The county of Konjic is located the central part of BiH. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the population of Konjic was 43,636. Of that number, 54.5 per cent were Muslim, 26 per cent were Croatian, 15.2 per cent were Serbs and the remaining 4.3 per cent described themselves as «other». While the Serbs comprised a minority of the total population in the district, they made up the majority in the following villages: Bjelovcina, Blace, Borci, Bradina, Cerici, Cicevo, Dolovi, Donje Selo, Dubravice, Jezero, Kula, Sitnik and Zagorice. *1778
By Bosnian Serb historical accounts, several aggressive measures have been taken since the second World War to discourage Serbian presence in the area. *1779 On 30 October 1990, the desecration of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Konjic marked the beginning of what Serbs believed to be renewed attempts to reduce Serbian presence even further. *1780
Reportedly, on 19 April 1992, joint Bosnian Croat- Bosnian Muslim forces attacked the JNA military facilities at Celebici. *1781 The grossly outnumbered Bosnian Serb forces were rendered powerless and compelled to retreat. Serbian soldiers were then arrested, paving the way for full Croat-Muslim occupation of Celebici and, from there, of the greater Konjic municipality. *1782
According to Bosnian Croat chronicles, in early 1992, Serbs began shelling Konjic from the villages above the region. *1783 As the battles with Serbs developed, Croats organized themselves, forming the HVO, and shortly thereafter Muslims organized into the BiH Army. *1784 The HVO and BiH forces positioned themselves in the hills above the villages of Konjic and, by joint effort, successfully resisted Serb occupation. *1785
Regardless of which historical position is adopted, by March 1993, the political rampart constructed by Croat and Muslim forces had begun to crumble, and on 14 April 1993, fighting broke out between Muslim and Croatian forces in Klis. *1786 The Muslims, assisted by Mujahedin, were a formidable force in the region, and Croatian villages came under siege and eventually under Muslim occupation. *1787
By 16 April, BiH forces attacked Croatian HVO positions in Konjic, resulting in the overthrow of Croatian forces and the complete Muslim occupation of Konjic. *1788
In the following accounts, the first 16 camp descriptions detail those locations cooperatively controlled by Croatian and Muslim forces. The subsequent 11 accounts describe facilities controlled solely by Muslims, and the two remaining locations fall under undetermined authority. There are also several reports that allege the existence of a camp or camps in Konjic without supplying enough detail to determine the exact location or by whom they were controlled. *1789
Celebici Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC and the Thomson Mission.) In May 1992, following the withdrawal of the JNA from its barracks in the village of Celebici, Croatian-Muslim forces assumed control of the barracks and transformed them into a detention centre for Serbian prisoners. *1790
Immediately after its creation on 4 May 1992 and continuing through to the suspension of operations in December 1992, camp Celebici interned several hundred citizens from the municipality of Konjic. *1791 The number of detainees changed regularly.
Men and women were separated, with men interned in several locations including a concrete tunnel called hangar Number 9, a sheet metal hangar called Number 6, a depot called Number 22 and, on occasion, in concrete manholes believed to be oil storage sites. *1792 Women were imprisoned either in an administrative building, located at the camp entrance, or in a shaft excavated in the ground next to the tunnel at hangar Number 9. *1793
The detainees were brought to Celebici from all corners of Konjic. *1794 On 22 May 1992, Croatian and Muslim forces allegedly attacked the Serb villages of Bjelovcina, Cerici, and Donje Selo. Reportedly all surviving members of the Serb population in these villages were taken to camp Celebici. *1795 In another report, members of the «TO B-H» invaded the village of Brdjani on 15 June 1992 and ordered all the men to surrender. Forty-eight Serbian prisoners were put on trucks and taken to Celebici. Some 200 individuals from Bradina were already in residence when they arrived. *1796
In another report, a Serbian resident from the village of Bradina recalled that he and some 50 other men were instructed by Croatian and Muslim forces to report to headquarters in Podorasac. Upon arrival, the witness and others were loaded onto a tarpaulin-covered truck and transported to Celebici concentration camp. *1797
According to several reports the conditions at the camp were deplorable. Hangar Number 9, which was an abandoned atomic shelter/ventilation tunnel, measured approximately 120 centimetres in width, 30 metres in length and 2.5 metres in height. Air entered through a small glass window in the door, and there was absolutely no illumination. Reportedly, because of the construction of the tunnel, it was impossible for an individual to stand upright. *1798
The 50 or so detainees in the tunnel defecated in a bucket that was emptied infrequently. Human waste accumulated up to 10 centimetres at one end of the tunnel. The detainees were not permitted to wash during the first 20 days of their internment, and for the first three days they were not provided with food. *1799
According to one inmate, throughout the first one and a half months of detention, the inmates were fed small pieces of stale bread and some vegetables three times daily. In the two months that followed, they were fed only bread. *1800 He recalled that the men had no choice but to perform all bodily functions in one corner inside the hangar. Muslim soldiers often placed the prisoners food in the same locations and often times dropped the plates, spoons, or bread into the excrement. *1801
The several reports detailing the initial acts of mistreatment suffered by the inmates at the hands of their captors appear to be in agreement. Upon arrival at Celebici, Muslim soldiers were lined up at the entrance in two rows. *1802 The detainees were made to pass between the rows of soldiers with their hands clasped behind their necks. As the inmates passed, the soldiers beat them with blunt objects, iron bars, shovels, pickaxes, thick electric cables, and rubber truncheons. *1803
The prisoners were then placed in manholes for several hours at a time. *1804 These manholes were formerly oil storage reservoirs. The lids were replaced on the manholes serving to cut off the flow of air. As a consequence, men collapsed from suffocation. *1805
For those inmates assigned to hangar Number 9, once removed from the manholes they were subjected to additional beatings at the entrance to hangar Number 9. In one report, the guards beat 25 inmates with shovels so severely that 12 shovels were broken in the process. *1806 After a period of time spent in Number 9, the inmates were then transferred to Number 6. *1807 In some cases, due to the space limitations in hangar Number 9, some detainees were sent directly to Number 6.
For those assigned to hangar Number 6, the guards came and collected all the valuables from the inmates. *1808 The inmates were then taken in groups of 10 to a nearby building called «the Command»--which was so-called because the JNA command had previously been located there. *1809 Once inside the Command, the prisoners were ordered to stand on tip-toe facing the wall with their hands raised high above their heads. Muslim soldiers then conducted interrogations regarding alleged «Cetnik» activity, strategy and weapons locations. *1810
Following the initial, somewhat routine abuses, the specific acts of mistreatment appear from the reports, to some degree, to be haphazard. The variation on the methods of mistreatment included beatings with batons, wooden clubs, truncheons, chains, iron rods; imprisonment in drainage shafts; scorching and cutting by hot knives pressed to the inmates' faces, bodies and chests; spraing with gunpowder and setting alight; binding male genitals with low-burning fuses, the breaking of ribs, arms and legs; and the cutting off of ears and fingers. *1811 Some inmates report being detained in manholes filled with water for 24 hour periods. Occasionally, using their feet, the Muslim guards forced the inmates under water and held them there to near suffocation. *1812
The inmates detained in the sheet metal hangar, Number 6, noted that in August 1992, when the day's heat was at its worst, the doors and windows of their containment facility remained closed. Temperatures reportedly reached 50 degrees Celsius or 148 degrees Fahrenheit. *1813
In another report, two male detainees had their trouser- legs--below the knee--doused with a flammable liquid and then ignited. As the men's legs began to burn their Muslim captors reportedly forced them to sit down and forbade them to extinguish the flames. *1814
Reports also suggest that all imprisoned women were systematically raped. Women were usually raped by more than one guard. *1815 Serbian women were reportedly housed in or near the Command building and ushered to the appropriate locations when required. *1816 Male prisoners were also sexually molested by forcing them into same-sex anal intercourse or oral sex. *1817
The entire Celebici facility was initially controlled by Croatian forces and manned by Muslim guards. Due to shifting political winds, Muslim forces later assumed control. However, before this change, Croatian, "S", was the commander of the camp, and "c" *1818, a Muslim, was his deputy. A number of reports suggest that "c" was directly responsible for the mistreatment, torture and murder of a great many of the inmates. *1819 Prisoners were abused or killed on the orders of deputy commander "c". "c" ordered prisoners to fight each other. If "c" did not feel satisfied that the blows were severe enough, he ordered the guards to beat both prisoners. *1820
Reportedly, prisoners were forbidden to sleep. "c" selected one prisoner to keep the others awake. If "c" found anyone asleep the prisoner in charge was severely punished. *1821
In another report, a female prisoner at Celebici alleged being raped by "c". She alleged that she was beaten and kicked during several interrogations regarding the whereabouts of her son and husband. *1822
Additionally, the witness alleged that she was stripped naked by young men who held knives to her throat and held lit cigarettes to her eyelashes, burning her eyelids when she screamed. *1823 She was subjected to multiple rapes by a variety of men, many of whom she was unable to recognize because of the dark night. She alleged that she was taken to an office where the rapes lasted from three to four hours at a time. *1824
The witness stated that she was detained in a room near hangar Number 9. *1825 She recalled that some 39 men were held there, and she witnessed the men being beaten, kicked and tortured. She recalled that the tunnel was poorly lit and poorly ventilated. She stated further that she witnessed "c" kill one of the inmates. *1826 It was her understanding that "c" raped every woman brought into the prison. *1827 She alleged that some 120 women were raped by "c". *1828 Women were reportedly set aside solely for his pleasure. *1829
Several reports note that although "c" was notorious for his cruel actions, a young guard called "s" *1830 was worse. *1831 He was said to have participated in all the murders and a great many of the rapes in the camp.
