imprisoned for five months in a what she described as a tunnel. *4192 The witness was a peasant farmer from the village of Brezje on Mount Majevica. She stated that Muslim soldiers attacked her village in early June 1992, taking 36 Serbian children and dividing the women and girls into groups. *4193 During the attack on the village some of the women were reportedly raped outside their homes. The witness reported that one Serbian man committed suicide when his wife and daughter were raped outside their home. *4194 The soldiers were reportedly armed and wore green patterned disguise uniforms. *4195 The soldiers killed village residents and robbed their homes.
The witness reported that the soldiers separated the men and women and then loaded the prisoners into covered trucks that resembled vans. *4196 The reporting witness and other female prisoners were transported to a camp in the city of Tuzla where she was confined in a «dark tunnel» with nine other women. *4197
During five months of imprisonment, the witness reported that the women were never taken outside. They were fed and given water in plastic bowls. She stated that none of the female prisoners were allowed to take showers or wash their clothes. She stated that the guards separated the girls from the women and allegedly subjected the women to rape. *4198 The guards reportedly concealed their identity while committing the rapes by blindfolding the victims. *4199 The women were allegedly subjected to repeated sexual assault and on some occasions were gang raped by the guards. The witness reported being subjected to interrogation concerning the location of her husband and children by guards in camouflage uniforms. She was allegedly told that Serbian women would no longer bear Serbian children, only Muslim and Croatian. *4200 The witness was released in late October in a prisoner exchange at Piper. *4201
Cellars in Tuzla: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) In an interview, a Serbian psychiatrist reported that Serbian women were imprisoned in some type of cellars controlled by Muslims in the town of Tuzla and subjected to repeated rape for the purpose of forced impregnation. *4202 The physician worked with Serbian women who had allegedly been imprisoned a dark room. Three to five men entered the room on a daily basis to rape the women. *4203 According to the patients who related their stories of imprisonment to the reporting physician, the Muslim soldiers intended to impregnate the Serbian women. The men reportedly told the women that the Koran stated that a child is a Muslim if the father is a Muslim. The women were generally released after the third month of pregnancy and, because of their advanced state, had to obtain the approval of the psychiatric commission for an abortion. *4204
In a separate report, the same Serbian psychiatrist reported examinations of four Serbian women who had allegedly been raped by Muslim and Croatian soldiers while imprisoned in a cellar in Tuzla. *4205 According to these reports, the women were raped on a daily basis and later released in advanced stages of pregnancy. *4206 JNA prisoners were reportedly beaten about their heads with the vacuum-cleaner hose which was used to clean the sewer daily. *4207
Ugljevik is located in north-eastern Bosnia, bordered by the municipalities of Bijeljina, Zvornik, Lopare, and Brcko. The pre-war population was 25,641, with Muslims comprising 40.6 per cent, Serbs 56.2 per cent, and 3.2 per cent listed as «other.»
Fabrika Kurjak: (The existence of these detention facilities have not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A report was received concerning a Serbian run camp in the town of Ugljevik. The town had a population of 5,000 and is located 23 kilometres south-west of Bijeljina. The camp was located in a newly built hall in the textile factory compound. Male Muslim prisoners were held at a hall surrounded by a barbed wire fence. Warning signs stated that the fence was charged with an electric current. On 29 June 1992, approximately 230 women and children and 72 men from Loncari arrived at the Ugljevik camp where only male prisoners were detained. The women and children were separated and placed in a camp for women located at a school in Ugljevik. Approximately 120 male prisoners were in the camp at that time. The reporting source stated that the many Muslim prisoners had been killed at the camp by Serbian soldiers before the witness arrived. Because the witness was detained for only three days, learned few details about the camp. *4208
According to this report, there were no beds in the camp and prisoners slept on the concrete floor. The witness reported that during the three days that he was detained the camp was surrounded by Ministry of Internal Affairs (SUP) personnel. *4209 According to this witness, the SUP personnel did not mistreat or kill prisoners. *4210 The witness also described an incident in which two drunk «Cetniks» entered the camp one evening and stated that they had killed many Muslims at «the stadium» in Brcko. *4211 The soldier ordered the SUP guards to kill the Muslim prisoners, offering each guard 100 DM. *4212 The guards refused and told the soldiers that they could not kill the prisoners. On 1 July 1992, the witness was transferred to a camp located three kilometres north of the town of Batkovic. *4213
This municipality is located in central BiH, between Kakanj and Olovo. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the population of Vares was 22,114; of which 40.6 per cent were Croats, 30.4 per cent were Muslim, 16.4 per cent were Serbs, and the remaining 12.6 per cent were described as «others».
Reportedly, there are four locations in Vares where people are detained. *4214 However, there only is testimony describing two specific detention sites. Additionally, there are two reports of United Nations soldiers being held hostage and released, a report that women and children were detained and raped in a house, and a report that men were detained in Zubeta. Allegedly, over 270 people, mainly Muslim men, have been detained in Vares. The only detainees who reportedly were released were the United Nations soldiers and the rape victims.
Schoolhouses: (The existence of these detention facilities have been corroborated by multiple sources, including ECMM and the ICRC.) Bosnian Croat forces allegedly have detained as many as 232 Muslim men, including at least eight from Stupni Do, in two schoolhouses in Vares. *4215
Muslim women from Vares reported that on 23 October (presumably 1993) members of HVO Kiseljak in cooperation with the local HVO began arresting all Muslim males who were at least 16 years old. *4216 In addition, a catholic priest alleged that 350 Muslim men initially were arrested and that approximately 200 then were detained in the two schools. *4217 The priest further reported that the mayor of Vares, who has since disappeared, had stated that these individuals were arrested because they were believed to be storing weapons. *4218
Reportedly, the detainees at the schools were abused. A Red Cross representative reported that some men at one of the schools were beaten. *4219 A United Nations officer who entered the school buildings confirmed that the detainees had bruises on their faces and bodies. *4220 The officer added that most detainees were so scared that they said their conditions were fine. *4221 However, one detainee who spoke to him in Swedish said that they screamed all night. *4222 Additionally, the visiting United Nations officer learned that 25 detainees had disappeared, and that 30 other detainees had been so badly beaten that he was not allowed to see them. *4223
Allegedly, conditions inside the school buildings were also poor. The United Nations officer who visited the schools said that the detainees were held in filthy conditions. *4224 One of the school buildings allegedly was cold, dark, and damp. *4225
Factory, Vares: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported that it visited a place of detention at a factory in Vares on 9 February 1994. *4226 No additional information was made available regarding prisoner treatment, length of the facility's existence nor its operation and control.
Vares House: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Washington Post.) Muslim BiH Government soldiers stated that five women and two children had escaped from a house in Vares where they had been taken and raped. *4227
Zubeta Detentions: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Chicago Tribune.) According to Muslim refugees and BiH Army officers, Serbian soldiers detained several men from Zubeta, a village near Vares. *4228 It is unclear where the men were taken or if they were released.
Velika Kladusa is a province in the north-western corner of BiH. Its pre-war population was 52,921, of which 91.8 per cent were Muslim, 4.3 per cent Serb, and 3.9 per cent «other». There is little information about detention camps in the region.
Prison in Velika Kladusa: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The only evidence of a camp comes from the ICRC. It reports that representatives visited a camp at a prison in Velika Kladusa. Their visit took place on 28 February 1994. *4229 There is no indication of who was running the camp or who was detained there.
Visegrad is in south-east BiH. As of 1991, its population was 21,202 of which 62.8 per cent Muslim, 32.8 per cent Serb, and 4.4 per cent other.
The Uzice corps, a JNA corps from Titovo Uzice, Serbia, first entered Visegrad in April 1992. *4230 One report alleges that they came on 4 April, but others contend that their occupation did not begin until 17 April. *4231 The corps is estimated to have numbered 8,000 troops. *4232 They remained in Visegrad for one or two months during which time they «picked up» many civilians for interrogation. There was no fighting reported at this time other than some exchanges between the Uzice corps and unidentified forces on «a place on the hill» in Visegrad. No one was killed. *4233
Apparently, the Uzice corps had been ordered by Milosevic to withdraw from Bosnia and Herzegovina altogether on 28 April, but it took them several weeks to get out. When they did depart, they left all of their weapons with the Serbian Territorial Defence, partly transforming it into the «Serbian Army of Bosnia-Herzegovina.» *4234 At this time, the White Eagles, Arkan's and Seselj's men, and a group called the «Johnsons» came to the region. They, along with the newly established army and local «Cetniks», then launched an aggressive campaign of «ethnic cleansing» throughout the area. *4235
Early on, many Muslims fled to the woods and the neighbouring region of Gorazde. *4236 Yet, since travelling was considered very unsafe many civilians simply stayed put. *4237 These people were systematically ordered to leave their homes and forced to hand over their valuables; they were then arrested and detained in camps.
There are reports of 21 Serb-run camps established in the Visegrad region as part of this «ethnic cleansing» campaign. They were first created in April and May 1992 and appear to have run throughout July and August, although most of their precise dates of existence are unspecified. These camps are as follows: Banja Suse, Bikavac Hotel, a building above a tunnel, a factory in Visegrad, the fire station at Visegrad, the former police station in Visegrad, Hasan Beretovac Primary School, Hasan Veletovic Primary School at Gucine, Pozarnica Barracks, Prelovo Camp, stable of Guso Salko, Varda Sawmill or Plant, Vardiste Barracks, Vilina Vlas Hotel, Visegrad Electric Plant, Visegrad High School Centre, Visegrad Sports Centre, Uzemnica or Uramnica Barracks, the Zelimir Djuric Zeljo Primary School in Prelevo, and Zamjenica Garrison. There are also reports that prisoners were held in private homes and apartments.
