Annex VIII - part 5/10
Prison Camps

Analysis by geographical location
  1. BiH
    1. Banja Luka
    2. Bihac
    3. Bijeljina
    4. Bileca
    5. Bosanska Dubica
    6. Bosanska Gradiska
    7. Bosanska Krupa
    8. Bosanski Brod
    9. Bosanski Novi
    10. Bosanski Petrovac
    11. Bosanski Samac
    12. Bratunac
    13. Brcko
    14. Breza
    15. Bugojno
    16. Busovaca
    17. Cajnice
    18. Capljina
    19. Cazin
    20. Celinac
    21. Citluk
    22. Derventa
    23. Doboj
    24. Donji Vakuf
    25. Foca
    26. Fojnica
    27. Gacko
    28. Glamoc
    29. Gorazde
    30. Gornji Vakuf
    31. Gradacac
    32. Grude
    33. Han Pijesak
    34. Jablanica
    35. Jajce
    36. Kakanj
    37. Kalesija
    38. Kalinovik
    39. Kiseljak
    40. Kladanj
    41. Kljuc
    42. Konjic
    43. Kotor Varos
    44. Kresevo
    45. Kupres
    46. Laktasi
    47. Listica
    48. Livno
    49. Ljubinje
    50. Ljubuski
    51. Lopare
    52. Lukavac
    53. Maglaj
    54. Modrica
    55. Mostar
    56. Mrkonjic Grad
    57. Nevesinje
    58. Odzak
    59. Olovo
    60. Orasje

    61. Posusje
    62. Prijedor
      1. Omarska Camp

      2. Keraterm Camp
      3. Trnopolje
      4. Other camps
    63. Prnjavor
    64. Prozor
    65. Rogatica
    66. Rudo
    67. Sanski Most
    68. Sarajevo
      1. Small detention facilities in Sarajevo
      2. Other areas of Sarajevo
    69. Sekovici
    70. Sipovo
    71. Skender Vakuf
    72. Sokolac
    73. Srebrenica
    74. Stolac
    75. Tesanj
    76. Teslic
    77. Titov Drvar
    78. Tomislavgrad
    79. Travnik
    80. Trebinje
    81. Tuzla
    82. Ugljevik
    83. Vares
    84. Velika Kladusa
    85. Visegrad
    86. Visoko
    87. Vitez
    88. Vlasenica
    89. Zenica
    90. Zepce
    91. Zvornik
  2. Croatia
  3. FRY
  4. The Republic of Slovenia

61. Posusje

       The county of Posusje is located in south-western BiH. According to the 1991 census, the pre-war population of Posusje was 16,659. At that time, the population was 99.5 per cent Croatian, and .5 per cent were referred to as «other». *2321

       Posusje Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) It is reported that in January and February 1993, draft age men were picked up in various parts of Croatia by the Croatian police, detained in Rijeka, and then being sent to Posusje. From Posusje they were transferred to Tomislavgrad, where they were allegedly beaten and tortured by the HVO, and finally released to the BiH Army in Jablanica. There are various examples cited in the report with numbers of detained ranging from 10-130. Most of the men detained were Muslim, but at least three were reported to be Serbian. *2322

62. Prijedor

       The province of Prijedor is located in north-western BiH. It is surrounded by the provinces of Bosanski Novi, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanska Gradiska, Banja Luka and Sanski Most. According to a 1991 census, Prijedor's ethnic composition was 44 per cent Muslim, 42.5 per cent ethnic Serb, 5.7 per cent Yugoslav, 5.6 per cent Croat, and 2.2 per cent «other», of a total population of 112,000.