"s" reportedly beat prisoners with baseball bats and made them kneel while he beat them about their breasts and stomachs. *1832
"s" is noted for wrapping slow-burning fuses around the legs or waist of inmates, putting another end between the inmate's legs or in his pants and then lighting the fuse. *1833 The burning fuse which was wrapped in plastic, clung to the victim's body as it melted. The victim's family was usually forced to watch this torture. *1834
Another inmate was made to wear a gas mask with the air filter sealed so that he was unable to breathe. *1835 "s" forced him to wear it for an hour while standing in the hot summer heat. Consequently, the victim collapsed several times. *1836
In still another report, prior to a visit by an Arab TV crew, "s" selected three prisoners to tell about their «crimes» against Muslims. One among them was ordered to say that he had killed Muslims and Croats in Mostar and burned down their homes. *1837 When the man refused, "s" beat him with a soldier's belt until he bled. *1838 "s" reportedly doused the prisoners with gas and gunpowder and then set them alight, causing severe burns and wounds. *1839
In another incident, "s" subjected two young brothers to severe mistreatment. He reportedly deformed their faces, then put gas masks over their heads and closed the air filters. *1840 Thereafter, he compelled the brothers to engage in oral sex with one another and also to strike each other about the genitals. *1841
In one report a detainee from Celebici witnessed "c" and "s" beat 15 or 16 Serbs to death. *1842 Another witness reported that the two ordered inmates to run away. When the inmates complied and attempted to escape, they were beaten. If an inmate continued running after receiving the beating, he was killed. *1843
Celebici camp was temporarily closed in December 1992 and was re-opened on 20 April 1993, with a smaller number of Serbs in detention at the camp and a greater number of Croats imprisoned as a result of the collapse of the Croat-Muslim coalition and the ensuing conflicts that arose between the two groups throughout BiH. *1844
Several other reports corroborate the existence of the camp at Celebici. *1845
Members of the Thomson Mission visited this facility on 3 September 1992. Mission members identified 109 Serb individuals detained in the oil storage area of this Muslim- controlled facility. The majority of the detainees were reportedly from the villages of Bradina and Donje Selo. The report goes on to state that «neutral sources report executions in Konjic, and a wooden wall at the entrance with extensive bullet holes suggests a sinister purpose.» *1846
Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including ICRC.) According to one report, an elderly Bosnian Serb farmer was arrested on 9 May 1992, in his village of Idbar, near Konjic. He was taken to the police station in Konjic where he was detained for 21 days. Thereafter, he was removed to the camp at Celebici, some six kilometres away. *1847 No additional information was available regarding his treatment, the facility nor its operation or control.
The ICRC reported the existence of the camp in the Police Station in Konjic. The camp was first visited by the ICRC on 4 November 1992. *1848
Ministry of Internal Affairs (MUP) building: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) Although all relevant reports agree that this facility was controlled by Muslim forces, there is considerable disagreement regarding the inmate composition. According to one report, all arrested Bosnian Serb civilians from Konjic and Bradina were taken to this location and later transferred to the camp at Celebici. *1849 Another source suggests that only in some cases were detainees brought to this facility, beaten, and then transferred to designated detention facilities. *1850 Another report suggests that only women, children, and the elderly were interned at this location. *1851
Village of Donje Selo: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Reports suggest that on 22 June 1992, Croat and Muslim authorities transformed the village into a prison camp for Bosnian Serbs. *1852 Guards were set up around the periphery of the village to discourage Serb detainees from leaving the area. *1853 The reports suggest that although men were resident prisoners at this location, women and children were either interned in greater numbers or abused in greater numbers. *1854 While no specific numbers were made available, the vast majority of the documented accounts of atrocities have been offered by or concern women and children. These sources suggest that women were raped on a daily basis. *1855
One report from a male detainee at Donje Selo reveals that men were subjected to considerably less abuse and mistreatment than women. *1856 Each night the Muslim soldiers arrived in groups and barged into the homes containing women, raping all the women and girls. *1857 According to the witness, during the day the guards did nothing more than walk around «monitoring» the situation. Quite frequently ex-camp inmates were re-arrested and sent back to one of the camps in Konjic without warning or provocation. *1858 Prisoner swapping of some Donje Selo inmates occasionally took place in the village of Trnovo. *1859 Other reports also alleged the existence of a detention facility in the village of Donje Selo. *1860
Devetka Tunnel in Bradina: (The existence of this detention facility as well as the number of alleged individuals hereby detained has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Helsinki Watch.) Bradina was reportedly the largest Serbian village in the Konjic area with 750 inhabitants. Following the taking of this village on 25 May 1992 by Croat- Muslim forces, the village was renamed Donji Repovci and a great many of the Serbs were expelled. Many of the Serbs who steadfastly remained were reportedly either killed by paramilitary forces or interned in various detention camps. *1861
One of the largest Serb inhabited detention facilities in the Konjic area was located at the Devetka Tunnel. According to reports, some 3,000 Serbs were detained at this location. *1862 The Serbs were reportedly lined up against the wall, made to remove their clothing, and then tortured and beaten for several hours at a time. *1863 The detainees were reportedly forced to participate in Muslim prayer and song and to learn the Koran. Those who refused were beaten and in some cases killed. *1864 Although no dates were provided, several reports suggest that the facility was eventually closed and the prisoners were released. *1865 Another report also alleges the existence of this camp. *1866
Musala («Sportska sala») sports centre: *1867 (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Thomson Mission.) According to several reports, Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat prisoners were detained at this facility. Reports suggest that as few as 110 and as many as 170 Serbs were detained at the sports hall beginning in May 1992. *1868
On 15 June 1992, 13 Serbs were reportedly killed and 12 wounded when Muslim forces from the hills above Prevalj shelled the sports hall. *1869 The attack on these prisoners was reportedly wilful. *1870
By May 1993, following the eruption of fighting between Muslims and Croats, the total number of Bosnian Croats detained in the sports hall reached 400. *1871 Bosnian Croat prisoners detained here were organized into forced labour groups. One such group was reportedly made to dig trenches for the BiH Army across from HVO lines south of Konjic. *1872 Other Croatian detainees were made to serve as human shields and still others were forced at gunpoint to serve as blood donors. One report suggests that over the course of two days, some 50 detainees were forced by Muslim medical personnel to serve as blood donors. *1873
Sources suggest that conditions at the sports hall were insufferable. The prisoners were poorly fed, some even went without food for weeks at a time. *1874 When they were fed, one report suggests that half the meal of one Muslim guard was used to feed as many as eight inmates. *1875 There were no beds. The prisoners were made to sleep on carpets that originally belonged to the gym. *1876
There are also reported incidents of rape at the facility. One report states that on the night of 27 May 1992, Muslim soldiers raped five young women. *1877 According to one report on the night of 29 May 1992, 10 girls and women imprisoned in the camp were raped. In other report, on 31 August 1992, a Serb man and woman were forced to engage in sexual intercourse while as many as 15 prison guards looked on. *1878 In still another report, a 25 year-old woman was brought to the camp and raped repeatedly by some 15 Muslims. Her captors apparently then led her, naked, up and down the camp, drew «lilies» on her breasts and stomach with a lit cigar, chopped off her hair, disfigured her and then forced another male inmate to rape her and shove a rifle barrel into her vagina. *1879
Of the 400 Croats detained, 50 were reportedly exchanged in June 1993, 50 more were exchanged in August 1993 and the remaining 300 were exchanged in Jablanica on 19 October 1993. *1880
Thomson Mission members also visited this detention facility on 3 September 1992. According to their report, some 167 Serb individuals were detained in the gymnasium. Most were reportedly from the surrounding villages. The conditions of hygiene appeared to be normal. *1881
«Zvonimir Belisa Nono» Elementary School, Bradina: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) The detention facility at this location primarily housed women, children and the elderly. Several reports allege that female Serbian inmates were regularly subjected to rape. *1882 One report states that on 13 July 1992, 15 women were raped by Muslim Green Berets. *1883 Reports also state that Muslim and Croatian forces subjected inmates to «severe mistreatment» and threats of death. *1884
Brothels: (The existence of this type of detention has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) Reports suggest that Croat and Muslim-run brothels have been established throughout Konjic. Reports allege the existence of a brothel in Buturovic Polje *1885 and another at the «Amadeus» Cafe. *1886 Serbian women reportedly were forcibly brought to and detained in these facilities. The women are impregnated and held captive until the fifth month of their pregnancy and then not permitted to leave the area. One report suggests that «members of Muslim and Croatian units who have contracted AIDS and other communicable diseases are deliberately sent to brothels to sexually abuse Serbian women» and young girls. *1887
House in Dzepa: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, a house in the village of Dzepa in the municipality of Konjic, was turned into a rape camp operated by Muslim Green Berets. Women were reportedly tortured at this facility and forcibly impregnated. *1888
Unidentified facility, Ljuta: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Following the attack on the Serb village of Bradina on 25 May 1992 by Muslim forces, a great many Serb citizens were captured. *1889 One Serbian male reported that he was taken to Ljuta and that some 50-100 uniformed men came to interrogate him and those detained with him. *1890 According to the witness, two or three of the detainees were pushed to the ground and beaten. *1891 Thereafter their Muslim captors screamed verbal abuses and insults at them. Next their hands were tied behind their backs with wire and they were made to walk four to five hours to Trnovo. *1892 Each prisoner reportedly had one guard, with the remaining 50 to 100 men following. Upon arriving at Bjelasnica mountain, they were put into two trucks and driven to the Muslim village of Sabici. *1893
School in Sabici: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report Serb civilians were detained in a school in Sabici. The report alleges that the Serbian inmates were insulted and humiliated by the Muslim guards. From there, they were transferred to Hotel Famos in Bjelas. *1894
Konjic Detention Centre: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, several prisoners were transferred to this facility on 31 August 1992 from camp Celebici. The detainees identified Hebibovic Ismet, called «Broceta», as the camp commander. The report states that «Broceta» was commonly regarded and described as «good». None of the inmates spoke of the conditions at this location. The inmates were released from this facility on 23 December 1992. *1895
Hotel «Famos»: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) According to reports, civilian prisoners from Bradina were transported to the hotel located in Bjelas *1896. They were beaten and interrogated in a room in the basement of the hotel by both uniformed and civilian Muslims and Croats. *1897 The detainees were forced to admit that they were «Cetniks», «registered» and then forced to walk through a path with approximately 20 men on either side. *1898 As the detainees passed, the men beat them with rifle butts. The detainees were then placed on trucks with their hands tied behind their backs and transported to Celebici. They were reportedly interned at this location from June through 31 August 1992. *1899
According to another report, upon the arrival of Serb detainees at the hotel, they were made to lie on the floor in a line and beaten and kicked with the soldiers' heavy boots and pistol butts. Some detainees had guns shoved into their mouths and had their lives threatened. *1900
Following the beatings, they were taken to some sort of dark concrete cellar, where they were beaten by Muslim and Croat guards. *1901 When they lost consciousness they were revived and beaten again. The next day, the prisoners' hands were again bound, they were blindfolded, and loaded onto trucks. *1902 As they boarded the trucks, they received beatings with shovels, blunt objects, iron pipes, or anything that their captors could find. They were then transported to Tarcin. *1903
Buturovic Polje Prison: *1904 (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) Serb civilians were reportedly detained by Croat-Muslim forces at this location. *1905 The report does not, however, provide additional information regarding either the conditions or the operation of the facility. Other reports alleged the existence of a detention facility in the village of Buturovic Polje. *1906
Technical High School in Konjic: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, Serbian civilians were detained in the gymnasium of the high school. The facility was reportedly controlled by Croat-Muslim forces. *1907 The report does not provide additional information regarding either the conditions or the operation of the facility.