These camps held Muslim inhabitants from Visegrad and the surrounding villages. Several of them were specifically established to detain women for the purposes of rape. Members of Serbian military and paramilitary forces as well as local civilians would regularly visit these camps. Rape was apparently so common in the region that one nurse at a refugee shelter in Zenica stated, «Virtually every young woman who fled (Donji Vakuf, Foca, or) Visegrad after Serb extremists began what they call »ethnic cleansing« was raped.» *4238
Inhabitants from the region were also transferred to camps outside the province, two of which were in Serbia. There is a report that some people were sent by bus to Olovo in central BiH. *4239 Another report states that nearly 6,600 inhabitants were transferred to Uzice by the Serbian Territorial Defence, and an unknown number of girls were captured and sent off to Zlatibor, Serbia. *4240
Two men are said to have organized this campaign. *4241 Sixteen others were initially involved. *4242
Banja Suse: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There is one report that during the initial attack on Visegrad in April, a man and his two sons were taken to a camp at Banja Suse. *4243 Apparently, this camp was near the River Drina. All the report describes is that a unit of the Serbian Territorial Defence stationed on the other side of the river suddenly opened fire on the camp. The man and children detained there escaped by swimming along the river. *4244
Bikavac Hotel: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) Bikavac was a detention camp where Muslim women were held for the purposes of rape and sexual abuse. *4245 There are alleged to have been girls under the age of 14 at this camp. *4246
This hotel was also the headquarters of the Serbian Territorial Defence and the White Eagles. It appears the hotel may have been the combined headquarters of the two armed forces. *4247 An identified man was the manager of the hotel and was alleged to be involved in activities there. *4248
Building above tunnel in Visegrad: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There is one report that girls were taken by «Cetniks» and detained in «a building above the tunnel» in Visegrad. *4249 There is no further information about this camp.
Factory in Visegrad: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Defence Debriefing Team.) The Defence Debriefing Team reported the existence of a camp at a factory in Visegrad in December 1992. *4250 No other details are included.
Fire Station in Visegrad: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) The fire station at Visegrad was one of the main detention facilities in the area. There are no indications of exactly where in Visegrad this fire station is located; it is only described as having a «big open area» below it. *4251 Most prisoners at the station came from Zlijeb and Visegrad although there is a report that a group of young girls came from Kuke. *4252 Those from Zlijeb arrived sometime in June after the attack of their village by Arkan's units. *4253 The exact dates of the other groups' detention are unknown.
The fire station was a holding facility from where prisoners were often taken and returned. During detention, prisoners were temporarily taken to the police station, Vilina Vlas Hotel, and private homes for the purposes of interrogation and rape. While at the station, prisoners were also raped, beaten, killed, and made to do hard labour. *4254
The most detailed description of the station comes from an ex-prisoner who was held there for five days in late May 1992. *4255 In her testimony, the witness refers to the camp as the «Fireman's Society». She was a particular target for rape and interrogation by the «Cetniks» because she was originally from Zepa, and they wanted information about Muslim military activities there. *4256
While she was at the station, 130 people were also detained, 20 of them men. Upon her arrival, the «Cetniks» lined up 15 kids and told everyone, «If anyone does anything against us, all 15 will be killed, and we will line up another 15.» *4257 Thereafter, the prisoners were separated by gender and taken in groups of five to a «receiving area» where they were stripped naked and searched by guards. They were told that if they withheld any valuables, they would be killed. *4258
She reports that on the first night, an unknown number of «Cetniks» came and took away two young girls to be raped. The mother of the children tried to give them some previously hidden money, but this did not stop them. Instead, they simply took the mother and forced her to watch the rapes. *4259
On the second day, another female detainee was taken away. Apparently, she was brought to the police station for questioning and returned later that day. On this same day, the witness was also taken from the station and brought to a house in the Bikavac quarter of Visegrad by a named man. There, 20 men awaited her. They gang raped her and then the man drove her back to the station. *4260
That evening, two men came to the camp with eight other men. They took away the male prisoners in groups of five and six. Approximately, 21 men were taken in all, their destination unknown. This left about 100 to 110 women and children remaining at the station. *4261
Sometime after the men were taken, the others went to sleep, but were later awakened when about seven or eight «Cetniks» showed up again with socks over their heads and «with colours and dirt on their faces». *4262 They wore plastic gloves and were shouting that they wanted to test something in the building. First, they took two girls to be raped. Then, they chose from the other women using a flashlight in the dark room to see their faces. *4263
The witness was one of the women chosen. She was taken upstairs with two others. Upstairs in the hallway, they were grabbed at and kissed by several men. Then, they were brought into a small office with four men and forced to strip naked. First, the other two women were raped. Then, they were sent into the hallway and she was left alone with the men. *4264
One of them told her to sit down «in the Turkish way» in front of him. He made her kiss the cross he wore around his neck three times and cross herself. When she told him she did not know how, another of them showed her and made her do it. He then told her that she had changed religion and that she was now a Serb. *4265
After this time, the three other men left the room. She had to perform fellatio on the perpetrator while he held a knife to her throat. He ejaculated inside her. Then, the second man came in, and she was forced to do the same thing to him, then the third, and the fourth. *4266
While upstairs, the witness noted that there were three rooms: two smaller offices and a big room where a lot of folders and paperwork were stored. The two smaller rooms were empty. She reports that only one of these rooms, the one in which she was raped, was used for rape. *4267
On the third day, she was again taken away from the station at around 2:00 p.m. The «Cetniks» took her to the «New Bridge» where they interrogated and kissed her in front of the Muslim men being killed there. *4268 She was met by a named man and brought to the Vilina Vlas Hotel. Though she had never met this man, she knew him to be one of the main perpetrators of crimes in the area. He raped her at Vilina Vlas all that day and night and brought her back to the fire station at 12:00 a.m. *4269
Only five minutes after she was returned, the «Cetniks» came for her again. This time there were three of them. They took her to an empty house not far from the station, interrogated her about Zepa, and raped her. *4270
After five days of detention, the witness was transferred with her two children to Kalina near Olovo. During her transport, the convoy was stopped three times as various «Cetniks» continued to look for her. She successfully evaded them by hiding underneath other prisoners during their searches of the convoy trucks. *4271
Among the perpetrators she reports were involved in activities at the fire station were three identified man, one man identified by nickname, and many of Arkan's and Seselj's men. *4272 She states, «They all had beards, black dresses, all in black with hats and Serbian crosses, long hair.» She adds that she did not know any of them from before the war but learned that some were from Uzice, Bijolje, and Visegrad. *4273
Other reports indicate that two other men were also present at the station. In addition, a man identified by one name only from Visegrad was there. *4274 One witness specifically alleges that she and three other women were raped when they had no valuables to give him. *4275
Hasan Beretovac Primary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) There is a report that a Serb-run camp was established at this school. *4276 There is no further information.
Hasan Veletovic Primary School at Gucine: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There is also a report that a camp was established here. There are no details about it other than the fact that the entire population of Crna was brought here, stripped of their valuables, and detained. *4277 This may, in fact, be the same camp reported above as Hasan Beretovac School.
High School Centre at Visegrad: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) A camp was established at the high school in Visegrad. *4278 There is no indication exactly where the high school is located, and no other information is included.
Former JNA Garrisons at Vardiste: *4279 (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) There are reports that a camp existed at the former Vardiste military garrisons. *4280 No additional information was provided regarding this facility.
Former Police Station at Visegrad: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) The police station is alleged to have been established as a holding centre for Muslims from Visegrad upon the Serbian occupation of the area. *4281 Inhabitants were initially arrested and interrogated at the station from 14 April to 18 April and continued to be brought there throughout the summer. *4282 Here, prisoners were interrogated, beaten, tortured, and starved. *4283 According to one report, at least five prisoners were taken out a day to be killed. *4284
Pozarnica Barracks: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There is a report of a camp at the Pozarnica Barracks. *4285 No information regarding operation or control, duration or existing conditions was provided about this facility.
Prelovo: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) The existence of a camp is reported in Prelovo. Apparently, it was created upon the initial attack of Visegrad by Uzice corps troops in April and run by an identified man. *4286 At the camp, prisoners are alleged to have been shot and burned. *4287
Sports Centre at Visegrad: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There is a report of a camp at the «sports centre» in Visegrad. As of October 1992, it was reported that 1,000 prisoners had been detained there and 1,630 killed. *4288
Local Stable: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Muslims are said to have been arrested by an identified man and held in the stable of a certain other identified man. *4289 They were arrested and brought to the stable on 24 June 1992, but there is no indication as to how many were there or how long they stayed.
Uramnica or Uzemnica Barracks: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) Upon the initial attack of Visegrad, Muslims were ordered to gather at the Uramnica Barracks where they were held for three days. *4290 The report does not give a precise date of their arrest, but it was near 17 April 1992. Their destination after Uramnica is unknown.
Varda Electric Plant: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) There was allegedly a camp at Varda, a place described both as a sawmill and a plant. *4291 Over 1,000 people are estimated to have been killed there. In specific, seven people were reported killed on 11 June and 22 killed several days thereafter. *4292
Apparently, this camp was run by an identified paramilitary group. This group reportedly took Muslims to the plant, locked them in rooms, killed them, and then threw their bodies in the River Drina. *4293 Two other men are also mentioned in connection with activities there. One was seen by a witness taking workers to the sawmill on 10 June 1992. *4294 The other was known to take prisoners from Varda and have them killed at the «Old Bridge.» *4295
Vilina Vlas Hotel: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Amnesty International.) Vilina Vlas was one of the main detention facilities in Visegrad. It was located in a hotel/spa about seven kilometres south-east of Visegrad proper, on the way to Gorazde. *4296 This camp was established with the coming of the Uzice Corps in the end of April. *4297 It held Muslim women for the purposes of rape, serving as a camp «brothel». Apparently, women detained here were picked up by police officers, members of the White Eagles and Arkan's and Seselj's men. *4298 Many of them were not yet 14 years old. *4299
Vilina Vlas was well-known as a camp which detained only young, beautiful women. One witness was told that the women brought to Vilina Vlas were chosen to bear «Cetnik» children. Hence, they were «selected» carefully and brought only here. *4300 Another relates that Muslim women who had previously brought food or other supplies to the Green Berets paramilitary troops were also brought here. *4301
One detailed report outlines the arrests of several girls from Visegrad on 9 June 1992. These girls were arrested by an identified man active at many camps in this region and taken to the hotel. *4302 One of them describes being interrogated and raped by this man. While in the room where she was raped, members of the White Eagles tried to get in to rape her as well, but the man would not let them. *4303
When the mothers of these and other girls reported their arrests to the Serbian Secretariat of International Affairs, they were simply told «the Turks also do nasty things to Serbian kids» and sent away. *4304
One witness offers a detailed description of her 24- hour stay at the hotel. At the time she was brought to Vilina Vlas, she was being detained at the fire station in Visegrad, but was taken here to be raped by a «Cetnik» known only by nickname. *4305
She describes the hotel as big, with a basement and two floors. Upon their arrival, the reception area was dark. The «Cetnik» got a key from an unidentified man at the reception area and brought the witness to the second floor. The hallway was large and ran to the left and right from the top of the stairs. There were rooms everywhere with the doors open, so she could see that they were all occupied by women prisoners and «Cetniks». *4306
Once in a room, the witness was forced to take a cold shower as this man pointed a rifle at her. Then, he left her there to get a bottle of whiskey. He returned and raped her for two hours. *4307 Afterward, she was raped by eight other men. *4308
According to this witness, the women detained at the hotel had sufficient food and drink because they were the «selected women» meant to later give birth to «Cetnik» babies. *4309 She relates that during her stay, the women and men in the rooms were hugging and kissing. She suspects that the women behaved in this way because they had given up resisting the repeated rapes. *4310
Yet overall, reports of the treatment of women at the hotel are not good. The prisoners were raped repeatedly and beaten with batons. *4311 One report alleges that some were even killed by suffocation in a system of gas pipes at the hotel. *4312 Many sent there were never seen again. *4313 Apparently, certain soldiers at the camp were taking revenge for dead Serbs at Zepa. *4314
One report describes the fate of 200 girls brought to the camp. Of them, five committed suicide by jumping form a balcony at the hotel, six others escaped and the rest were killed after multiple rapes. *4315
Once this camp became well-known it was moved. *4316 There are no details as to when this move took place or to where the camp relocated.