       It is reported that although the urban areas and Prijedor town in particular in this part of BiH had largely Muslim majorities, the surrounding villages were mostly ethnically Serb. *2323

       The following excerpt appears in the report on the situation of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia by Mr. Tadeusz Mazowiecki, Special Rapporteur of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. *2324 It is helpful background information when addressing the issue of the camps in located in the Prijedor area:

«On 30 April 1992, armed men from Banja Luka took control of strategic positions in Prijedor. Identity checks began, allegedly because of the failure of Muslims to turn in their arms. The elected head of the district, Mr. Cehajic, a Muslim, was obliged to make a statement on the radio indicating that the political authority had changed, and calling on the populations not to resist and to surrender their arms. He was then removed from office, and his place was taken by a Serb.

The following week most Muslim police and military officials surrendered their arms. The television and radio began to broadcast only programmes from Belgrade. Police identity checks intensified, and Mr. Cehajic and his staff were detained. Threats by armed men became more frequent, and for the first time some Muslims suffered beatings. Later in May many leaders of the Muslim community, such as teachers, physicians and religious leaders, had their homes searched and were detained.

Between 23 and 25 May, the Muslim village of Hambarine, 5 kilometres south of Prijedor, received an ultimatum: all weapons must be surrendered by 11:00 a.m. Then, alleging that a shot was fired at a Serbian patrol, heavy artillery began to shell the village and tanks appeared, firing at homes. The villagers fled to Prijedor. Witnesses reported many deaths, probably as many as 1,000.

Shortly afterwards, on 26, 27, or 28 May, the Muslim village of Kozarac, 20 kilometres east of Prijedor, suffered a similar fate. Citing the same pretext as Hambarine, Serbian heavy artillery began to shell the town, following which an attack was launched by tanks and infantry. Some inhabitants, anticipating the attack, had dug shelters, and a few of them tried to resist with the meagre arms at their disposal. The combat lasted some seven days. Those who fled the village, including women and children were detained in camps in Karmina, Omarska and Trnopolje. Mass arrests also took place, and those arrested were taken away in buses and trucks. The population, estimated at 15,000, suffered a great many executions, possibly as many as 5,000 persons, according to some witnesses.

The night of 29 May, tanks and infantry took up position around Prijedor, citing the same pretext as at Hambarine and Kozarac. When the attack began, Serbs from the village guided the tanks to the homes of certain Muslims, and the inhabitants were asked to come out and show their identity documents. Many of those who did were summarily executed. According to witnesses, some 200 residents of a single street (Partisan Street) were executed, and a hundred homes were destroyed. During the attack the local radio continued to call for the surrender of arms, yet not one shot had been fired by the Muslims.

When the artillery barrage stopped around noon, groups of extremists, probably under the control of the paramilitary leader Arkan, began executing people, taking their victims to the street and slitting their throats, according to witnesses. The bodies of the dead were carried away by truck, which left a trail of blood. Those who were not killed on the spot were taken to hotel, where they were transferred to a convoy which left in the direction of Omarska. In the aftermath, houses which had been too badly damaged were bulldozed, and their foundations covered with fresh earth. Five mosques were destroyed, and the Muslim cemetery was razed.

In mid-July, more villages in the Prijedor area were attacked. Biscani and Rokovcahi, located some 5 kilometres to the west of Prijedor, were attacked by artillery and mortars, followed by tanks and infantry. There were many casualties, and the survivors were sent to Omarska and Keraterm. Ljubija, a Croatian village, also suffered many casualties, as did Vugovici-Selo, a Muslim village which was shelled before being attacked by tanks and infantry. The population of Gornja Puharska was forced to leave by repeated searches, which sometimes culminated in summary executions; the destruction of its mosque led to panic, and caused the population to flee their homes and seek shelter in other buildings until such time as their departure was organized; in contrast to the fate of other villages, few homes were destroyed . . . .»

a. Omarska Camp

       (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Helsinki Watch, US Department of State, UK Defence Debriefing Team, Austrian Government, ICRC, and Newsday.)