Hrasnica: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Reports of the existence of a Muslim run camp in this village were not supplemented by information regarding the specific location or duration of existence. The camp was reportedly composed of Serbian prisoners. *1908
Konjic Hospital: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) One report cites the existence of a Muslim-controlled facility at this location as of 11 April 1992. *1909 However, no additional information was made available regarding conditions or operations at this facility. This detention facility is also alleged to exist in another ICRC report. The ICRC first visited this place of detention on 4 November 1992. *1910
Konjic Military Police: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) One report cites the existence of a Muslim- controlled facility at this location as of 11 April 1992. *1911 However, no additional information was made available regarding conditions or operations at this facility.
Gornje Visnjevice: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) According to reports this village is situated just outside of Konjic. One report alleges that some 192 Croats were or are currently detained at this location. *1912 No additional information was available regarding the operation or control of the detention facility in this village.
Nevizdraci Prison: *1913 (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, civilians from several Croatian villages including Crni Vrh, Donja Vratna Gora, Gornja Vratna Gora, Doscica, Homatlije, Solakova Kula, Luksije, Donji Prijelog, Gornji Prijelog and Buscak have been imprisoned at this location. *1914 Members of the BiH Army were said to be responsible for the operation and control of this facility. *1915
Parsovici Prison: *1916 (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, civilians from several Croatian villages including Crni Vrh, Donja Vratna Gora, Gornja Vratna Gora, Doscica, Homatlije, Solakova Kula, Luksije, Donji Prijelog, Gornji Prijelog and Buscak have been imprisoned at this location. *1917 The identity of the detainees at this prison is unclear, however one report suggests that primarily women and children were interned at this location. *1918 Members of the BiH Army were said to be responsible for the operation and control of this facility. *1919
Salko Sultic's House: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Following the attack on the village of Trusina, members of the BiH Army detained civilians at the home of Salko Sultic. Army members forced inmates to carry the bodies of dead Croats and threatened detainees with harm for non-compliance. *1920
Building in Homolj: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) On 11 April 1993, approximately 200 men, women, and children from the village of Ovcari attempted to reach the three remaining Croat-controlled villages by crossing the Neretva River at Donje Selo when they were detained by members of the BiH Army. *1921 Thirty men from among the refugees together with 40 Croats from another group were taken to Homolj, just north of Konjic. *1922 When the group reached a location just outside of Homolj, 10 prisoners were segregated from the ranks, beaten and shot. *1923 Those remaining continued on to Homolj and were housed for the evening in the basement of one of the buildings. *1924 No information was provided regarding the exact location of the building. The following day, the prisoners were removed from the basement and taken to Podorosac where they were later transported to Tarcin. *1925
Unfinished House in Homolje: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Muslim forces *1926 reportedly invaded the village of Donje Selo and forced citizens to emigrate to the village of Homolj. The more than 200 Croatian civilians were forced to carry the soldiers weapons and walk to the village of Homolj. *1927 Once there, the report states that the men were placed in an unfinished house and subjected to severe physical mistreatment. Shortly thereafter, the men were transferred to the village of Podorosac. *1928
House in Trusina: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Following an infantry attack, reportedly launched by the BiH Army in the Croatian village of Trusina, Muslim forces detained 28 Croatian civilians in Vida Drljo's home and forced the detainees to carry ammunition and the bodies of the wounded to a nearby hill. The detainees were reportedly fired upon while they performed their required tasks. *1929
Turija Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely ECMM.) According to one report, following the Muslim occupation of the municipality of Konjic, some Croats were expelled from the city and placed in a detention facility in the village of Turija. *1930 No information regarding exact location, operation or the demographics of the inmates was provided by the report.
Zabrdje i Zaslivlje Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely ECMM.) According to one report, following the Muslim occupation of the municipality of Konjic, some Croats were expelled from the city and placed in a detention facility in the village of Zabrdje i Zaslivlje. *1931 No information regarding exact location, operation or the demographics of the inmates was provided by the report.
Boracko Jezero: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) One report alleges the existence of a detention facility at this location. No information regarding operation, duration, prisoner composition, or control was made available. *1932 Other reports also alleged the existence of a camp at this location. *1933
New Residential Suburb, Konjic: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Reports alleged the existence of a detention facility in the new residential suburb of Konjic holding approximately 1,500 Serbs. *1934
According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the population of the county of Kotor Varos was 36,670. *1935 Of that number, 11,161 were Muslims, 13,966 were Serbs, 10,640 were Croats, and 883 were of other nationalities. *1936 Between April 1992 and July 1992, some 3,000 citizens, or 8.2 per cent of the population were displaced. *1937 The expulsion doubled in the months that passed.
This displacement is most notably the result of the Serb aggression which occurred on 11 June 1992. *1938 JOS paramilitary groups from Banja Luka and Knin in cooperation with local Serbian paramilitaries layed siege to and occupied the territory of Kotor Varos. *1939
Reports suggest that the Muslim village of Hrvacani was completely destroyed by artillery fire; the Croatian villages of Bilice, Vecici and Visevice were devastated by toxic and scatter bombs; and the town of Kotoriste was destroyed by incendiary grenades. *1940
One source suggests that on June 11 300-400 corpses were seen laying in the streets. *1941 Another suggests that over the course of a several days of Serbian occupation, more than 500 people were killed. A large number of dead are reportedly buried in mass graves at Donji Varos and Vrbanjci. *1942 According to one of the gravediggers, the estimated minimum number of people buried at one location is 1,000. *1943
In addition to the wave of bombing and mass killing, the Serbs also established detention facilities throughout the area. With respect to the numbers of individuals interned, and the number of existing detention facilities, the information is unclear.
The reports suggest the establishment of detention facilities at the Kotor Varos Prison, *1944 Pilana, *1945 Maslovare Camp, *1946 Koza Proletaria Fur Factory, Osnovni Sud Court House, Vrbanja Lumber Factory, the local police station, Bratstvo i jedinstvo primary school, the Kotor Varos High School, in an open field, at the Borik Hotel, and also at the Kotor Varos Hospital.
Koza Proletaria Fur Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Between 11 June and 10 October 1992, several Bosnian Muslims were arrested and detained in concentration camps throughout Kotor Varos. Among them was a Bosnian Muslim who recalled the events of that time.
On 11 June, the witness was captured by 12 Serbian soldiers wearing the insignia of the White Eagles. *1947 He was taken to the fur factory, interrogated and beaten. The victim recalled that one guard forced a rifle into his mouth, *1948 and another pulled out two of his teeth with a pair of pliers.
According to the witness, he and the 100 other men, also held captive, were forced to perform sexual acts upon one another. *1949 He recounted how he had been «sadistically beaten» on several occasions and forced, at gunpoint, to participate in the gang rape and killing of a Muslim woman. *1950
Osnovni Sud (local courthouse): (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) The above referenced Bosnian Muslim was transferred from the fur factory to the local courthouse. He was detained at the courthouse for three and a half months. *1951 He recalled that some 170 other men were similarly detained in conditions which he described as «extremely oppressive». *1952
The witness and 70 other men were kept in a room which, in the witness' estimation, measured only three metres by four metres. *1953 Reportedly, the Serbian guards played loud music while prisoners in adjoining rooms were beaten. *1954
According to the witness, the conditions were deplorable. The inmates were compelled to eat spoiled or moldy food and were not permitted access to toilet facilities. Reportedly, 10 to 15 men experienced diarrhea at any given time. Several suffered from jaundice. *1955 The witness recalled that he was not allowed to bathe nor was he given a change of clothing for over three months. *1956
On 10 October, the witness and two other Muslims were exchanged for one Serb in the village of Vecic but not before being subjected to further degradation. *1957 They were reportedly tied like captured game to the back of a vehicle and dragged through the streets to the hospital; forced to eat grass like animals and to make animal noises; forced to ingest gun- cleaning fluid; and were subjected to the extinguishing of cigarettes in their skin. *1958
Vrbanja Lumber Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Mission.) According to a factory worker from a small village between Banja Luka and Doboj, Serbian forces rounded up the residents of her Muslim village, separated the men from the women and children and then killed the men. *1959
The women and girls, 60 in all, were taken to the lumber factory in Kotor Varos where they were subjected to gang rape. *1960 The witness noted that Serb irregulars came to their containment area at night and, by match light, selected women to be taken, and then led them away at knife point. *1961
According to the witness she was taken to a room where she was raped by two men, released briefly and then taken to another room with a cement floor where the raping continued for several hours. *1962 The witness estimated that some 20 other women were similarly abused that evening. *1963
The following day the entire group of 60 women were expelled into the forest. *1964 They then made their way to Travnik. The witness suffered permanent internal damage as a result of her abuse. *1965
In a similar report, a Bosnian Muslim from a nearby village recalled that on 13 August 1992, her community, was taken over by Serbian forces. The women and children, who numbered 60, were segregated from the men and transported to the Kotor Varos lumber factory in a large tarpaulin covered truck. *1966 She believed it to be the Vrbanja factory. The witness recalled that the women and children were forced into the factory's cafeteria. A similar sized group from another village arrived a short time later, and the two groups were consolidated and moved to an unfinished hall. *1967
After dark, the guards began selecting women and removing them from the hall. The women selected ranged in age from 16 to 35.