Twelve people are named in connection with activities at the camp. *4317 «Cetniks» from Prevolo were also said to be there. *4318
There is also a report about an unnamed soldier. *4319
Zamjenica Garrison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) A camp at the former Zamjenica Garrison was established after the Uzice troops entered Visegrad. *4320
Zelimir Djuric Zeljo Primary School at Prelovo: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There is alleged to have been a camp at this primary school. *4321 This may be the same camp described above as Prelovo Camp.
Private homes in Visegrad: (The existence of these detention facilities have not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There are two reports that Muslims were also held in private homes and apartments in Visegrad for varying lengths of time, but there is no information about where these homes were located. *4322
The ICRC reports visiting one camp in the region, but it is not clear which of the above-mentioned camps it was. Representatives visited «Visegrad camp» on three occasions: 12 June, 15 June, and 2 July 1992. On 12 June, they reported the detention of 58 prisoners at this camp; on 12 June, they reported 20, and on 2 July, they also reported 20 prisoners. *4323
A number of people are alleged to have participated in an ethnic cleansing campaign in Visegrad. *4324
According to the 1991 Yugoslav census the municipality of Visoko contained 46,130 individuals. Of that number 74.5 per cent were Muslims, 16 per cent were Serbs, 4.3 per cent were Croats, and the remaining 5.2 per cent were described as «others».
There are several reports which allege the existence of a camp or camps in Visoko. *4325
Ahmed Fetahovic Military Barracks: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely an official UN source.) In early June 1992, the Visoko area came under attack by Serb forces. The existence of a detention facility at the local barracks was, however, not controlled by the aggressing Serb forces. *4326
In one report, a Serb recalls being the first, and for a short time, the only prisoner detained by Muslims at the local barracks. *4327 According to the report, the Serb male was captured in the basement of his home by Muslim forces on 6 June 1992. *4328 He was taken to the military barracks and placed in a chair with his arms tied behind his back with ropes. He was reportedly beaten and interrogated by soldiers and police for four hours. *4329 According to his statement, whenever he lost consciousness, the police threw water on him to revive him and then continued the interrogation. *4330
He recalled that after some time, the inmate population grew to 150 individuals--all of whom were detained in two rooms. *4331 The witness recalled watching as two inmates were beaten to death by the camp guards with the participation of the camp commander. *4332 The report suggests that in addition to camp guards administering beatings, Muslim civilians from Zenica and Visoko were also permitted to enter the barracks and beat the prisoners. *4333
According to another report, on the first day of the conflict, six individuals were detained at this facility. Approximately three weeks after the fighting began, the facility's population swelled to more than 150 individuals. *4334 Interrogations were initially severe and disorganized. Following the appointment of an investigator, the physical mistreatment was discontinued and the general conditions at the facility improved. *4335 All interrogations were conducted in the office of the investigator. Those inmates who were deemed guilty of some crime were transferred to Zenica while the others continued their detention in Visoko. *4336 One witness described his containment facility as one measuring approximately 70 square metres. There were some 150 other inmates sharing the same space. *4337 The detainees were put on work detail and used as forced labour to dig trenches around the facility. The report suggests that women were detained at other area facilities including a camp in the village of Hlapcevici. *4338
The report suggests that at some point, the camp was hit by rocket- fire. *4339 Purportedly the shelling of the camp was a «provoked response from the Serbian» forces because Muslim forces were using the roof of the barracks in tactical manoeuvres. Two inmates were reportedly killed as a result. *4340
Kasarna Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, between May and December 1992, Serb men, women and children were taken from their homes by Muslim forces and detained in what was reportedly described as a prison camp. *4341 The inmates were subjected to severe physical mistreatment including beatings with mallets, hammers, iron rods, and ax handles. *4342 The inmates were reportedly not permitted to bathe or shower for two months. Food was also in rather meagre supply. Two to three inmates were forced to share one bowl of soup per day. *4343
The report alleges, additionally, that at one point Muslim territorial defence forces had shelled the camp, resulting in the death of two prisoners and the wounding of 14 others. *4344
Various Homes: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely an official UN source.) According to one report, several Visoko residents were detained in their homes behind locked doors. The resident-inmates were subjected to regular shell-fire. *4345 The report suggests that the residents' detention appears to have been sanctioned and, perhaps even, instituted by the BiH government. *4346
Veterinarian's Office: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, a young Serb male and his parents were arrested and detained on 20 June after Muslim forces had surrounded their home. *4347 They were collected in a group with some 200 similarly situated Serbs, and approximately 30 individuals from among the group (including the witness and his father) were taken to a veterinarian's office. *4348
The witness was aggressively interrogated and then shot through both arms. Following the receipt of his injuries, he was transported to the hospital and thereafter transferred to the former JNA barracks. *4349
Military/Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A source reported that he had heard from a friend that Serbs had tortured and killed 10 Muslims from the village of Vratnik, two kilometres from Visoko. In retaliation, many members of Serbian families were arrested and taken to a building in Visoko that was being used as a military and police station by the Bosnian army. The prisoners were kept in the cellars, some were tortured and subsequently died. *4350
Hospital: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported the existence of a camp in the Visoko hospital. The ICRC reportedly first visited this facility on 4 June 1993. *4351
Prison/Penitentiary: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported the existence of a camp in the Prison/Penitentiary in Visoko. The ICRC reportedly first visited a detention facility at this location on 6 August 1992. *4352 No additional information was provided regarding the conditions at this location.
This municipality is located in central BiH, between Pucarevo and Busovaca counties. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the population of Vitez was 27,728; of which 45.7 per cent were Croats, 41.4 per cent were Muslims, 5.4 per cent were Serbs, and the remaining 7.5 per cent were described as «others».
Situated in the Lasva Valley, the city of Vitez is a Bosnian Croat stronghold where several detention facilities are located. In April 1993, Croat HVO forces in Vitez launched a coordinated attack on the Muslim villages and BiH Army forces around Vitez as well as on Old Vitez. Following the attacks, the Muslims in the Vitez area were forced to seek refuge in Old Vitez, Kruscica (a village south of Vitez) and Busovaca. Consequently, and although little territory actually changed hands, Bosnian Croat forces have been able to establish political and military dominance in the Vitez area. *4353 The stated aim of the Bosnian Croat regime is to fully evict the Muslim population of this region. *4354
Reports suggest that several detention centres were established in the Vitez area. HVO forces are identified as the party in control of these facilities, though one report concerns a camp run by BiH forces. Very little information about these camps is available, although the reports demonstrate that the ECMM and the ICRC have been active in the area by arranging for prisoner releases and transfers as well as registering detainees. *4355
HVO Brigade Headquarters: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) In April 1993, the ECMM visited a camp situated beneath the HVO Brigade headquarters in Vitez. The prison housed 62 Muslim men. *4356
Dubravica Primary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC and the ECMM.) Several reports mention that persons have been detained at a school in Vitez. The first report, which does not identify the school, asserts that Muslim families were contained at this location however, that they were not held against their will. Although persons at the school were treated well, the report states that HVO soldiers entered the school on 3 May 1993 and threatened families in residence there. *4357 The second report merely identifies the Dubravica primary school in Vitez as a place of detention. *4358 It is uncertain whether the reports refer to the same school. The third report was issued by the IRCR following their visit to a school in Vitez on 28 April 1993. The report verifies the existence of such a facility but does not provide additional information about its operation or control. *4359
Unidentified Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) In April 1993, the ECMM visited a prison, located south of Vitez, under the control of the BiH Army. *4360 The report indicates that the prison consisted of at least two rooms. One room contained four women and two children, while a second room contained some eight men. *4361
Cinema: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) Approximately 300 persons were reportedly held in a cinema in the area of Vitez. Additional information regarding operation and control was not provided. *4362
Oil Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) According to one report, an oil station in the area of Vitez was used as a detention facility. No additional information was made available regarding the identities of inmates, the conditions of their detainment nor the length of the facility's existence. *4363
Chemical Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) According to one report, the chemical factory in Vitez was used as a detention facility. *4364
According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at a factory in Vitez. The existence of the camp was confirmed on 26 April 1992. No additional information was made available regarding the identities of inmates, the conditions of their detainment nor the length of the facility's existence. *4365
Private House, Vitez: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility in a private home in Vitez. The existence of the camp was confirmed on 26 April 1992. No additional information was made available regarding the identities of inmates, the conditions of their detainment nor the length of the facility's existence. *4366
Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at the police station in Vitez. The existence of the camp was confirmed on 26 October 1992. No additional information was made available regarding the identities of inmates, the conditions of their detainment nor the length of the facility's existence. *4367
Vlasenica is located in eastern BiH. As of 1991, the municipality had a population of 33,817, of which 55.3 per cent were Muslim, 42.5 per cent were Serb, and 2.2 per cent were described as «other».