       Location: Omarska is a predominantly Serbian village in the Prijedor region. *2325 The Omarska camp was reportedly established on the site of a former iron mine near the village of Omarska, *2326 which was surrounded by open-pit iron mines. *2327 The camp was located west of the road leading from Prijedor to Banja Luka, *2328 approximately two kilometres south of Omarska, *2329 17 kilometres east of Prijedor, *2330 and 25 kilometres west of Banja Luka. *2331 Office buildings, halls, garages, and tunnels were reportedly used for detention purposes. *2332 The camp was said to have consisted of several large and smaller buildings formerly used by the mine. *2333

       Location: Omarska is a predominantly Serbian village in the Prijedor region. *2334 The Omarska camp was reportedly established on the site of a former iron mine near the village of Omarska, *2335 which was surrounded by open-pit iron mines. *2336 The camp was located west of the road leading from Prijedor to Banja Luka, *2337 approximately two kilometres south of Omarska, *2338 17 kilometres east of Prijedor, *2339 and 25 kilometres west of Banja Luka. *2340 Office buildings, halls, garages, and tunnels were reportedly used for detention purposes. *2341 The camp was said to have consisted of several large and smaller buildings formerly used by the mine. *2342

       Description of the Omarska Camp: Reports vary regarding a physical description of the Omarska camp's facilities, including the number, size, location and use of buildings at the camp. The following descriptions are representative of accounts which appear in the reports reviewed.

       One subject who was a prisoner at the Omarska camp and had reportedly worked at the iron ore mine as a young man, described the camp as being comprised of four buildings: two large buildings each of two floors, approximately 60 metres by 30 metres in size; and two smaller buildings each about 12 metres by six metres in size. The camp's structures were reportedly surrounded by fences two metres by two metres high, enclosing an area of about 1,000 metres by 600 metres. *2343

       Reports indicate that a large two-story building was used for the camp's headquarters, a prisoner holding area, a prisoner mess hall, and food storage. *2344 The subject who worked at the Omarska mine as a young man described this building as being approximately 50 by 30 metres in size. Management and administrative office space had formerly been located on the top floor and worker feeding and changing facilities on the ground floor. The ground floor was reportedly divided into sections, comprising a large kitchen, a changing area for the former mine workers, toilets, and an internal garage 5.5 by 5.5 metres square. There was also an area marked «Garderoba» which was formerly the ore miners' changing room, and a small glass-walled or partitioned room in the centre of the ground floor. The top floor was reportedly divided into eight rooms. *2345

       Other reports reviewed commonly refer to the above structure as the «administration» building, which was described as a glass and brick structure. *2346 According to one report, the building had a wing which was a kitchen and another larger two-story section. The ground floor of that section contained vehicle garages and an approximately 30 by 30 metre room in which an estimated 800 prisoners were kept. *2347 The second floor of the building reportedly contained eight interrogation rooms. *2348

       Reports indicate a second two-story building at the camp, located next to the administration building. *2349 The subject who had worked at the Omarska mine, described this structure as containing a large hangar on the ground floor, approximately 60 by 30 metres in size, which had previously been used for the storage of four very large, wheeled excavation trucks used in the mine. The top floor of the building reportedly contained office space. According to the subject, the southern end of the ground floor of this building was closed off by a wire fence and was about 150 square metres in size. The northern end of the hangar was said to be similarly fenced-off. The top floor of the building in the south-west corner reportedly contained a 40 square metre room. *2350

       Other reports reviewed commonly refer to a large garage or «hangar-like» building where a great deal of torture took place. *2351 The reports also describe the hangar-like structure's first floor which contained former vehicle workshops and the second floor, which contained an office and four rooms numbered 26, 15, 24, and 23. *2352

       The third structure at the Omarska camp was referred to as the «red house» and was located across from the main camp building. *2353 The structure was described as being some distance from the main structures, and it was reported that prisoners did not return alive once they entered the building. *2354 The subject who had worked at the Omarska mine described this structure as approximately six by seven metres square in size. The structure was also reportedly called the Klaonica (abattoir or slaughterhouse) by the inmates and had previously been used to store the mine's fire fighting equipment. *2355