«Some women were taken to an alcove or room off the large hall where she and the others were being held. Though she could not see what was happening, she said the cries and screams of women were clearly audible, as was the laughter of the guards.» *1968
At one point the witness was taken away and raped by five or six guards. When she was finally returned to the hall, bleeding, she noticed that some 15-20 women were in a similar physical state. *1969
On another occasion, the witness was taken to the second floor offices of the factory where she was raped by 10 men. She recalled that some of the men were wearing camouflage suits, some were in the local police uniform, and some wore special forces uniforms. She also recognized a high school classmate among the rapists. *1970
In the evenings, the witness noticed a steady stream of uniformed men coming into the factory. These men went to the alcove or, she believes, into the factory offices. The men were clad in uniforms that differed from those worn by the factory guards. *1971
The witness and the others detained with her were transferred from Kotor Varos on the afternoon of 14 August. Two buses transported them to Mount Vlasic from where they were forced to find their way to Travnik. *1972
The Local Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, a Croatian man and his wife were arrested and taken naked to the police station. While there, the man was beaten and the other prisoners were forced to rape his wife. The two were released two days later. *1973
Bratstvo i jedinstvo Primary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) At least 100 men from the Kotor Varos region were rounded up at the Bratstvo i jedinstvo School. *1974 According to one report, at some point following the outbreak of violence in the region, all the non-Serbian men were taken to the primary school. *1975 According to a Croatian witness, the prisoners were reportedly beaten so severly that one young man, known as Peca, died as a result of these beatings. *1976
Kotor Varos Secondary School Centre: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) Several reports refer to the existence of a concentration camp facility at the secondary school. *1977 One report suggests that just after its creation, the facility was immediately saturated with prisoners. This camp was characterized as one of the three transit camps in Kotor Varos. *1978
Open Field: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch.) According to foreign relief workers and press reports, Serbian Red Cross officials exercised dominion over an internment facility in an open field somewhere in Kotor Varos. *1979 The construct of the facility was essentially 6,500 Muslim civilians held within the confines of a barbed wire fence. *1980
Reports suggest that the facility was formed in mid- October 1992 as a containment area for Muslims awaiting evacuation by international agencies. *1981 Serbian authorities claim that the camp was an «open reception centre» and that the Muslim civilians came of their own free will in search of an «easy route» to Western Europe. *1982 When questioned by journalists about why they had left their homes in and around Prijedor, many of the civilians of the camp stated that their villages had been burned down. They made gestures which suggested that they were encouraged by the guns that were pointed at their heads and knives which were put to their throats. *1983
Sixteen busloads of women and children left the make- shift facility for the town of Travnik. *1984 Reportedly 60 men on the buses were taken away by armed Serbian guards to an unknown destination. *1985
Hotel Borik: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) It was not unusual to find make-shift brothels or rape camps set up in hotels throughout BiH. *1986 In one report, a 17 year old girl was taken to the Hotel Borik by special duty soldiers. She was detained there over night and returned the next day in «terrible physical and mental condition.» *1987
Kotor Varos Hospital: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Two reports refer to the existence of an internment facility at the local hospital. *1988 One report's findings of peculiar activities occurring at the hospital were supported by the fact that the Muslims and Croatians who were admitted to the hospital rarely came out alive. *1989 Furthermore, that non-Serbians tended to fall from third and fourth floor windows by, what was always characterized as an, accident. *1990
The county of Kresevo is located in central Bosnia. According to the 1991 census, the pre-war population was 6,699. At that time, 70.7 per cent of the population was Croatian, 22.8 per cent was Muslim and 6.5 per cent was referred to as «other». *1991
Unidentified Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, three detention facilities were identified in the Kresevo community. One detention centre was reportedly located in a factory and was said to contain Muslim civilians. Some of the inhabitants of this facility were displaced persons who were in the region when the fighting broke out. *1992 The ICRC reported visiting this facility on 22 September 1993. No information was provided regarding the conditions existing at the site nor the identity of the controlling party. *1993
Unidentified School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, three detention facilities were identified in the Kresevo community. One detention centre was was reportedly established in a local school and was said to contain Muslim civilians. Some of the inhabitants of this facility were displaced persons who were in the region when the fighting broke out. *1994 The ICRC reported visiting this facility on 22 September 1993. No information was provided regarding the conditions existing at the site nor the identity of the controlling party. *1995
Unidentified Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, three detention facilities were identified in the Kresevo community. One detention centre was reportedly located in a local prison and was said to contain Muslim civilians. Some of the inhabitants of this facility were displaced persons who were in the region when the fighting broke out. *1996 The ICRC reported visiting this facility on 8 January 1994. No information was provided regarding the conditions existing at the site nor the identity of the controlling party. *1997
The county of Kupres is located in western BiH. According to the 1991 census, the pre-war population Kupres was 9,663. At that time, the population was 50.7 per cent Serbian, 39.6 per cent Croatian, 8.4 per cent Muslim, and 1.3 per cent were referred to as «other». *1998
Unknown Camp in Kupres: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A rumour was reported on 22 December 1992, that 529 people from Manjaca are held in camps in three different places including one in Kupres. There is no other information provided concerning this camp. *1999
This county is located in north-central BiH. It is bordered to the west by Bosanska Gradiska and to the east by the municipality of Srbac. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the population of this county was 29,910, the majority of which were ethnically characterized as Serbs.
High School: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Very little information is available regarding possible camps in this county located in northern BiH. The one available report refers to the existence of a detention centre which was established at the high school centre. The information suggests only that the centre has been implicated in reports of sexual abuse. *2000
Unknown Rape Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) One report cites the existence of a rape/death camp for girls and women up to the age of 25 in Laktasi. *2001 According to the report, the rape camps were set up as part of an organized system of liquidation or «ethnic cleansing» of Muslims and Croatians. *2002 The report is, silent as to the current status of the camp as well as the operation and control of the facility.
Listica, now known as Siroki Brijeg, is located in southern BiH and had a reported 1991 population of 26,437. According to the 1991 census 99.2 per cent of the population was Croat. *2003
Listica Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the UK Debriefing Team.) Reports were received which indicated that a camp was established in Listica, approximately 20 kilometres west of Mostar. Apparently one of three jails in the town was run by Muslim militia and the HOS. *2004
This county [¤] is located in the central-western part of BiH, bordered on the west and south-west by Croatia. Information from the 1991 Yugoslav census suggests that out of a total population of 39,526, 72 per cent of the residents were Croatian, 15 per cent were Muslim, 9.6 per cent were Serbs, and the remaining 3.4 per cent described themselves as «other».
Reports regarding this municipality suggest that there were at least three main detention sites in the area: one at a brothel, another at the police station, and the third at the local school. According to sources, the brothel is said to have been controlled by Alija's warriors--a Muslim paramilitary group- -and peopled with Serbian women and children.
The report regarding the location at the police station suggests that Croatian forces controlled the site, but is silent as to the ethnicity of the detainees. The report regarding the school facility is silent as to the ethnicity of the controlling group but notes that it was peopled with Serb males.
Another report declares that 200-300 Muslims were or are being held by Croatians at an unstated location. Still another report states that over 500 Serbs were or are detained and mistreated at an unstated location controlled by Croatian paramilitary units.