The first Serbian troops entered Vlasenica on or near 17 April 1992. *4368 These troops came from Novi Sad and were led by an unidentified lieutenant colonel. According to one Novi Sad soldier, these troops came because a telegram had been sent to them from the SDS in Vlasenica claiming that the Bosnian Muslims in the area had killed Bosnian Serbs. *4369
While there is no evidence to support or refute this claim, there are reports of increasing tension between Serbian and Muslim villagers prior to the Serbian occupation of the region. For example, during the months before April, the JNA held manoeuvres in the BiH town of Han Pijesak near Vlasenica, but only Serb soldiers were invited to take part. *4370 Also, Serbs from outlying villages had started coming into the town of Vlasenica with rifles, getting drunk, and warning the Muslims that they would have to leave. *4371
Then in April, the troops from Novi Sad, aided by Serb forces from Vlasenica, Misar, Donji Rajic, Donji Zalukovic, Gornji Zalukovic, Milici, and Sekovici, occupied the region. *4372 They immediately founded the «Cetniks' Headquarters of the Vlasenica Region» and put up Serbian flags in the villages. *4373 All Muslim police officers were disarmed and expelled from the police station, and Muslim residents also required to give up their weapons. Tanks were installed in key positions and the bus station was fully guarded by Serb soldiers. *4374
While the troops from Novi Sad were in Vlasenica, Muslim villagers were arrested, beaten, and interrogated, and some arbitrarily killed, but witnesses nevertheless attest that everything remained relatively peaceful at this time. They assert that it was not until the departure of these troops on 2 May 1992 that conditions for the Muslims worsened considerably. *4375
Upon their departure, the Novi Sad troops left the bulk of their weapons with the local serb population who had helped them take over the region and transferred some 80,000 troops to them. *4376 Then, this newly combined force took over the town. Soldiers established a Serbian military administration in every factory and institution. *4377 They carried out more arrests, beatings, and interrogations at the police station. Most Muslims were immediately released although those believed to be «extremists» were detained for a longer period of time. *4378
During the month of May, these Serbs burned houses and looted property, particularly the property of Muslim SDA members. They are reported to have arrested, beat, and killed Muslims in the villages of Alihodzici, Beros, Damdici, Durakovici, Drum, Dzemat, Esmici, Gradina, Kuljancici, Piskavice, Pustase, Sahmanovici, and Zaklopaca. *4379 In fact, one report describes the shooting of 11 unknown Muslims in the centre of Vlasenica. Apparently, the bodies were left in the street to rot as a warning to all other villagers of what was to come. *4380
Many villagers thought to leave Vlasenica at this time and escaped to Kladanj, Tuzla, and other surrounding places. Yet, many were advised by Serbian authorities to go back to Vlasenica if they hoped to keep their jobs; some followed this counsel. *4381
Then, in the beginning of June, the systematic eviction and execution of Muslims began. *4382 At this time, Serbian troops arrested villagers and took them to various detention facilities. As a basis for initially evacuating the village of Vlasenica, the soldiers told inhabitants that they were looking for a «very dangerous» Muslim. Then, soldiers came to village homes looking for this man and arrested and took away whoever lived there. *4383
During this mass evacuation, Muslims believed to be politically influential were targeted by the Serbs. One report explains that on 15 June, 50 Muslims who were said to be «politically important» in Vlasenica were loaded onto a bus and driven to the village of Zalakavlje, approximately two kilometres away. There, a Serb opened fire on them, killing all but one. It is not clear how the one Muslim survived or where he/she is now located.
Another report suggests that Muslim members of the SDA who were not immediately killed and instead brought to camps were the first to be tortured and killed. At Susica for example, many members of the SDA had their legs and arms broken and had crosses cut into their bodies with knives. *4384
By 20 June, no one could leave the region. *4385 From this time until mid-September 1992, Serbian troops carried out an aggressive «ethnic cleansing» campaign. *4386 One report states that it was the President of the SDS Party of Vlasenica, who was in charge of this campaign. *4387 Six others were alleged to be highly involved. *4388
During the «ethnic cleansing», eight Serb-run detention facilities were established. They are as follows: a former chicken farm in Sesari, the high school centre in Vlasenica, the hospital at Vlasenica, Milici camp, the primary school at Cerska, the primary school at Vlasenica, Susica Camp, and Vlasenica Camp. Muslims from the Vlasenica and the surrounding region were held in these facilities. *4389
There is also an allegation that Muslim-run camps existed in this region as well.
Former Chicken Farm in Sesari: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There is a report of a camp at an ex-chicken farm in the village of Sesari. *4390 There are no other details.
High School Centre in Vlasenica: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There is a report of a camp at the high school centre in Vlasenica. *4391 Apparently, a large number of prisoners were killed there. *4392
Hospital at Vlasenica: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) ICRC representatives visited a camp at the hospital in Vlasenica on 21 October 1992. They recorded one prisoner at the camp at this time. *4393
Milici Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to the ICRC, there is a Serbian-run camp in the village of Milici. Representatives visited this camp on 10 June 1993 and found two prisoners. *4394
Primary School at Cerska: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) One eye-witness alleges that 300 villagers from Vlasenica were detained in the primary school at Cerska, and that a large number of them were killed. *4395 Another report claims that women and children prisoners from Susica Camp were transferred there.
The ICRC visited the school on 20 October 1992 and reported seeing no prisoners. *4396
In early February 1993, the school is said to have been shelled with the remaining prisoners in it. Ten of the prisoners were killed immediately; 50 were injured. Those who tried to run to shelter were shelled again. It is reported that medical supplies were extremely limited in caring for the wounded, and it is not known how many survived. *4397
Primary School at Vlasenica: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the United Kingdom.) There is a report of a camp at the primary school in Vlasenica. Muslims from as far as Brcko and Bratunac were taken to this camp. *4398
Susica Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the New York Times, US Government, an official UN source and the United Kingdom.) Susica was the main detention facility in the Vlasenica area. It is reported to have held a few thousand prisoners--men, women, and children--from Vlasenica and the surrounding villages. *4399
Susica was a former military depot located several hundred metres from the main street of Vlasenica. *4400 It was situated on the west side of the highway leading to Han Pijesak. *4401 It consisted of two warehouses and one small building within an area 50 metres wide by 100 metres long. Apparently, the two warehouses had been formerly used for military ammunition storage by the Territorial Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina. *4402
An ex-guard, alleges that in early May 1992 he was told by a Captain to prepare to work in a prison camp. *4403 During the rest of the month, the large hangar at the military depot was emptied and the camp surrounded with thick coils of barbed wire. He states, «15 of us were chosen as guards. We were all over 30; they wanted people with experience. The alternative was to be shot, or sent to the front line.» *4404
It is estimated that the camp opened up sometime in the end of May. *4405 One of the early prisoner groups to arrive at Susica came on 2 June 1992. A witness from this group was arrested by two Serbs. *4406 Another group of about 50 Vlasenica villagers were also sent to Susica prison early on. Their homes were set afire by the Serbs, and they were made to walk to the camp. *4407
All of the prisoners at the camp were kept together in one warehouse. This warehouse was seven metres wide by 15 metres long and had a cement floor. At full capacity, it is reported to have held an estimated 560 prisoners. Yet, witnesses attest that there were at least 600 to 700 people in the hangar at a time. *4408 The men were on one side and the women on the other. *4409
Food was virtually non-existent at the camp. Each prisoner was given only one slice of bread per 24 hour period. *4410 As the summer progressed, soup was occasionally given in addition to bread, but prisoners still commonly lost consciousness as a result of malnutrition. *4411
Prisoners who had to use the bathroom were made to run to a toilet outside the warehouse in the corner of the fenced area. In such a case, other prisoners were given sticks and forced to beat the individual while they were defecating or urinating. *4412 The prisoners were not allowed to wash, and in the summer the smell is said to have been «overwhelming». *4413
Prisoners were also beaten with timber and iron rods and slashed with knives at the camp. *4414 Men were regularly stripped to the waist and beaten. One ex-prisoner relates that he and others were called «Balija» and forced to sing Serbian songs. *4415 He states that he was beaten three and four times a day. Others were even beaten to death. *4416 One such victim died in the hangar on or near 15 June 1992. Another older man who was believed by guards to have hidden weapons in Vlasenica was also beaten to death shortly thereafter. *4417 Apparently, a dead body would sometimes lie in the hangar for hours before the guards took it away. *4418
According to witnesses, executions took place regularly at Susica Camp. Usually, about eight men were taken away from the warehouse at a time. *4419 Shortly afterward, people inside the building would hear shooting. The men would never return. *4420
Several surviving prisoners offer detailed descriptions of the killings and other activities at the camp. One such prisoner was brought to Susica on 22 June 1992. Upon his arrival, two men from his group died from the beatings they had sustained upon their initial arrest. Then, on 26 June, more prisoners were killed. At 1:00 a.m., two guards, entered the warehouse and forced four men outside. Immediately, thereafter four gunshots and screaming were heard just outside the structure. *4421
At 1:30 a.m., two brothers, went into the warehouse and took three women to be raped. The women returned later that morning, crying and tired. They related what had happened to them to the others. *4422
At 2:00 a.m., guards entered the warehouse again and told everyone to close the windows because four prisoners had tried to escape. These prisoners were killed, and in the early morning two other prisoners were selected to dispose of their corpses. *4423 They buried them in a mass grave near the camp.