       The fourth structure, a one-story, 12 metres by six metres building known as the «white house» was reported as being located across from the main camp building. *2356 It was also reported that the «white house» contained four rooms and a bathroom. *2357 Two of the rooms were said to house prisoners who were professionals and intellectuals, one room was reportedly for prisoners who had been injured during beatings, and the fourth room reportedly housed prisoners who had possessed weapons and those who were to be exchanged. *2358 This structure, was reportedly located some distance from the main facilities and was said to be used to torture and kill prisoners over long periods of time. *2359 The subject who had worked at the Omarska mine similarly described the structure known as the Bijela Kuca («white house») which was located to the centre-left (west) of the two main structures. He stated that the building was divided into four rooms and contained a central corridor. *2360

       Reports also describe a tarmac area outside the main structures which was used as an open-air detention area, where large groups of men were forced to lie on their stomachs throughout the day. *2361

       Reports conflict as to whether the Omarska camp was surrounded by a fence or barbed wire. One subject reported that the camp was surrounded by fences two metres high, topped with barbed wire. *2362 It was similarly reported that a two-metres- high barbed wire fence with machine-gun emplacements at unspecified intervals surrounded the entire camp. *2363

       One ex-prisoner who arrived at the camp during the first week of June 1992, stated that at that point the Omarska camp had not yet been built up. He stated that no fencing had been constructed. *2364 Another subject reported that there were no defined camp perimeters, no barbed wire, watch towers, or any such installations normally associated with prison camps. *2365

       Number of Prisoners: It was generally reported that the camp held between 3,000 and 4,000 men. *2366 Reports also indicated that between 33 and 38 women were held at the camp. *2367

       One female prisoner reported that the women at the camp were tasked with kitchen work and were in a position to know how many prisoners were being fed at the camp. According to the prisoner, the women drew lines on paper for every group of thirty men who were brought in to eat. She stated that on 14 June 1992, they counted 2,736 men and 33 women. *2368

       There were reports which estimated that the Omarska camp contained a greater number of prisoners. Those estimates which varied greatly in number, included: 4,000 to 5,000; *2369 5,000 to 6,000; *2370 6,000 to 7,000; *2371 8,000; *2372 and 11,000 prisoners. *2373 Other reports estimated the total number of women held at Omarska at 58; *2374 between 50 and 70; *2375 and approximately 300. *2376

       Sex and Age of the Prisoners: According to reports, men from approximately 16-60 years of age were held at the Omarska camp. *2377 The camp was also reported to hold some boys, well under the age of 18. *2378 The camp also held women, most of them belonging to the intellectual upper class: judges, teachers, engineers. *2379

       Ethnicity of Prisoners: Reports generally described the Omarska prisoner population as consisting mainly of Bosnian Muslim and some Croat prisoners. *2380

       Status of Prisoners: The prisoner population at Omarska has been referred to as the political and cultural elite of the city of Prijedor. *2381 Reports indicate that after Bosnian Serb forces came to power in Prijedor in the spring of 1992, gradually, the Muslim and Croat upper class were taken to the Omarska camp, including: doctors, high government officials, and businessmen. *2382

       The reports also indicate that at least some of the detainees at Omarska took up arms and fought the Bosnian Serb forces which attacked their towns and villages. It was also indicated that the camp was a place where the Bosnian Serb authorities, with the backing of the army, had taken thousands of Bosnian Muslims to be killed. *2383

       Categories of Prisoners: According to Helsinki Watch, Serbian military officials in Banja Luka acknowledged that prisoners were divided into three categories. The first category reportedly included leaders of the predominantly Muslim Party of Democratic Action (SDA) and those «who organized the rebellion against the Serbs». The second category reportedly included Muslim combatants. Both categories of prisoners were reportedly interrogated at the Omarska camp and subsequently transferred to the Manjaca camp. The third category of prisoners reportedly included «those who could not be found guilty». Those prisoners were reportedly held at the Trnopolje camp and included women and children, who were interned with other non-Serbs who had sought refuge from actual or potential Serbian attacks on their villages. *2384