Large Luxurious House in Livno: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) In April 1992, a Bosnian Serb woman was taken from her home to a home in Livno by members of Alija's Warriors. *2005 According to the witness she was the exclusive servant of one soldier, who happened to be her former classmate. *2006
The witness noted that there were several other women detained at this location. They ranged in age from 18 to 40 and all were Serbian except one, who was Ruthenian. According to the report, very young girls were raped by seven or eight Muslim soldiers at one time. *2007
The witness was transferred with her former classmate when he was assigned to new locations. Each time the Muslim front moved, she moved. According to her statement, she was finally sent to a brothel in the Ciglane area where she was again reserved solely for her former classmate's purposes. *2008
Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) According to one report, Croatian paramilitary forces were in control in the Livno area in April. The forces allegedly forbade Serbian citizens to leave the area. *2009 Several citizens were reportedly detained at the police station in three rooms which were overcrowded and lacked heat as well as other basic necessities. The report states that official sources acquired evidence that the detainees at this location were being beaten. *2010 The ICRC also reports the existence of a camp in the Livno Police Station. The camp was first visited by the ICRC on 16 May 1992. *2011
Evidence of this camp's existence was also corroborated by members of the Thomson Mission who visited this location on 1 September 1992. Mission members found 40 Serbian detainees in this Croatian controlled facility. The detainees had an average age of 55 and most had been detained at this facility for several months. Mission members saw signs of beatings and abuse. *2012
Livno School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) According to one report, this location was the site of the military interrogation centre. *2013 Some 39 Serbian men and one Serb woman were detained and interrogated here. According to testimony from former detainees at the police station, the conditions at the Livno school were severe. *2014 The ICRC also reports the existence of a camp in a school in Livno. The camp was first visited by the ICRC on 9 September 1993. *2015 Another ICRC report also mentions the existence of a camp in the Livno school. *2016
Unidentified Location: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ECMM.) According to one report, the Imam of Livno claimed that some 200-300 Muslim prisoners were being held by HVO military police in Livno. *2017 The military police confirmed that some 100 prisoners were being detained, but did not permit United Nations forces to visit the detainees. The information available suggested that the prisoners were being mistreated by their captors. *2018 Amnesty International reported a camp in Livno. *2019 Other reports also allege the existence of a camp in Livno. *2020
In another report, over 500 Serbs including women, children, and the elderly were being mistreated and tortured by Croatian paramilitary units. *2021 The report suggests that these paramilitary groups detained the individuals at a camp in Livno and another camp in Tomislavgrad. *2022 The ICRC reported that on 16, 19, and 21 July ICRC delegates supervised the simultaneous release in Celebici and near Tuzla of some 800 persons detained in Batkovic, Kamenica, Livno, Tuzla and elsewhere. *2023
Livno Village: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported the existence of a camp in Livno village that was first visited by the ICRC on 4 September 1992. There are no details concerning this camp. *2024 Many different reports provide differing numbers of people in detention at various times. These people are said to be «in assigned residence» or under «house arrest». *2025
Livno Hospital: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported the existence of a camp in the Livno Hospital. The camp was first visited by the ICRC on 7 April 1992. *2026
Livno Prison/Penitentiary: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported the existence of a camp in the Livno Prison. The camp was first visited by the ICRC on 8 November 1992. *2027
Livno Fortress-Old Town: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) It was reported that about 950 Serbs were held in a fortress in the old town. *2028
Livno Brothel: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) It was reported that information provided by the 1st Krajina Corps in Banja Luka indicates that a brothel in which Serbian women are held exists in Livno. *2029
Celebici Village: *2030 (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to several reports, an entire village of Serbian males are in detention. The males were reportedly used for prisoner exchanges between the BiH and Serb armies. *2031
Ljubinje is located in Herzegovina. The pre-war population of the city and county of Ljubinje was 4,162. Approximately 89.9 per cent Serb, 7.9 per cent Muslim, and 2.2 per cent others. *2032
Unidentified Facility: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the UK Defence Debriefing Team.) A Serb source reported to the British Defence Debriefing Team that (s)he had heard of a Serbian run camp at Ljubinje where Bosnians were held. A second source may also have made the same report. *2033
Ljubuski is located in Hezegovina and had a reported 1991 population of 27,182. According to the 1991 census 92.6 per cent of the population was Croat, 5.8 per cent Muslim, and 1.6 per cent other. *2034
Ljubuski Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) A camp reportedly exists at Ljubuski, approximately 25 kilometres south of Mostar. It is one of three jails run by Muslim militia and the HOS. *2035 The detention facility was described in one report as the prison at the Ljubuski police station. *2036 Conflicting testimony concerning the camp commander were received. Either a man from Mostar *2037 or a Croat *2038 was the commander of the jail. It is unclear whether these men were in power at different times or whether one acted as deputy commander to the other. Another source indicated that a man from Citluk was the warden of the prison as well as other detention facilities in BiH. *2039
Apparently there were 12 cells at Ljubuski camp, *2040 and up to 80 Serbs have been detained there allegedly awaiting trial. *2041 However, when the ICRC visited the Ljubuski camp on 10 June 1993 only six prisoners remained. *2042 Before the arrival of the ICRC, the guards dressed the Serbs in JNA uniforms so that it would appear that only soldiers were imprisoned here. *2043 However, many of the detainees were reportedly civilians. *2044
Reports were received indicating that the guards did not abuse the inmates and that medical treatment was available for the prisoners. *2045 However, statements from several witnesses indicated that they were subjected to beatings. *2046 At least one witness reports that guards would come at night at 10:00 p.m. and 3:00 a.m. and beat the prisoners. *2047 Another witness claimed that he was beaten five or six times upon his arrival to the detention facility. The guards made the prisoners lie down on top of one another to form a pyramid and beat the prisoner on top so those under him would feel the weight of those above. *2048
The prisoners were also forced to sing «Ustase» songs and salute by raising the right hand and shouting «Ready for the homeland». The prisoners were exercised almost every day, allegedly in a humiliating manner such as behaving like animals. They were also forced to write statements that they had taken part in massacres and killings. *2049 Reportedly inmates were also forced to work. *2050
The inmates received food in mess kits that went unwashed for months. *2051
Tobacco Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Amnesty International.) Reports stated that the former tobacco station in Ljubuski was used as a transit camp. A plan revealed by Bosnian Croat leaders indicated that Muslim citizens of BiH were to be shipped to Ljubuski and from there, sent to other countries. Approximately 500 detainees were transported to Croatia from 16 July to 18 July 1993 and additional deportations were expected. *2052
Ljubuski Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) In May 1992, a witness was captured as a JNA soldier, he and other members of the JNA were taken to the prison at Ljubuski and held for three weeks. The witness was beaten while in custody with truncheons and umbrellas. He also claimed that he was kicked and punched. The prisoners allegedly received no food for several days and were forced to kneel for hours in the sweltering heat. They were reportedly beaten every time they left the cell to go to the toilet. *2053
The municipality of Lopare is located in north-eastern BiH, bordered by the municipalities of Ugljevik, Zvornik, Kalesija, Tuzla, Srebrenica, Brcko, and Bijeljina. The pre-war population of Lopare was 32,400. 55.5 per cent of the population were Serbian, 37.7 per cent Muslim, 3.9 per cent Croat and 2.9 per cent categorized as «other».
Unidentified Facility: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Chicago Tribune.) According to one source, a concentration camp was located in the municipality of Lopare. *2054 The report did not provide additional information concerning the camp in this community.
ICRC sources reported that Bosnian Serbs took 100 Muslim men from Bijeljina, and imprisoned them in a labour camp in Lopare. *2055 However, the report gives no further information.
As late as 5 September 1994 Serbs were reported to have imprisoned Muslim draft-age men from Bijeljina in labour camps in Lopare. *2056
The municipality of Lukavac is located. The pre-war population of Lukavac was 56,830. The majority of the population was Muslim at 66.7 per cent of the population, Serbs comprised 21.6 per cent, Croats comprised 3.8 per cent, and 7.9 per cent were categorized as «other.» *2057
Lukavac-Karanovac: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A dentention facility was reported to have existed in Lukavac containing 800 prisoners. *2058
The municipality of Maglaj is located in north-eastern Bosnia and is bordered by Tesanj to the north-west, Gracanica to the north-east, Lukavac to the east and Zavidovic to the south. According to the 1991 Yugoslavian census, the population of Maglaj was 43,294, of which 45.4 per cent were Muslim, 30.7 per cent were Serb, 19.3 per cent were Croat and the remaining 4.6 per cent were described as «other».
Tunnel: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) In August 1993, the Bosnian Muslim forces surrendered to HVO in the village of Novi Seher. Surrounding residents were assembled in front of the Catholic Church in Novi Seher. From the church, the Muslim residents were transported by HVO trucks to a tunnel near Perkovici. The HVO soldiers separated the men of military age from the other detainees. The HVO instructed the women, children and elderly detainees to walk to Zenica. The male detainees of military age were held in the tunnel. *2059
Male detainees that were kept in the tunnel were reportedly taken to Teslic and Doboj. *2060
The municipality of Modrica is located in northern Bosnia, bordered by Bosanski Brod to the north-west, Odzak to the north, Doboj to the south and Gradacac to the east. According to the 1991 Yugoslavian census, the population of Modrica was 35,413; of that, 35.5 per cent were Serb, 29.5 per cent were Muslim, 27.3 per cent were Croat and the remaining 7.7 per cent were described as «other».