To get to this grave site, they apparently turned left onto the dirt access road that ran next to the camp, and led to Highway 19, crossed a concrete bridge and then turned right onto another dirt road that led to the villages of Luke and Zalakavlje. The bodies were buried among some evergreen trees 200 metres from the beginning of the road and 10 metres off to the left in the direction of Luke/Zalakavlje. *4424
One witness alleges that during her three-day stay sometime in June, 15 to 20 men were taken out a night and killed. The guards carrying out the killings often seemed drunk. They would enter the hangar at night and simply point to people to be taken out. There did not seem to be any system to their killing. *4425 She also alleges that there were bulldozers at the camp which were used to bury the dead. *4426
Another ex-prisoner held at Susica between 5 July and 12 July explains that during her detention more people kept coming to the camp everyday, and room had to be made for them either by the removal of women and children to Kladanj or through the nightly executions of men. *4427 As a result, the Serbs would draw up lists of prisoners to be killed and those to be let go. One witness alleges that there were lists of old men, women, and children who were allowed to leave as long as they left their valuables. *4428
According to another witness who arrived on 10 July, there were a lot of killings and mass executions early on at the camp, but these became less frequent after she came. She learned about the high level of earlier killings from the other prisoners. *4429
Still more information about the camp comes from an ex- guard. He has related details of the activities which occurred at Susica to international organizations and the Western media. *4430 An ex-guard was a sergeant in the JNA in the 1970s and joined the Bosnian Serb forces when the BiH war broke out. He said he deserted the Bosnian Serb army and fled Vlasenica on 1 January 1993. *4431
He claims that the confinement of Muslims in the area was instigated by the JNA of Novi Sad, and that the ultimate command of the Susica Camp rested throughout its existence with an officer in the JNA, Major Mila Jacimovic. An ex-guard states about the activities at Susica, «There is no question that the orders came from the highest level. . . . Our army had a strict chain of command from the outset, and Major Jacimovic received order from above.» *4432
According to him, the camp opened on 2 June 1992 and closed four months later. During this entire time, Muslims were executed every night at the command of Dragan Nikolic, a man who now works for the Bosnian Serb secret police and was in charge of the day-to-day running of the camp. He estimates that he personally witnessed the execution of close to 3,000 Muslims from Vlasenica at the Susica Camp and watched thousands more pass through it. *4433 He states that all of the prisoners at the camp were civilians taken from their homes. *4434
An ex-guard describes how the «selection process» for killing and transfer worked at the camp. Apparently, men suspected of having some political influence or trafficking in arms were not taken for exchange and were generally executed; others were exchanged and held for transfer to Batkovic camp. *4435
Despite these general guidelines, the «selection process» was often much more random than planned. Sometimes, one brother of a family was executed while another was transferred for exchange. *4436 In short, prisoners had no guarantee that they would stay alive.
An ex-guard reports that the small-scale executions took place on the camp grounds. Male prisoners were generally lined up against an electricity pylon just outside the barracks and shot. *4437 The larger ones were carried out at a nearby ravine called Han Ploca on the road south toward Han Pijesak. *4438 Men were loaded into the back of a truck, taken up to the edge of the ravine about five miles away, and then shot as they got out of the vehicle. Apparently, groups of young soldiers were brought in to perform the executions. The bodies fell into the ravine and bulldozers were later used to cover them up. *4439
An ex-guard personally witnessed the mass execution of 25 people at the ravine. He claims that on this occasion one of the prisoners got away by running to the woods once he got out of the truck. In all, at least 1,000 prisoners were executed at the ravine. At first, the killings took place during the day but later were carried out only at night. *4440
Other burials of prisoners from Susica are said to have taken place on a waste land at the «Alpro» Aluminum Factory. *4441
Susica Camp was run by both a military and administrative commander. The military commander was Captain Dragan Nikolic from Vlasenica. He was a 30 year old former employee of the Alpro Aluminum Factory. *4442 He was seen on numerous occasions beating prisoners with police sticks and kicking them with his boots. Commonly, he forced prisoners to sit on their knees facing the wall while he kicked the ribs under their armpits. *4443 Another witness reports that Nikolic came into the warehouse at Susica each night throughout the summer of 1992 and read out a list of names of men to be taken outside and shot. *4444
When asked about the motives of Dragan Nikolic, An ex- guard suggests that he was «inebriated by Serbian nationalist propaganda and was making a lot of money from his victims». *4445
The administrative commander of Susica was a retired policeman. *4446 The deputy administrative commander was also a retired police officer. *4447
Apparently, the guards worked directly under the supervision of the military camp commander. There were two groups of 10 guards, each of which alternated 24 shifts. Six of these guards, all from Vlasenica, were identified. *4448
An ex-guard also explains the pattern of prisoner transfers. According to him, many male prisoners were transferred to the Batkovic camp near Bijeljina. *4449 Prisoners from Susica are said to have moved to Batkovic to replace Brcko prisoners. *4450 Likewise, prisoners also went from Batkovic prison to Vlasenica. One report states that 44 prisoners were «shared out» as workers from Batkovic prison to Vlasenica. *4451 Another relates that the «remaining prisoners» at Batkovic, about 40, were sent to Vlasenica after October 1992. *4452 It is not clear whether these reports are referring to the same group.
Susica was generally a transit camp for women and children, but some were also executed there along with the men. Usually, they were taken on to Cerska or allowed to go to Kladanj. *4453 On the occasions that they would be allowed to go to Kladanj, they would be taken up to the front line a few miles to the west of the camp and forced to walk there. *4454
One report also claims that women and children were taken to Pelemis. *4455 On 10 August, for example, a group of 43 men, women, and children were taken from Susica camp. They were told they would be taken to Tuzla for exchange, but were brought to Pelemis instead. *4456 One female witness was part of this group, but reports that about four-fifths of the other women were left behind. *4457 Supposedly, the Serbs moved prisoners often in order to confuse the Red Cross and other humanitarian organizations in assessing the camps. *4458
By the end of September, there were no Muslims left in the area and little evidence of what they had suffered. *4459 Apparently, the camp is closed today; the road to it is barred and guarded, and a sign at the entrance to Vlasenica reads, «Any loitering by foreigners is forbidden». *4460
Sometime in July 1992, the UN apparently arranged a visit to Susica Camp, but the prisoners were taken into the woods and forced to lie down for three hours until the UN had left. A French Red Cross team turned up at the camp unexpectedly, and a young Muslim boy in the camp who could speak French told them that it was a detention facility. The Red Cross did not do anything and shortly thereafter the boy was killed. *4461 The ICRC made an official visit to the camp again on 21 October 1992 and found no prisoners. *4462
Sources state that the camp was officially closed on 1 or 2 November 1992, and all remaining prisoners were transferred to Bijeljina camp or Batkovic camp. *4463
Vlasenica camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to the ICRC and UN sources, there is a certain Vlasenica Camp in the region. *4464 ICRC representatives visited the camp on 21 October 1992 and recorded one prisoner to be there. *4465
A Serbian response to the events in Vlasenica comes from Mihajlo Bajagic, the Serbian president of the Vlasenica town council. When asked about the whereabouts of the inhabitants from the region, he states that they left the village on their own accord. He agrees that for a period of time some were imprisoned, but that all of these civilians were later exchanged. *4466
Several reports identify perpetrators said to be involved in activities at these camps and in the region on the whole. *4467
Police Station, Vlasenica: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at the police station in Vlasenica. The existence of the camp was confirmed on 15 May 1992. No additional information was made available regarding the identities of inmates, the conditions of their detainment nor the length of the facility's existence. *4468
Prison/Penitentiary, Vlasenica: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at the local prison in Vlasenica. The existence of the camp was confirmed on 29 April 1993. No additional information was made available regarding the identities of inmates, the conditions of their detainment nor the length of the facility's existence. *4469
Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at an unidentified factory in Vlasenica. The existence of the camp was confirmed on 27 July 1993. No additional information was made available regarding the identities of inmates, the conditions of their detainment nor the length of the facility's existence. *4470
Muslim-run camps holding Serbs: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There are also allegations of Muslim-run camps in the region. These allegations come from Budimir Kostic, the head of a war crimes commission established by the Yugoslav government. When asked about events taking place in eastern Bosnia, Kostic argued that Serbs had also been imprisoned by Muslims. He insisted that Muslims «initiated whatever happened in Vlasenica by provoking and attacking the Serbs in the first three months of 1992 in several villages in eastern Bosnia.» *4471
Zenica is a Muslim-held city in central BiH and is located 70 kilometres (45 miles) north-west of Sarajevo. Before the war, the city was a centre for steel production and was a prime example of ethnic diversity and multi-culturalism. *4472 According to a 1991 census, Zenica had a pre-war population of 145,577. It has always had a clear Muslim majority (approximately 55.2 per cent before the war) but Croats and Serbs formed a significant part of the pre-war population (15.6 per cent and 15.5 per cent, respectively). *4473
Since the outbreak of war, the city has swelled with refugees. It is estimated that approximately 50,000 refugees, the overwhelming majority being Muslim, have fled to Zenica. *4474 In September 1993, according to the Mayor of Zenica, the city had a population of approximately 197,000, *4475 although estimates of the city's current population hover around 135,000- 145,000.
The city is currently held by BiH Government forces and is considered a safe haven for Muslim refugees. Muslims now form a much higher percentage of the populations, but the local government is still comprised of Muslim's, Croats, and Serbs. *4476 According to the mayor, there have been no organized expulsions of Serbs and Croats from Zenica. This statement belies the fact that Muslims now comprise a far greater majority of Zenica's population. In addition, he claims that there are no camps in the area; POWs are kept at the Zenica Prison. *4477
It was reported that on 1 January 1993, Muslim forces launched an attack on the Croats in the Zenica region. Croatians living in the area were expelled and Muslims reportedly moved into their homes. On 18 April 1993, an overall assault was launched by the BiH Army against Croatian HVO forces, signalling an end to a loose Muslim-Croat alliance in the region. A battle persisted in the small villages in Zenica commune until 8 June 1993 when Muslim forces took control. It is reported that, as a result, 520 members of the Croat defence forces laid down their arms and were taken prisoner. These combatants were supposedly taken to the Zenica Prison. *4478
Croatians were forced to leave the area. Many Croats who did not cooperate with the mobilization order were «tried» and sent either to battle or to the camps. Seventy of these persons were sent to the Zenica Prison and another 15 were sent to the music school in the centre of Zenica. *4479
It is reported that several camps or detention facilities are located in the Zenica vicinity. In general, the camps are administered by the BiH Government or Bosnian Muslim forces. Nine locations have been identified as detention centres, and estimates place the total number of persons held over 2,000; although ICRC figures are much lower and some reports claim that there are only five or six detention centres with approximately 450 detainees. *4480 All identified detention centres are reportedly under Bosnian Muslim control. The following places have been identified as camps: The Zenica Prison, the Zenica Music School, the Bila Stadium, the Coal Mines in Zenica, as well as unidentified facilities in Bilmisce, Zening, Gracanica, Arnauti, and Begov Han.
There is no information regarding the possible relationship between these camps and there is little indication that prisoners are moved between facilities. One thing that is clear, however, is that the Zenica Prison is the largest detention facility and the greatest amount of available information concerns this facility. In fact, in tracking the number of prisoners in Zenica, the Zenica Prison is the only facility identified by the ICRC.
Zenica Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including an official UN source, the US Government and the ICRC.) The most prominent detention facility in the Zenica area is the Zenica Prison (also referred to as the Correction Centre, KP Dom Prison, KPD and the House of Corrections). The facility is under the control of the Muslim Territorial Defence (MTD) forces. The prison is occupied by Croatian and Serbian civilian and military prisoners. The majority of prisoners are likely Serbs.