       Other reports describe the categorization of Omarska's prisoner population. One subject reported that inmates at Omarska were divided into three distinct categories: Muslim politicians, who were all shot; those who had either possessed or confessed to having had weapons; and professionals. *2385

       Another subject reported that camp authorities prepared lists of three categories of prisoners, but that it was unclear how those lists were divided. He stated that Category 1 prisoners may have been active-duty military people and intellectuals who were reportedly killed. Category 2 reportedly consisted of about 1,700 prisoners, including the subject, who were sent to the Manjaca camp. People in Category 3 were reportedly sent to the Trnopolje camp. According to the subject, the prisoner transfer to Manjaca in early August began with a guard reading off a list of prisoner names and, once at Manjaca, the commander there would not allow prisoners off the buses until names were available and a roll call could be made. *2386

       In late July 1992, Omarska's guards reportedly began a census of camp inmates. Lists of names were reportedly read out, frequently including names of those who had died, and prisoners were placed in 3 categories: (1) those who fought against the Serbs; (2) those in some way connected with (1); and (3) those who had a «clean sheet». Subject stated that Categories 1 and 2 were sent to the Manjaca camp while those in Category 3 were sent to Trnopolje and subsequently released. The subject stated that at the time, there were only a few prisoners left who were in Category 1, since most had already been killed at the camp. *2387

       Organization and Treatment of Female Prisoners: Women at the Omarska camp were reportedly housed on one end of the second floor of the administraton building which also contained the camp commander's office *2388 Other reports confirm that the camp's female prisoners slept in rooms in the administration building. *2389 The women reportedly slept in two rooms, *2390 numbered 102 and 103. *2391 It was reported that those rooms were where the daily interrogations of male prisoners were held. *2392 It was also reported that female prisoners had special access to the camp command and administrators because they were confined near the camp offices next to the interrogation rooms. *2393

       Many of the women who were detained at Omarska were said to be prominent professionals, including a judge from Prijedor County, a Deputy District Attorney, a County Court Judge, and a member of the Party for Democratic Action Council. *2394 The women held at the camp reportedly slept on the floor with one blanket for every two women. *2395 As the women tried to sleep they reportedly heard the screams of prisoners being tortured next door in the interrogation room. *2396

       The women were reportedly woken up at six in the morning and two of them were randomly chosen to clean the interrogation rooms which were covered with blood each morning. *2397 The women were also reported to have cleaned the commanders' offices on occasion. *2398

       It was reported that women at the camp were also forced to work in the kitchen. *2399 According to one report, each day the women would see over a hundred new detainees arrive, while the same number vanished. *2400 After completing their daily kitchen duty, the women reportedly returned to their rooms at night. *2401

       There are reports that the female prisoners at the camp were raped. *2402It was reported that male prisoners held in rooms below the women's rooms could often hear cries, shouts, and loud weeping from the female prisoners. *2403

       One male subject stated that the women at the camp were raped nightly by Serb guards and others coming to the camp for that purpose. He added that one Muslim woman was forced to perform oral sex with other prisoners, and that prisoners were also forced to perform sex with her. When they refused she was beaten. *2404

       Women held at Omarska stated that the camp commander would organize the rape and abuse of women at the camp. They stated that he would rape individual women himself, and organize an audience for the others. *2405 One woman stated that at night they were taken out one by one. She stated that she was taken out four nights running and that the women were exposed to physical, mental, and sexual violence. She stated: «Every guard would pick a woman he was going to abuse. I had the bad luck to be chosen by the head of security at the camp, [name deleted].» *2406