Sutjeska Junior High School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Amnesty International.) Approximately 100 to 200 Muslim detainees were interned at the Sutjeska Junior High School on Ulica Maksima Gorka in Srpska Varos. *2061
The school was composed of prefabricated buildings that were linked by a corridor. *2062
Men of military age were held in classrooms. Women, children and the elderly were detained in the school sports hall. *2063
Local Serbians guarded the detainees; however, Serb paramilitaries from Knin came to the camp for interrogations. *2064 The detainees were questioned about weapons and poltical activities. Some detainees were beaten during interrogations. *2065
The school was hit by shell in mid-May, 1992. The detainees were then transferred to the Doboj military barracks camp. *2066
Modrica Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Serbs imprisoned 40 predominantly Muslim policemen from Modrica. *2067 The policemen were detained in the police station basement. These detainees were interrogated, tortured and, reportedly, later shot. *2068
Metal Processing Plant: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) The Metal processing plant in Modrica was converted into a detention camp for approximately 800 Muslims. *2069
At least some of the detainees were reportedly tortured and killed. *2070
In late May, 1992, Modrica was retaken briefly by the 102nd Voluntary Brigade who released all the detainees in Modrica. *2071
Other Modrica Camps: (The existence of these detention facilities have not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Camps that contain Muslim detainees in the surrounding area of Modrica are identified as: Milosevac, Garevac, Pelagicevo, Loncar, Turic, Slatina, Vranjak, Ledenice, Donji Zabar, Crkvina, and Gornji Skurgic. *2072
Mostar is located in western Herzegovina and had a population of 126,067 according to the 1991 census. The population was 34.8 per cent Muslim, 33.8 per cent Croat, 19.0 per cent Serb, 10 per cent Yugoslav, and 2.4 per cent «other». *2073 The Neretva River flows through the city. Before the war, Mostar was an ethnically mixed city. *2074 Commencing in early 1993, however, Bosnian Muslims in Mostar were dismissed from their jobs. In May, approximately 10,000 of the Muslims who had arrived from other cities and who were occupying flats vacated by fleeing Serbs were ordered to leave the city. There are now two separate sections--a Croatian section on the left bank of the river controlled by the Bosnian Croat Militia (HVO) and a Muslim section controlled by Muslim troops on the right bank. *2075 Several camps were established in this region. UN Military Observers were allowed access to the Mostar camps in May, 1993. *2076
Central Mostar Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Helsinki Watch.) HVO forces operated a detention facility in the Central Mostar Prison. The Central Mostar Prison is also the site of a heliodrom. *2077 After HVO assumed control over HOS forces in western Bosnia, many prisoners held by HOS forces were brought to the Mostar prison. Similarly, most of the prisoners held by HVO forces in smaller jails in the area also were transferred to the Mostar prison at approximately the same time. *2078 Valentin Coric is the chief of the HVO military police in Mostar. *2079
In September 1992, approximately 392 prisoners were interned at the Central Mostar Prison. *2080 The jail detained mostly men but also a few women. *2081 In October, 1992 between 51 and 54 women were held in the main Mostar prison. Most of these women were between 30 and 40 years of age. *2082
Approximately 90 per cent of the prisoners were Serbian civilians. *2083 However, a number of Croats and Muslims accused of military offences also were detained at this jail. *2084 The prisoners were divided into five categories: Serbian combatants; enemy collaborators; prisoners kept for exchange purposes; civilian criminals accused of having committed crimes other than war crimes; and Croatian soldiers serving time for disciplinary infractions. *2085
Some reports indicate that the prisoners slept in two large rooms and have access to a living room. *2086 There were about 30 men in a room. *2087
The prisoners at this camp reportedly had more freedom than at some of the more notorious Serbian-run camps. They could freely move about and were allowed to go to the toilet. *2088 The prisoners were allowed to walk outside for 30 minutes each day. *2089 However, none of the prisoners had any visitors. *2090 Some women have children and husbands but were not allowed to contact them unless it is through the ICRC. *2091
Officially, the prisoners were required to work at least eight hours every other day. *2092 However, some prisoners state that they were forced to work every day from seven in the morning until nightfall, and occasionally at night as well. *2093 Guards were present while the prisoners work. *2094 The work assigned includes miscellaneous labour in the villages, in the city, and in the prison itself, cleaning buildings, loading and unloading various materials, and building bunkers at the front lines. *2095 Three or four women were responsible for cleaning the Mostar jail. The rest of the women were required to do various other tasks. *2096 Croatian prisoners did not have to work like the other prisoners. *2097
The prisoners were fed three small meals a day including breakfast which consisted of two slices of bread and tea, coffee or cocoa; lunch, which consisted of two slices of bread and soup or a souplike food; and dinner, which consisted of two slices of bread and about five or six spoonfuls of soup. *2098
An investigatory judge, a warden, and others oversaw the main Mostar prison. *2099 There were between 20 and 25 soldiers on duty at the Mostar prison. *2100 The guards were reportedly not allowed to talk to the prisoners concerning the reason for their imprisonment. Most of the guards had recently returned from the front lines. Anyone with a criminal record reportedly was disqualified from being a prison guard. *2101 The commanders at the main Mostar prison did not allow the guards to beat the prisoners. However sometimes individual guards on duty violated this rule. *2102 Several prisoners report that they were beaten while imprisoned at the Central Mostar Prison. *2103 Reportedly, one or two guards would make the prisoners stand at attention and then would randomly beat them. *2104
The guards at the Mostar jail reportedly treated the women properly; however, two among them reportedly beat at least one women while they interrogated her. *2105 However, it was reported that some of the younger women were forced to perform same-sex sexual acts while the others watched. On one occasion, the women were then tied together and ordered onto a truck which reportedly contained a pile of bloody civilian clothes. They were driven through Mostar and beaten and forced to sing Ustase songs. *2106
The military prisoners and the civilian prisoners are guarded by the same men. *2107 Female guards attended the female prisoners in an area separate from the male prisoners. *2108
Thomson Mission members inspected this facility on 1 September 1992. According to their report, 75 Serb detainees were held at this Bosnian Croat-controlled facility on that date. Thirty-seven of the inmates were women who were classified as political prisoners. The inmates were reportedly detained under fairly good conditions. *2109
Former JNA Clinic: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch.) HOS paramilitary forces operated a detention facility in a former JNA clinic in Mostar. *2110 HVO troops subsequently closed the HOS operated detention facility and transferred the prisoners to the central Mostar jail. *2111
Aluminum Factory and Gymnasium: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Reuters.) It was reported that Bosnian Croat forces are holding about 1,300 Muslim men, women and children in a factory and gymnasium outside of Mostar. *2112 This former aluminum factory is located at the foot of a mountain three miles west of Mostar. *2113 On one ocassion, a group of men, women, and children who had been evicted from their homes and bused out of the city were forced at gunpoint to walk to the camp approximately 2.5 miles away. *2114 HVO forces admitted that they had bused Muslim civilians out of the city but insist that it was for their own safety. *2115 The Croat commander of this detention camp said approximately 1,000 of these people are civilians, while 300 are being treated as prisoners of war. *2116 Indications are strong that the people were being held against their will. *2117 Nevertheless, the detainees said they were being treated well.
The gymnasium houses women and children on one floor and men on another. The prisoners had mats to sleep on but they lacked blankets. The food was scarce, consisting of bread, milk and some army rations. *2118
Unidentified Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There are reports that the Croat forces have established at least one detention facility exclusively for the Muslim civilians of Mostar. *2119 This camp reportedly has more than 2,000 men, women, and children who are detained by armed guards said to be wearing black uniforms (resembling the uniform of the Croat troops that sided with the Nazis during World War II).
Santiceva Street Jail: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch.) There is a report that at one time the HOS operated a prison on Santiceva Street. This jail previously was used to house common criminals. *2120
The HOS soldiers reportedly dress in black uniforms with their own insignia. *2121 It is alleged that during the night guards sometimes beat the prisoners. *2122 The prisoners were reportedly also mistreated upon arrival at this camp. *2123 It was reported that the women kept in the Santiceva jail were raped and abused by their HOS captors. *2124
The prisoners are provided three meals a day but do not receive any meat. *2125
According to the source, three female detainees remained incarcerated at the jail in Santiceva Street at the time the report was prepared. *2126
University: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch.) There is at least one account that prisoners were also detained at a university in Mostar. Upon arrival there, they are said to have been beaten. One woman reported that the guards at this facility ordered three male prisoners to rape her. She was almost raped a second time but one of the commanders came in and prevented this. *2127
District Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one source, approximately 300 Serbs were held here in November, 1992. *2128
Cemetery Building: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) It was reported that the Serbian irregulars operated an interrogation centre in a building that belonged to the cemetery in Sutine, which is several kilometres north of Zalik and adjacent to the Sutine landfill. The building was used as an interrogation and processing centre for Bosnian Muslim and Croatian prisoners. Two rooms in the buidling were used for interrogation and torture of the prisoners. It was reported that after the prisoners were interrogated they were summarily executed and their bodies were thrown into the landfill. *2129
Aircraft Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely an official UN source.) It was reported that Croat forces operated a prison for a large number of Muslim and a smaller number of Serbian civilians at a disused aircraft factory south of Mostar town. *2130 The camp is located one kilometre south of Mostar in the Buna area. The fence surrounding the premises was reinforced and there were bars on the windows. *2131
In May 1993 outside observers allowed into the camp estimated that between 1,500 and 2,000 men and women were imprisoned here. *2132 The prisoners for the most part are from Mostar and are Serb civilians. They include university professors, doctors, journalists, and students. However, there also are people from some of the surrounding towns imprisoned here. *2133
The camp consists of four buildings. *2134 The prisoners are held in a former military prison and two adjacent gymnasium buildings. *2135 The women and children are housed separately from the men and no communication between the groups is allowed. *2136 The women are kept downstairs and the men are kept upstairs. *2137 The conditions at the camp are poor particularly for the male inmates. Up to 60 people are held in one room usually without mattresses or blankets to sleep on. Some rooms in the men's quarters have insufficient space for the men to sleep fully outstretched. *2138 There are allegations that some of the detainees are being held underground and tortured. However, no investigation of this has been possible. *2139