The prison is divided into five pavilions. Each of these pavilions contains cells measuring five metres by three to four metres. Pavilion five is referred to as the «concentration camp» is used to hold military prisoners and is seemingly the only part of the facility that is visited by the ICRC. *4481 The prison also has a hospital where prisoners are treated. Some prisoners claim to have been subjected to «ill treatment» by prison guards while in the hospital. *4482
Prior to the outbreak of war, this facility was used as a maximum security prison for hard core felons. Even during the war, one of the prisons pavilions (Pavilion four) continues to house criminals that were incarcerated before the war.
Reports in the Commission's possession indicate that the camp was in operation before the war began as a correctional facility. The prison probably began its operations as a POW facility in June 1992. Operation seems to have been continuous until at least June 1993; one witness reports that he was released from this facility, in a prisoner exchange on 5 September 1993. *4483 It is unclear whether the camp is still in operation.
The reports do not indicate the reason for the camp's existence. There are no reports that the facility was used for the purposes of interrogation, systematic torture or execution of any sort. Interestingly, however, one report states that a «military»-style tribunal is housed at the Prison. This tribunal is mainly concerned with determining if prisoners are military or civilian. There is a judge (a Serbian woman who is a professional judge) and a jury. The tribunal applies Yugoslavian law. *4484
Reports indicate that the Zenica Prison has been used to detain both Serbs and Croats. Serbian authorities estimate that 2,000 Bosnian Serbs are detained at the facility. *4485 A reporter for the Tanjug news agency estimated that in the fall of 1992 there were 300 Bosnian Serb prisoners (both combatants and non-combatants) who remained in the facility. These prisoners were both combatants and non-combatants; although he estimated that only 20 or so were soldiers. *4486 Some reports indicate that many Croats were also sent to this facility as a result of an outbreak of hostilities between Croats and Muslims in early 1993. One account claims that 520 members of the Croatian Defence Forces were sent to the prison in April 1993. *4487 This same report states that 70 Croats are being detained in the Zenica Prison. The ECMM estimates that more than 200 Croats (both military and civilian) are held in the prison. *4488
Estimates of the number of prisoners vary greatly. The ICRC has indicated a fairly consistent population of 200-300 in the prison. But one report states that while the ICRC visited the facility seven times from June-December 1992, the ICRC was only permitted to visit Pavilion 5 (where military prisoners were kept). It has also been estimated that 300 Bosnian Serbs have been detained in Pavilion 5. *4489 This figure is consistent with claims that the ICRC was only allowed to visit Pavilion 5. Most of the other prisoners, mainly the civilian non-combatants were in the other pavilions. *4490 The number of prisoners in the Zenica Prison can be summarized as follows.
On 31 July 1993, Bosnian Serb officials maintained that 270 Serbians were being held in the «Zenica Special Jail». *4491 It is assumed that this is the same facility as the Zenica Prison discussed herein. Prisoners in the camp are both civilian and military. According to one report, after a group of Serbians was captured, women and children under 10 were not taken to the prison. It is not at all clear whether women and children are detained at this facility. No explicit mention is made of a female detainee.
A Tanjug news agency reporter who was confined in the prison for 80 days reported that the camp conditions were horrible. Cells were generally damp and there was a lack of sheets and blankets. He also noted that the food was poor. *4492 Prisoners are given one kilogram of bread every day to be shared by 18 prisoners. Some days the prisoners were given tea, and it is alleged that the guards would put detergent in the tea. *4493
Torture and beatings were routine occurrences at the Zenica Prison. According to a Tanjug news agency reporter who was detained there for over 80 days, almost all of the prisoners (90 per cent) were subjected to torture. He asserts that combatants were subjected to the worst beatings. *4494 According to another report, every other day, two or three prisoners would be taken by groups of five to six Muslim men. The men were typically young and were often drunk. The prisoners were handcuffed to metal rings on the floor and were then beaten and kicked. *4495 A United States Department of State report contains the allegation of a 29 year old Serbian civilian who claims to have been beaten every 10 minutes for 96 hours; he also claims that the food was deliberately contaminated. *4496
Additional allegations concern mistreatment in the Prison hospital committed by guards. *4497 Finally, it has been alleged that an unconfirmed number of Serbian prisoners were taken from the prison to an iron mill factory. These prisoners were allegedly thrown into the furnace at the factory. *4498
Very little information is available regarding the individuals who ran the camp and committed violations. The commander of the prison is a named man of the MTD. He is not alleged to have taken part in any beatings or torture, but he was often present and a witness to the beatings. It is also alleged that Muslim refugees in Zenica (from Jajce or Travnik) would come to the prison and verbally harass and physically assault Serbian prisoners. *4499
Zenica Music School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a multiple sources, including an official UN source, the ICRC and the ECMM.) The only other camp in the Zenica area that has been the subject of detailed allegations is the music school in the centre of the city. *4500 Like the Zenica Prison, this facility is under the control of Muslim forces. The music school is believed to be controlled by the MOS, a branch of the Muslim 7 Brigade. This facility has been used to hold Croatians.
The only detailed description of the facility comes from a Croatian man, «Mr. X». *4501 He was arrested by military police and taken to the music school. When he arrived there, he was not registered but he was assigned a personal number.
He identified three areas of the music school where he was detained. He identified two places where he was primarily held: 1) the cellar of the building (held 45 days without any light); and 2) the attic of the building (12 to 15 days). In addition to these places, he was interrogated and beaten for hours at a time on the third floor of the building.
Based on the testimony of this witness, the camp operated between, at least, April 1993 and June 1993. *4502 It is unclear whether the camp is still in operation.
No information suggests that women were held at this facility. In addition, there is no indication that persons other than Croats were held at the music school. Three reports suggest a total number of detainees. First, in his statement, Mr. X states that he was in contact with 46 prisoners. He does not specify if all of the prisoners were Croats. Second, a document from the Zenica Centre for Research (dated August 1993 to September 1993) asserts that 15 Croats were detained in the music school. Third, the Croatian Information Centre claims that 1,500 Croatian civilians are held in the music school.
Mr. X reported that he was detained in a room without light for 45 days and that the military police in control of the facility played music at all hours so that the prisoners could not sleep. He was not given water for bathing for 25 days. Lastly, Mr. X was not fed during his first week of detention. A Croatian Catholic Priest in Zenica has indicated that food distribution was unable to reach Croatian detainees in the music school. *4503
Beatings and torture were reportedly also regular occurrences at the music school. According to Mr. X he was often beaten (with shovel handles, police batons and phone cables) and tortured during interrogation. Moreover, he and other prisoners were frequently removed from the cellar at night so that soldiers returning from the front could kick them and beat them with rifle butts. No information was made available with regard to who the individual in command of this camp or those responsible for violations.
Bila Stadium: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) The Association of Serbs from BiH has identified the Bila Stadium as a camp for Serbs. They claim the camp is under the control of the Croatian Armed Forces, the Croatian Army, or paramilitary Muslim forces. *4504 No other information is available concerning this facility.
Zenica Coal Mines: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by neutral source, namely the ECMM.) One report states that POWs were moved from Bugojno to Zenica where they are imprisoned in coal mines. *4505 No other information is available concerning this facility.
Other Zenica Locations: (The existence of these detention facilities have not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Other locations in the Zenica area have been identified as places of detention. Apart from this mere identification, no other information is available. The locations are Bilmisce, Zening, Gracanica, Arnauti and Begov Han; *4506 the retirement home in Zenica; *4507 and the Zening Building and Nemila are both identified as «possible» locations. *4508
Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at an unidentified factory in Zenica. The existence of the camp was confirmed on 24 September 1992. No additional information was made available regarding the identities of inmates, the conditions of their detainment nor the length of the facility's existence. *4509
Hospital: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at an unidentified hospital in Zenica. The existence of the camp was confirmed on 26 April 1993. No additional information was made available regarding the identities of inmates, the conditions of their detainment nor the length of the facility's existence. *4510
School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at an unidentified school in Zenica. The existence of the camp was confirmed on 16 May 1993. No additional information was made available regarding the identities of inmates, the conditions of their detainment nor the length of the facility's existence. *4511
Military Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at the military prison in Zenica. The existence of the camp was confirmed on 18 February 1993. No additional information was made available regarding the identities of inmates, the conditions of their detainment nor the length of the facility's existence. *4512
This municipality is located in central BiH, between the counties of Zenica and Teslic. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the municipality of Zepce had a population of 22,840. Of that number, 47.2 per cent were Muslim, 10 per cent were Serbs, 39.8 per cent were Croats, and the remaining 3 per cent were described as «others».
Zepce Warehouse: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely an official UN source.) In Zepce, HVO assembled all civilians and took them to a warehouse called Nova Trgovina. *4513
The men of military age were separated from the other detainees and sent to a school. The remaining detainees spent a week in the warehouse. Approximately 1,200 detainees had no food for two days, no toliet and slept on the concrete floor. The HVO soldiers did not mistreat the detainees, however, on occasion the soldiers would fire their guns over the heads of the detainees. *4514 When released, the detainees were ordered to walk to Zenica. *4515
Zepce School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely an official UN source.) Muslim men who were separated from the other detainees at the Zepce Warehouse were taken to a local school. *4516
The detainees in uniform were beaten by the HVO soldiers. The other detainees were also mistreated. Many of them were reported to have been forced to dig trenches on the front. *4517
Later, the detainees were reportedly taken to Teslic, Doboj, and Banja Luka. *4518
According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the municipality of Zvornik had a population of 81,111. Of that number, 59.4 per cent or 48,208 were Muslim, and 38 per cent or 30,839 were Serbs, .1 per cent were Croats and the remaining 2.5 per cent were described as «others». The population of the city of Zvornik was 14,660. Of that number, 61 percent were Muslim, 29 per cent were Serb, 5 per cent were Croat, and 9.3 per cent described themselves as «other». *4519
Zvornik is a strategically important border town. It is located on the Drina river in BiH and situated directly across from Serbia. *4520 BiH and Serbia are linked at Zvornik by two bridges, a road bridge and a railroad bridge. Control of Zvornik meant securing important logistical territory between Serbia and Sarajevo. *4521
The military attack on Zvornik commenced on 8 April 1992. According to witnesses, photographs and other sources, the attack was carried out from both BiH and Serbian territories. *4522 Despite negotiations which went underway almost immediately between officials in Serbia and BiH, efforts to thwart further aggression were unsuccessful.