The Croat forces running the camp argue that the women and children are free to leave and were brought to the camp to protect them for the heavy fighting in the city. The Croat forces running the camp have stated that those whose homes have not been destroyed by the fighting will be able to return there when the fighting ceases. The others would be kept at their current location. However, the Croatian neighbours of these inmates were not arrested and the inmates were forcibly removed from their homes and were not allowed to take any possessions with them. *2140 The inmates reported to the investigators however that they were kept in locked doors and were only allowed outside moments before the investigators arrived. *2141 The camp is under heavily armed guard and at least some detainees are said to be in fear for their lives. *2142 The guards wear black uniforms. *2143 Some of detainees have been removed from the camp and remain to be accounted for. *2144
Food is reported to be a couple of biscuits and a glass of milk or water per day. *2145 Basic hygiene necessities such as soap or toilet paper have not been provided. *2146 The toilet facilities are very small. *2147
On 12 May 1993 between 1,500 and 2,000 people were held at this camp. *2148
Mostar-Rodoc: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Helsinki Watch.) Rodoc is located near the heliodrome in Mostar. *2149 Conditions at the Rodoc camp reportedly were difficult but not life threatening. There are isolated reports of abuse but for the most part the inmates state that they were treated kindly by their captors. The most difficult problems facing the inmates are due to overcrowding, insufficient food, and inadequate hygiene. *2150
It was reported that as of 14 June 1993, Bosnian Croat authorities were detaining 506 prisoners at this camp. *2151 In July 1993 as many as 2,000 civilians were housed in two buildings at the Rodoc heliport detention facility. *2152 An additional 400 civilians were scheduled to be transferred to Rodoc from Dretelj prison on 10 July 1993. The ICRC registered 1,900 inmates at the Rodoc camp in August, 1993. *2153 Most of the inmates were Muslim men between the ages of 18 and 60 although there also were soldiers and common criminals who are being disciplined at camp. *2154 In September 1993, the camp commander reported 1,300 inmates including two women who refused to leave. *2155
The heliodrom is a three story building. The men were housed in the basement and on the first and second floors. The number of prisoners in each room varied depending on the size the room. At least in August 1993 the prisoners had bed mattresses to sleep on and also had blankets. *2156
Prisoners also were housed in a gymnasium. This had two large halls with approximately 250 inmates housed in each hall. The space for each inmate was limited to the area covered by his blanket. There were two shower halls for the entire facility but some showers did not work. There was only one toilet for the entire facility. *2157
Approximately 1,200 additional prisoners were housed in a four story school building. Three stories of class rooms were used to house 400 people including women and children per story with approximately 15 to 30 people per class room. There were eight toilets functioning on two floors and toilets on the first floor which did not function. There were no showers. *2158 However, it was reported that in general the sanitary conditions at this camp were sufficient. *2159
The detainees were given tea and a slice of bread each morning and occasionally macaroni soup in the afternoon. On at least one occasion they were given beans. It was reported that the prisoners were not maltreated with the exception of the lack of food. *2160
The male prisoners regularly were forced to dig trenches and fill sand bags on the front lines. Reportedly the prisoners receive more food if they volunteered to dig trenches on the front lines and thus many inmates were coerced to these tasks because they are hungry. *2161
It was reported that HVO forces gave approximately 200 male inmates four hours to decide whether they would leave BiH for a third country. These prisoners were forced to sign papers that stated they were leaving for a third country. They were then given an hour and a half to go to their homes to gather their families and their belongings. The HVO police then took these prisoners and their families to the Croatian border where they were met by Croatian buses and police who escorted them to Gasinci. Several of these prisoners were interviewed in Gasinci. They were in bad physical and mental health. They stated that during their first two days of internment they were not given anything to eat. They were forced to work on the front lines and many stated that although they were not beaten they felt threatened. They agreed to leave Mostar because HVO forces advised them that they could no longer guarantee their safety. They also said that the Mostar Croats were nicer to them than the HVO Croats. *2162
Mostar-MUP: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) It was reported that as of 14 June 1993 Bosnian Croat Authorities were detaining one person at this camp. *2163
Mostar-Left Bank: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) It was reported that as of 14 June 1993 the Government of BiH held three prisoners at this camp. *2164
Musala: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) It was reported that as of September 1993 60 Croatian civilians were being held in the Musala in Mostar. *2165
Lipno Detention Facility: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A detention facility was reported to exist in the village of Lipno and at least one individual was detained between 7 May 1992 and 11 May 1992. A retired JNA soldier was arrested in his apartment, location unknown, in May 1992, by a Muslim and taken to Lipno. There he was detained in an old school and beaten by the same man who arrested him and HOS members. He was punched, kicked, and beaten with truncheons and rifle butts. Cigarettes were extinguished on his body, and he was forced to eat plaster from the wall and cigarette butts. His hair was set on fire and he was forced to perform fellatio on one of his guards. *2166
Former Military Dispensary: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A report stated that a Serb female was detained in the former military dispensary in Mostar between 21 July 1992 and 24 July 1992. She was incarcerated in the basement of the building in a three by 3.5 metre room with five or six other women. On the first night of her detention she was taken for interrogation at 2:00 a.m.. The interrogator cursed her and threatened her with a knife. The next night she was taken to the same interrogator and he asked her if she would be his mistress. She declined and was transferred to the Dretelj detention facility. *2167
Mrkonjic Grad is located in west central BiH. Its neighbours to the west include Titov Drvar and Glamoc, and its neighbours to the east are Skender Vakuf and Jajce. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the municipality of Mrkonjic Grad had a population of 27,379. Of that number 77.3 per cent were Serbs, 12.0 per cent were Muslims, 7.8 per cent were Croats, and the remaining 2.9 per cent were described as «others».
According to reports, a policy of «ethnic cleansing» was effectively instituted in Mrkonjic Grad, which the controlling Serbian extremists considered to be their «sports borough». *2168 The bizarre lightheartedness of the activities carried on this area was exemplified on one occasion by what appeared to be a sort of pep rally like convention of military units held at the local sports stadium. Reportedly, a Serbian commandant and various members of the Serbian government in attendance at the convention promised the soldiers that upon the return of the Serbian troops from the front, all remaining Muslims would be «expelled or liquidated. *2169 Along with this, they promised war booty in the form of real property of the Muslim citizens of Mrkojnic [sic] Grad». *2170
«Kula Barracks»: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one witness, in early June 1992, members of the Serbian paramilitary group Beli orlovi took 11 young men captive. *2171 They were bound with rope and transported to the «Kula» barracks in Mrkonjic Grad. *2172 The sojourn at the Kula barracks appeared to have been for no other reason that to administer beatings to the men before transporting them to yet another concentration camp. *2173 No additional information was made available regarding the condition or operation of this facility.
Mliniste: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) One report suggests that just outside Mrkonjic Grad (towards Kljuc) there are over 1,000 Muslims in detention. *2174 Reportedly the conditions in the barracks which housed the prisoners were unbearable. Executions of certain (unspecified) individuals reportedly took place every night. *2175
Lake Balkan Area: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Reports suggest the existence of a concentration camp in the area above Mrkonjic Grad, specifically above Lake Balkan. *2176 This was reportedly the site for the containment of women and children. One witness recalls seeing some 30 buses and trucks with women and children going through Manjaca in that direction. *2177
Unidentified Camp, Mrkonjic Grad: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the National Organization for Victim Assistance.) Medecins Sans Frontieres, the French charity organization, reportedly acquired information from refugees *2178 regarding the existence of a camp in Mrkonjic Grad. *2179 The French organization conducted filmed interviews with refugees who stated that their Serb captors were responsible for widespread atrocities including «systematic torture, sexual mutilation, rape and violence against children». *2180 The report was, silent as to specific information regarding the location, operation or control of the facility.
The municipality of Nevesinje is located in Herzegovina and is neighboured by Mostar to the west and Gacko to the east. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the population of Nevesinje was 14,421, of which 74.5 per cent were Serbs, 23.0 per cent were Muslims, 1.3 per cent were Croats, and the remaining 1.2 per cent were described as «others».
Backo Jezero Facility: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) Following the victory by the Muslim and Croatian defenders of Mostar, Serbian forces plundered the municipality of Nevesinje. Several villages including Sopilja, Hrusta, Lakat, Kljuna, Gornja Bijenja, Donja Bijenja, Postoljani, Presjeka, Borovcici, Luka, and Krusevljani i Odzak were burned to the ground. *2181
According to one report, at least five women from Nevesinje were taken to a camp in Backo Jezero. The women reportedly were raped during their internment. *2182 There was no evidence that men also were detained at this camp. The ICRC visited the camp on 21 October 1992 and reported that all prisoners had been released. *2183
House in Gaj: *2184 (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch.) Following the outbreak of tension in late March 1993, in the village of Seonice in Konjic, Croatian women and children were captured by Muslim troops. *2185 The captives were taken by approximately 60 Muslim soldiers to a home on the periphery of the village of Trusina, in an area known as Gaj. *2186 The women and children were robbed of their personal possessions and ordered to carry crates of ammunition and weapons to Muslim military personnel in the village. *2187 The detainees were later released but were told that if they tried to leave the area, they would be shot. *2188
The municipality of Odzak is located in northern BiH. It is bordered by the Sava river to the north, Modrica county to the south, Bosanski Samac to the east, and Bosanski Brod to the west. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census the population of Odzak county was 30,651; 54.2 per cent of which were Croats, 20.3 per cent were Muslim, 19.8 per cent were Serbs, and the remaining 5.7 per cent were described as «others».
Odzak Primary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) A primary school in Odzak was turned into a detention centre. *2189 The Serbian residents of the villages nearby were rounded up and taken to the school. *2190 The men were kept in the gymnasium. *2191 The women and children were kept in classrooms and then later interned in Muslim and Croatian houses in Odzak. *2192
When the men arrived at the camp, they were forced to run through a gauntlet of non-Serbs who beat the Serb detainees as they entered the gynasium. *2193
The gymnasium was crowded. *2194 Approximately 700 men were detained at this camp. *2195 The floors were very hard and the detainees had only coats or blankets for comfort. *2196 When permitted, the detainees had to line up for the toilet or a bath. *2197 Many detainees did not bathe for four months. *2198 In at least one instance, prior to an ICRC visit, the guards brought a fire truck in and hosed the detainees down so that they appeared clean. *2199 Many of the detainees fell as a result of the force of the water. *2200
The food in the camp consisted of one slice of bread and one cup of tea per day. Occasionally, prisoners were fed macaroni. *2201 Once, the guards forced all the detainees to eat spoiled, stale macaroni. *2202 The detainees were beaten if they raised their heads before they were finished eating the macaroni. *2203 The detainees suffered from dysentery as a result. *2204
During the day, the detainees were forced to sing Ustase songs for two or three hours at a time. *2205 The detainees had to greet the Croatian army or members of the paramilitary formations with the greeting «Ready for the Homeland!» *2206
Some detainees were taken to the front and forced to dig trenches for the Croatian soldiers in the areas of Bosanski Brod and Orasje. Many detainees were wounded or killed. *2207
On 26 May 1992, a group of Croatian National Guards came to the camp, picked out a group of detainees and beat them. *2208 This incident triggered the beginning of nightly beatings. *2209 The guards beat the detainees with their feet, rifles, truncheons and other solid instruments. *2210 The guards would appear in the hall and single out a dozen detainees at random or call out a year from 1962 to 1972 and all those men born in that year would have to suffer. *2211
The guards would force the detainees to face a wall and then they would smash the detainees' heads against the wall from behind. *2212 In addition, the detainees were forced to run up and hit their own head against the blackboard or wall. *2213 If they did not do it hard enough, they were beaten in the head with a gun. *2214 After these beatings, the detainees were ordered to lick their own blood from the floor. *2215
A member of the National Guards of the Republic of Croatia, would usually be the guard to order the detainees to hit their heads against the wall. He also carved the letter "U" in the detainees' chests. *2216
In addition, other specific mistreatment included forcing the detainees to hold up their fingers as if making a cross and then beating those fingers. *2217 The guards also left detainees in locked rooms with vicious dogs. *2218 The guards also forced the detainees to beat each other, including relatives. *2219 Additionally, the guards forced men to kiss each other. *2220
The guards beat the detainees until they were too tired to continue. *2221 The soldiers and guards who beat the detainees were usually drunk. *2222
The guards then turned to torturing with threats. The guards would order the detainees to pull down their trousers and would threaten to remove their genitals. *2223 The guards would put guns to detainees' heads and pull the trigger, however, the guns were not loaded. *2224
Detainees who were able to give money to one of the captors could buy a night without a beating. *2225 This captor later confiscated all the detainees' money and jewerly. *2226
Approximately 30 women were interned at this camp. *2227 These women were taken to adjacent offices and raped. *2228 If they resisted, they were beaten. *2229 The women were raped by a different man each night. *2230 Serbian male detainees of various ages were occasionally brought to the women's area after the rapes and forced to lick the women. *2231
In one instance, the guards, including two women from the National Guards of the Republic of Croatia, brought a mentally handicapped girl, to the camp and forced some detainees to rape her. *2232 The male detainees who raped her were promised a good dinner in exchange. *2233 The guards also forced detainees to rape a girl who had previously worked at a restaurant in Novi Grad. *2234
The camp guards also organized a «wedding». They took a women and man, both detainees, and forced a false marriage ceremony. *2235 The guards made the detainees who played musical instruments play for the «wedding». *2236 The detainees were then taken to another room where as «newlyweds» they were forced to perform sexual acts. *2237
A group of pregnant women from another rape camp were sent to Odzak. *2238 The women continued to be raped, but when they reached an advanced stage of pregnancy the Croatian men would leave them alone. *2239 The men allegedly considered this respect for the growing Croatian child. *2240
At least some of the women were allowed to buy their freedom. Members of the «Black Legion» or «Black Coats» came to the camp and told the women that if they turned over money or jewerly they would be freed. *2241 The women who had money or jewerly sewed in the hems of their clothes were exchanged. *2242
The soldiers from the 101st Bosanski Brod Brigade, 106th Osijek Brigade, 108th Slavonski Brod Brigade also mistreated the detainees. *2243 One individual from Donji Hasic was infamous at the camp. *2244
This camp operated until the ICRC and UNPROFOR representatives began to make inquiries in August 1992. *2245 The women were then sent to a stockings factory and the men were evacuated to other detention facilities. *2246
A Serb teacher from Derventa who informed an ICRC representative about the women held at this camp was beaten to death by the guards. *2247
House Arrest: (The existence of this type of detention has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) The Serbian residents of Donja Dubica, Struka, Novi Grad, and Trunjak attempted to negotiate a peaceful departure for Bosanski Samac. *2248 Instead they were taken into custody. *2249
The Serbian women and children from the villages surrounding Odzak were rounded up with the men and taken to the Odzak camp. *2250 They were then released and detained in Muslim and Croatian homes in the area of Novi Grad. *2251
While detained in these homes, the women's ordeals began. *2252 The Serbian women were repeatedly raped. *2253 They were raped in the detention homes and taken from the homes and raped at other locations. *2254 Many of the women were raped by their neighbours. *2255
Paramilitaries/soldiers would come at night and order all the women out of the detention home. *2256 The soldiers would line them up, shine flashlights on their faces, and choose a few of the women to be taken away and raped. *2257 The women would be returned in the morning, some naked. *2258 The rapists told the women that they were to give birth to a young Ustasa. *2259 Some of the rapists told the women that they were abusing them as the Serbs had abused their women. *2260
The women were raped by multiple men. *2261 A few of the alleged rapists were identifed as the guards at the detention facilities at Orasje, Donja Mahala, and Odzak School. *2262 The paramilitaries «Horses of Fire» were also identified as perpetrators. *2263
The Croatian police and other military officers attempted to curb the actions of these roaming groups of paramilitaries, such as the «Horses of Fire,» but when arrested or questioned they were equally threatening to the officers. *2264
Strolit Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Strolit Factory was a detention centre in Odzak. *2265
The municipality of Olovo is located just north of Sarajevo county, to the east of Vares and the west of Han Pijesak. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the population of Olovo was 16,901. Of that number, 75 per cent were Muslims, 18.9 per cent were Serbs, 3.9 per cent were Croats, and the remaining 2.2 per cent were described as «others».
Unidentified Village: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Defence Debriefing Team.) According to Muslim refugees and BiH Army officers, Serbian soldiers have detained several men from Rijeka, a village in Olovo. It is unclear where the men were taken, or if they were released. Additionally, there also are reports that Serbian soldiers killed and raped an unspecified number of people in the village. *2266
Orasje is located in northern BiH and had a population of 28,201, according to the 1991 census. The population was 75.3 per cent Croat, 6.7 per cent Muslim, 15 per cent Serb, and 3 per cent «other». *2267
Donja Mahala: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Defence Debriefing Team.) Donja Mahala was a Croatian run camp located in the Bosanska Posavina region near Orasje. *2268 The camp was a school before the hostilities. *2269 Detainees were Serbian men from the surrounding regions and captured Serbian milita. *2270 Many of the detainees had been previously interned in camps located in Odzak, Bosanski Brod, and Slavonski Brod. *2271 Donja Mahala has been described as «the death camp». *2272 The camp operated from at least May 1992. *2273 On 9 December 1992, ICRC delegates found 161 detainees at the camp. *2274
The detainees were fed the same food as the guards, however, they got only one meal every one or two days. *2275
The detainees were kept in groups of approximately 15 people in different rooms at the camp. *2276 The detainees designated one room as the «solitary confinement cell». *2277 Detainees that were moved into this room were killed. *2278 In the solitary cell, the detainees received only a cup of tea and slice of bread a day. *2279
The detainees at Donja Mahala were routinely tortured and executed. *2280 To muffle the screams of those beaten, the guards would stuff rags in their mouths. *2281
An inmate at the camp described various instances of torture that he endured. One perpetrator burned the inmate's beard off his face and drove screwdrivers through his hands onto a board. Another perpetrator beat him with a heated rod, a wooden oar, stabbed him in the back, and drove a power drill into his head. Still another tied the inmate's testicles with wire and then beat his genital region. Yet a fourth crushed his fingers so that the inmate would not be able to make a cross in religious services. The inmate considered himself fortunate compared to other detainees at Donja Mahala. *2282
In another account, the guards removed skin from one detainee's head every day so that he had only bloody wounds instead of hair. This detainee also had his right hand broken. *2283
The detainees were forced to clean up the blood from the floors, tables and walls after the beatings. *2284 The guards further punished the detainees if any blood was found. *2285
While in the camp, some detainees were forced to dig trenches at the front for the regular army of the Republic of Croatia and for paramilitary Ustase formations. *2286 Fifteen men were killed while digging trenches at the front. *2287 At the front, the detainees were forced to climb out of the trenches and shout abuse at the Serb soldiers. *2288 In addition, the detainees pulled out dead and injured members of both armies. *2289 The Serb trench diggers were forced to watch as the Serb soldiers' bodies were mutilated. *2290 In one report, the guards killed a POW when he was too weak to dig a trench; he had been denied food for 13 days. *2291
Detainees were also beaten on the head, knifed in the legs, arms, and back, and burned with cigarettes. *2292 On occasion, one of the perpetrators allowed a detainee to see a doctor concerning injuries sustained from a harsh beating, however, the guards would confiscate the medicine given to the detainee. *2293
Among those particularly butalized were Serbian militia from Vukovar, including their commander and deputy commander. *2294 The deputy commander died on the torture table. *2295 Only eight of the Vukovar militamen survived the camp. *2296 The guards pulled wire through the POWs earlobes and hung heavy wooden boards of the ends of the wires. The guards also slashed the tongue of one POW. *2297 While the men were tortured, the guards laughed. *2298
Some of the detainees were moved to Donja Mahala when the Croatians pulled out of an area. Approximately 100 men were moved to the camp when the Serbs took over Bosanski Brod. *2299 When the detainees arrived, they were met by one of the captors and then taken to the yard where they were beaten all day. *2300 These detainees were not allowed water or toilet facilities. *2301 Some of the men were beaten in the genitals. The guards told them they looked best as corpses floating along the Sava River. *2302
To further humiliate the detainees, the guards relieved themselves on the detainees' boots and refused to allow the detainees to remove the boots. *2303 As a result, at least one detainee had open wounds on his feet that subsequently turned into gangrene. *2304
On the Orthodox Christmas, six or seven members of the Croatian National Guard arrived at Donja Mahala to further victimize the detainees. *2305 The Croatian soldiers lined up the detainees and beat them. *2306 The soldiers forced the detainees to admit to killings and rapes of Croatian and Muslim people. *2307 The soldiers had the detainees repeat the forced confessions to German reporters. *2308
The guards also coerced some detainees to confess to certain crimes to reporters from Globus and Reuters and to English, Australian, and German reporters by offering an exchange for the confession. *2309
The camp also held suspected war criminals. *2310 The alleged war criminals were first held in Bosanski Vlasti and then moved to Orasje. *2311 They claimed that the Arkan's and Seselj's Cetniks forced them to torture and kill people. *2312 An exchange was reportedly offered to the suspected war criminals, however, they declined. *2313 The Serbs feared being considered informants. *2314
Orasje School: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Civilians were detained in a school in Orasje while they waited for prisoner exchanges. *2315 Some of the detainees had been previously interned in different camps. *2316
Rape Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) From at least April to October 1992, a detention centre housed women in Orasje. *2317 The women interned in this camp were repeatedly raped by Muslim militiamen. *2318
Many women who were raped became pregnant and suffered further as a result of their experiences. *2319 Women sought abortions or adoptions at a number of hospitals and women's clinics. *2320
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