Military operations focused first on the medieval fortress town of Kulagrad. After the fall of Kulagrad on 26 April 1992, the town of Divic was attacked. Divic was almost exclusively inhabited by Muslims. The attacks on Divic were also conducted from both sides of the Drina river. *4523
After the fall of Kulagrad, Serb forces began to reform the local administration. *4524 Reportedly efforts were simultaneously put in place to rid the area of its Muslim citizenry. *4525 Muslims were required to register with the new local administration. *4526
Thereafter, forced deportations began as well as compulsory transfers of property. *4527 Muslims were issued identification cards and documentation permitting them to relocate as part of a process called compulsory assignments. *4528 The Muslim citizens of Zvornik were bused to locations as close as Mali Zvornik--across the river, and as far away as Subotica--which is located at the Serbian-Hungarian border. *4529
On 19 May 1992, combined JNA, Serb paramilitary, and Arkan's forces occupied Zvornik and Mali Zvornik. They reportedly abused and killed some 1,000 Muslims. *4530 The remaining Muslims and non-Serbs were relegated to concentration camps and detention facilities throughout the area.
To date some 28 detention facilities have been identified in the Zvornik area: nine in the city of Zvornik, seven in the village of Karakaj, two in the village of Celopek, two in Drinjaca, two in Divic, and one each in the villages of Pilice, Caparde, Baljkovica, Salihovici, Liplje, and Novo Selo. *4531
Stadium in Zvornik: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Austrian Mission.) Following the outbreak of fighting in Bijeljina, Serb forces moved south into the villages of Karakaj and Divic. Thereafter the largely Muslim population of Divic on the bank of the Drina was prepared by the controlling Serb forces for mass deportation. *4532
The women and children were sent to free territories and the men were taken by buses to different villages and towns in the occupied territories to be exchanged for captured Serb soldiers. *4533 The men were eventually detained in the Zvornik city stadium for several days, during which time they were subjected to severe physical mistreatment. Reportedly those who survived at this location were later taken to detention facilities in Karakaj. *4534 There are other reports that refers to a camp in the Stadium «Bratstvo» in Zvornik. *4535 It is unclear if this is the same stadium.
Kindergarten: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) According to one report, a Muslim man was arrested by Serb police on 14 May 1992 and taken to a kindergarten on the western side of Zvornik. *4536 He stated that one of his Serb captors beat him with a stick for an hour, while another pointed a gun at him and a third rifled through his documents. The three perpetrators wore white belts and camouflage fatigues. They were reportedly from Serbia. *4537
Courthouse: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) According to one report, although several individuals were detained at the courthouse facility, the guards at this location in Zvornik did not molest or mistreat the inmates. The report did suggest, however, that several soldiers from outside the facility were permitted entry to the facility and allowed to beat the inmates at random. *4538 Victims were reportedly selected quickly, beaten and kicked--sometimes to the point of unconsciousness. The inmates were transferred to a neighbouring house on 4 June. *4539 This camp is also referred to in another report. *4540
Unknown House in Zvornik: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) On 4 June the prisoners from the courthouse location and an additional 120 other Muslim inmates from the Celopek cultural centre were transferred to a detention facility at this undisclosed location. *4541 Reportedly beatings occurred daily and were quite severe. The information suggests that members of Seselj's unit participated in abusing several Muslim men at this facility over a period of some six weeks of detention. *4542 A group of Bosnian Serb «police» also participated in the prisoner mistreatment and abuse. Reportedly on 15 July, most of the inmates were transferred to a detention facility in Batkovic near Bijeljina. *4543
Central Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Committee for Refugees.) This was reportedly an old prison and by one account, did not even have a name. It is reportedly located near the Novi Izvor company. *4544
One ex-detainee stated that he was among 174 men detained at the stadium facility who were made to walk to the old prison. Upon arrival, the detainees were offered the chance to join forces with the Serbs. They were then taken into one large room on the second floor of the facility. *4545 He recalled seeing some 200 prisoners detained in a room on the first floor. He and the others were held at this facility for two days. Eleven of the men were separated and reportedly sent on work detail and the remaining 163 were transferred to a theater in Celopek. *4546
According to a Bosnian Muslim man, he and 183 other Muslims were detained at the central prison on 29 June 1992. *4547 The prisoners were beaten daily. Reportedly every two to three hours, Serb guards entered the cells and removed as many as 10 inmates at a time for interrogation. The report suggest that throughout the interrogation the inmates were physically abused by four or five guards at a time. *4548
The guards reportedly extracted several inmates and subjected them to mistreatment--beating them with rifle butts, axes, or shovel handles. *4549 Those inmates who did not return were believed to have died as a result of the beatings. The reports suggest the existence of a systematic prisoner transfer program. Routinely, the arrival of new prisoners resulted in the transferral of an equal number of resident detainees to the Batkovic facility. *4550
Hotel Drina: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights.) This hotel reportedly served as one of the quarters for the police. Allegedly various acts of mistreatment and abuse were reported to have occurred here. *4551 Sources are silent as to the duration of its existence, the length of the inmates internment as well as the conditions or treatment of those detained here.
Hospital «5th of July»: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights.) Reportedly Arkan held all of the patients at this hospital hostage in mid-April 1992. *4552 He reportedly did so with the intention of retrieving the remains of his brother-in-law. Patients and hospital staff were often abused by Arkan. *4553 Many were forced to act as blood donors. Arkan also took individuals off the street and forced them to give blood, some reportedly did not survive the process. *4554
SUP/Opstina (Municipal Police Force): (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights.) An undisclosed number of individuals were purportedly detained at this location. Reportedly interrogations, abuses and killings occurred here. *4555
«Novi Izvor»-owned Building: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely US Department of State.) According to one report, several citizens from the village of Divic were collected in an office building in Zvornik owned by a company called «Novi Izvor». The citizens were detained at this facility for 36 hours and were reportedly given regular food and water. *4556
«Novi Standard» Shoe Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights.) Novi Standard was reportedly a new building of the shoe factory complex in Karakaj. Shoe production had discontinued at the time of the attack on the region and this location initially served as headquarters for the Serbian police. *4557 Allegedly Arkan, Seselj, and «volunteers» from Loznica were also accommodated at this facility. One report refers to a camp in a Karakaj factory. *4558 It is unclear if this is the same factory.
This facility, located in the northern region of Zvornik, was then converted into holding areas for Muslim prisoners following the creation and institution of a mass deportation program. Individuals were reportedly detained at this location for several days and subjected to severe mistreatment. *4559 This factory reportedly existed as an internment facility from June 1991 through August 1992. *4560
According to another report, at one time or another, some 4,000 individuals--including women and children--were detained at the shoe factory in Karakaj. The conditions at the facility were notably severe. According to one former inmate, he and seven other boys were made to share one kilogram of bread, a small can of meat and a half liter of water every other day. *4561 The boys were also forced to watch as the «Cetniks» beat the male inmates with metal and wooden sticks, as well as having to assist their «Cetnik» captors during bouts of robbing, looting and pillaging in neighbouring villages. *4562
According to the same young witnesses, there was a woman who belonged to Arkan's troops, who, on one occasion, killed a 4 year old boy by throwing him with such force that he died from the blow to his head. *4563 On still another occasion, this same woman disrobed and ordered four men to have sex with her. When they refused, she took them outside and reportedly shot and killed each one. *4564
Technical/Engineering School in Karakaj: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) According to one witness, he and some 700 Muslim citizens were detained in the building of the Technical school. Their containment rooms were small rooms and lacked sufficient air, which reportedly resulted in the suffocating death of some 20 individuals. *4565 In another report, a former inmate said that about 400 people were killed while he was there. *4566 This camp is also reported in a list of camps. *4567
The witness reported that the inmates were beaten repeatedly, many were constantly covered in blood. In the witness' recollection, the number of detainees steadily decreased. *4568 Reportedly the «Cetniks» came and occasionally removed groups of people, allegedly for exchange in Pale. However, following the removal of each group the remaining inmates could hear the sounds of rifle fire and screams. *4569 The day came when the witness was among the group to be exchanged. The «Cetniks» reportedly forced everyone to line up against a wall and began shooting. *4570 The witness/victim was fortuitously spared injury or death, managing to crawl to safety when the «Cetniks» left to assemble the next group of inmates. Allegedly some 400 individuals were killed in this manner before the witness' escape. *4571
«Novi Izvor»: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights and the UK Mission.) Novi Izvor was located in the village of Karakaj and consisted of two plants: «Kamenolom» which was a quarry and «Ciglana» which was a brick factory. *4572 Both continued to operate throughout the conflict in the region. Reportedly captured Muslim individuals were forced to work alongside regular Serb employees in three shifts. In early June, some 70 inmates were interned here. *4573 Some had been detained at this facility since mid-April and subjected to a variety of abuses. *4574
One report says that a source saw about 20 males of all ages, detained in a clothing store in the factory. They were threatened with guns and verbally abused and made to do «military» type physical training. They were also made to unload trucks which carried heavy building material. In July 1992, the source passed the factory again and saw two of the men he had seen in April of 1992, one he believed had lost about 30 kilogram in weight. *4575
JNA Barracks at Karakaj: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely US Department of State.) This facility was reportedly used exclusively by regular JNA units as a detention facility. The report suggests it's existence from June 1991 through August 1992. *4576 Sources are silent as to information regarding ethnicity or treatment of those interned at this location.
«Alhos» Textile Plant: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) «Alhos» was a garment and textile factory. This facility was initially used as accommodations for the police, circa 6 April 1992. *4577 According to a witness detained at the kindergarten, he and another prisoner were driven from that location to the textile plant situated some five minutes away. *4578 The existence of this camp is also referred to in another report. *4579
It was his impression that the two of them were the only inmates at this location. They were reportedly detained here for several days in a rather small room which was, he believed, stained with the blood of past prisoners. *4580 Although the facility contained quite a few Serb soldiers, the two were reportedly not abused until 16 May, at which time they were subjected to severe beatings for several hours. *4581
Following the initial phase of beatings, a short reprieve was given at which time the victims were made to clean their own blood from the floor and walls. Thereafter the beatings resumed. *4582 According to the witness, the beatings were so severe that «both his cheek bones were smashed and the entire bone structure enclosing his upper teeth were loosened so much that his teeth protruded from his mouth». *4583 He was released from the textile plant on 20 May and transferred to the courthouse in Zvornik. *4584
Ekonomija: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights.) This location was reportedly an agricultural cooperative. It was located in a rather secluded area of Karakaj and, as a consequence, its buildings served as death camp. *4585 The facility consisted of stables, storehouses and a slaughter room. Reportedly a chamber existed which was used primarily for the «butchering» of inmates. *4586 This location was reportedly populated by individuals from the Zvornik area as well as members of the Croatian National Guard. According to witness statements, this may well have been the «worst» camp in the area. *4587
Glinica Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC and the Austrian Mission.) This facility was the site of a large aluminum factory in the village of Karakaj. One of the empty halls of the factory was reportedly used to contain Muslim prisoners as well as for purposes of interrogation. *4588
Movie Theater in Celopek: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Committee for Refugees.) Celopek is located approximately six kilometres north of Zvornik, on the border between BiH and Serbia. *4589
On 29 May 1992, 174 male citizens of Divic were reportedly loaded onto buses and transported to a movie theater which was part of the local cultural centre (Dom Kulture). *4590 The facility was established in a one story building which was constructed from brick and painted a cream colour. The building's windows were reportedly covered to block out the sunlight. *4591
On 10 June 1992, one of the Serbs removed seven pairs of fathers and sons from among the inmates. The pairs were forced on to the theater stage and made to disrobe. Once naked, the pairs were forced to perform fellatio on one another with the other male prisoners looking on from the audience. *4592 Several other abuses were reportedly occurring simultaneously. In one incident, two men were taken from the audience, brutally beaten and then stabbed. *4593 In another incident, a young boy was made to identify his father, after which, a Serb soldier, put a rifle in the boy's mouth and killed him as his father looked on. *4594
This same Serb soldier then turned his semi-automatic rifle onto those on stage and those seated in the audience. This behaviour resulted in the death of 10 men. *4595
On 27 June, this man allegedly forced 140 men to line up against the theater's perimeter wall and attempted to shoot each one, one after another. By the time it was over, he had managed to kill 20 men and wound an additional 20 others. *4596
In another incident, he cut off the ear of one inmate and the penis off another and then forced the victims to eat their severed body parts. *4597 In a related report, this man was said to have demanded money and valuables from inmates and on one occasion beat the witness' brother with an ax handle, breaking both the victim's legs and one of his arms. *4598 He then carved four cyrillic c's into the victim with a knife and when the witness began to cry, this man struck him and made him lick his brother's blood off of the knife blade. *4599
One report identified several of the Serbian perpetrators including the president of the community of Zvornik. *4600 He was reportedly the «individual who was most instrumental in» the organization of the Celopek detention facility and the other Serb facilities in the area. *4601
Village home in Celopek: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, Muslims from the Zvornik region were detained in a concentration camp established «in the building of the village home in Celopek». *4602 Specific information regarding its operation and control was not provided by the report. *4603 Another report refers to a camp in a farmer's home at Celopek. *4604 It is unclear if this is the same camp.
Unknown facility in Pilice: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) According to one report several Muslim citizens from the village of Latva in Zvornik were taken captive by Serb extremists and taken to Pilice where they were detained and severely abused. *4605 On 8 June 1992, some 64 prisoners were separated and taken to a house near the River Drina. All the inmates were reportedly killed by the extremists from the village of Pilice. *4606 A list of camps reported the existence of a camp in the village of Pilice. *4607
Lumber Factory in Caparde: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) This village is located just north-east of Zvornik, between Zvornik and Tuzla. According to one report Bosnian Muslim women from the county of Brcko were detained at this facility for an undisclosed period of time. *4608 Forty of the women held at this site were reportedly taken outside of the facility and raped by members of Arkan's troops. *4609
Municipal Centre: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neurtral.) According to one report, «Cetniks» invaded the villages of Kostjerevo and Drinjaca. Muslim homes were looted and burned and the residents detained in the municipal centre. *4610 The men were allegedly severely beaten for hours at a time, so much so that following the beatings, the walls were covered with blood. *4611
Reportedly some 35 Muslim men were killed by «Cetniks» behind the building. Boys under 15 were taken from this location in the direction of Zvornik and 150 women and children were reportedly taken in the direction of Tuzla. *4612
Hall of the Culture Centre (Dom Kulture): *4613 (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the International Solidarity Network and the New York Times.) According to a Muslim female victim, members of «Cetnik» groups from Serbia and Zvornik were responsible for collecting the citizens of the villages of Drinjaca and Kostijarevo and detaining them in the hall of the cultural centre in Drinjaca. *4614 The male inmates were reportedly beaten for four to five hours. Reportedly 35 men aged 17-70 were taken from the culture centre and shot. It is presumed that no one survived the shooting. *4615
Additionally, women were reportedly raped and otherwise physically mistreated. Relief came when, on 31 May, some 150 women and children were transferred to Tuzla for prisoner exchange. *4616 Reportedly on 27 or 28 June 1992, a 31 year-old Serb soldier opened fire on a group of Muslim civilians detained at this facility. Reportedly 16 civilians were killed and another 20 were wounded. The soldier was allegedly a member of the Serb paramilitary «Yellow Wasps». *4617
Vidikovac Hotel in Divic: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Committee for Refugees.) Divic was primarily a Muslim village on the Drina River. At the start of the conflict many Muslims fled Zvornik and sought refuge in this village. Between 8 April and 25 April, the war was contained in the north- east corner of BiH. *4618 Divic, which is just south of Zvornik, was brought into the conflict on 26 April. It was then that Serb forces began shelling the village. Thereafter, on 27 April, Serb tanks from the other side of the Drina river joined in the aggression and began firing on the village. *4619
Following the occupation of the village, and the renaming of the village to Sveti Stefan, the Vidikovac hotel was apparently converted by Dragan's units into a temporary military dormitory. *4620
In one account, a Muslim civilian was arrested by three Serb paramilitaries in nearby Mali Zvornik and brought to and detained at the hotel. In the witness' estimation, he was, at that time, the only prisoner detained at this location. *4621
According to the witness, 10 of Dragan's men surrounded him and began interrogating him as well as threatening to kill him or rape his wife and daughter. Thereafter he was beaten and placed into a small cubicle in the hotel's basement. *4622
According to his description, the basement cubicle was completely dark and the floor was muddy and wet with blood and urine. There was also excrement along the walls. *4623 The inmate was later threatened and released by a popular singer, Pero Jovic. *4624
Divic Stadium: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) According to one report, an Imam was taken prisoner in the Divic Mosque, hung by his hands and beaten with iron rods. *4625 He was later removed and taken to the stadium along with 400 other Muslims who, sometime later, were all reportedly moved to a concentration camp in Karakaj. *4626
Baljkovica Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neurtral.) According to one report *4627 a rape camp was established by «Cetniks» at this location just near Zvornik. According to one victim, «Cetniks» captured her and her grandmother on a road outside her village. *4628 Her grandmother was killed by the captors and the witness was taken to this rape/detention facility. *4629
She was detained in a room with some 29 other women and raped every other day. Allegedly a nurse came to the camp each month to determine who among the women was pregnant. *4630 Those found to be at least three months pregnant were removed from the camp. The witness was detained at this site for five months before being removed. For reasons unknown to the victim, she was released by the roadside while the other pregnant women were transported elsewhere. *4631
School in Salihovici: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to a former detainee, she and four of her relatives (two of them children) were walking from Kamenica to Zvornik when they were stopped by a car containing four «Cetniks» who forced the five to undress. *4632 When the witness refused, she was detained and later transported by truck to a camp established in this school near Jasenica and Liplje. *4633
Reportedly some 470 men, women and children were detained at this location. There were 50 to 60 teenage girls interned here who were raped immediately. *4634 After two days, all the women in the camp were subjected to rape. *4635 All detainees were systematically robbed of their possessions and those who refused to co-operate were beaten and killed. *4636
According to another report, after the fall of Kamenica, in May or June of 1992, 470 people, primarily women, were held in a camp in a school near Salihovici for some 15 to 20 days. *4637 Reportedly all of the women were raped and many among them subjected to other severe abuses. *4638 In one incident, a plastic bottle of motor oil was burned and the melted plastic poured over the bodies of the inmates. *4639
The report suggests that at some point the BiH Army overthrew the resident Serb forces and successfully obtained the release of individuals detained here. *4640
Bordello in Liplje: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely a Press Source.) Liplje is a primarily Muslim village near the city of Zvornik. It contained fewer than 500 residents. *4641 The majority of the incidents reported from this area occurred at the end of May 1992 when more than 400 of the villagers were detained in a large house formerly owned by a prominent Muslim. *4642
In one account, an 18 year-old Muslim girl was raped consecutively for five nights, each night by three different Serbian men. On each occasion, the men stripped naked and two of them held her down while the third raped her. *4643 Thereafter, they switched places allowing each rapist an opportunity to watch the others. On the sixth night of raping, the «Cetniks» forced the victim's father to watch as they raped her. *4644 Her father was then taken to a toilet and hung for 24 hours by his neck, legs, and hands until a neighbour rescued him. According to the report, almost every women in the village was raped. *4645
In another incident, a woman reported having been similarly detained and raped twice nightly for 10 consecutive nights. *4646 In another incident, a 17 year-old was raped and strangled to death. *4647 In yet another, an 18 year-old was raped by four men in one night and then every night thereafter. *4648
Mosque in Novo Selo: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely a Press Source.) According to one source, Serb troops reportedly rounded up some 150 Muslim women, children and elderly and forced them into a Mosque at gunpoint. *4649 The source continues saying that the local Imam, was ordered to desecrate the religious establishment. The Serbs then ordered him to cross himself, eat pork and havesexual intercourse with a teenaged girl. *4650 When the Imam refused all of these commands, he was severely beaten and cut with knives. *4651
«Gathering Points»: (The existence of this type of facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Austrian Mission.) Serb forces were alleged to have used various facilities and locations as «gathering points» to collect and organize prisoners. *4652 Among these locations are: the common village building in Drinjaca, elementary schools in Liplje and Snagovo and mosques in Djulici and Klisa. *4653 No information regarding the treatment, conditions nor the duration of internment at these locations was provided.
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