       One woman reported that on 15 June 1992, she and other female prisoners were returned from the «restaurant» to Room 102 at 7:00 p.m. (where they were assigned) and discovered that the room was covered with more blood than before and broken clubs and needles. At about 9:30 p.m. the women in Room 102 reportedly heard shouts in the hallway, calling for two prominent male Croatian Democratic Union Prijedor County officials, and the sounds of beatings. The door to Room 102 was then reportedly opened and a guard grabbed one of the women into the next room. One of the male Croat officials was reportedly laying on the floor in the next room, bleeding about the face. Guards then reportedly beat the woman with the butts of their weapons, mostly on her back, breaking her ribs and injuring her thorax. After she fell, the guards reportedly resumed beating the male prisoner. The woman then reportedly fainted, came to and saw the male official unconscious, was beaten again, fainted, and regained consciousness in the early morning and saw the male official being dragged out of the room by his feet. The woman was reportedly warned by identified perpetrators that she should not tell anyone about the incident. At approximately 6:30 a.m. on 16 June 1992, the woman was reportedly returned to Room 102. Two weeks later the same woman was reportedly called into the camp commander's office and told to be smart and obedient, that a decision was still pending on her future, and that her name was on a list of persons to be interrogated. She was then reportedly ordered to make coffee and thereafter was reportedly dragged into a bathroom, pistol whipped, beaten and raped by an identified officer, and subsequently brought back to the commander's office to finish making coffee. It was reported that this procedure was repeated for three more nights. On the fifth night, the commander asked her if she had ever been mistreated, and out of fear she said nothing. *2407

       One woman, however, stated that she knew of no rapes or extreme beatings of the women at Omarska, although she reported that they were terrorized and used as forced labour. *2408

       Another female prisoner stated that in the beginning, the killing of the prisoner population would be hidden from the women and that bodies would be deposited far away. She stated, however, that at the beginning of July, prisoners were killed before their eyes. *2409

       One male subject reported that it was commonly known among prisoners that at least two identified women at the camp were killed. *2410

       Dates of Operation-Camp Opening: Reports indicate that the Omarska mine was converted into a detention camp in late May 1992. *2411

       Origin and Movement of Prisoners: The following is a summary of reports which indicate the dates of transfers and the points of origin of Omarska's prisoner population.

       Kozarac-Brezicani-Late May-Early June 1992: Reports indicate that on approximately 27 May 1992, following a two-day attack on Kozarac by Serb forces, Muslim survivors from the city were transported to the Omarska and Trnopolje camps. *2412 One report stated that after the capture of Kozarac by former JNA troops on 25-26 May 1992, the city's Muslim inhabitants were ordered to report to the city centre, and those in possession of weapons were ordered to turn them in. After reporting to the city centre, the Muslim women were reportedly separated from the men and taken by buses to Trnopolje. The men were then reportedly transported to «Brezicani», where they were beaten, kept overnight, and then moved to the Omarska camp. *2413 Other reports describe the transfer of men from Kozarac to Omarska and to Omarska via Brezicani in late May. *2414

       Keraterm Camp, May-June-July-August 1992: It was reported that following shelling of the village, Serb forces rounded up 200 male inhabitants men from Kozarusa and transported them in buses to the Keraterm camp *2415 for two days. According to the reports, on or about 23 May 1992, the Serbs emptied Keraterm and bused about 300 captives to Omarska. *2416

       One subject reported that on 27 May 1992, at 10:00 p.m., Keraterm prisoners were ordered out of their cells and onto buses which had previously arrived at the camp. (There were reportedly 17 empty and six full buses) The subject stated that he heard that the prisoners in the occupied buses had been detained at the Brezicani school. At approximately midnight, the buses reportedly departed from the Keraterm camp and later arrived at the Omarska camp. The subject estimated that on that day, a total of 2,000 prisoners were brought to Omarska, 90 per cent of whom were Croat and Muslim civilians, and the remainder of whom where members of the regular and reserve police in Prijedor, and were of Croatian and Muslim nationality. *2417 Another subject who had been taken to Keraterm from his village on approximately 25 May 1992, stated that on 27 May 1992, he and dozens of other prisoners (including his son), were transferred to Omarska. *2418It was reported that prisoners were severely beaten during the transfer of prisoners from Keraterm to Omarska. *2419

       Another subject who had been transported from his village Kozarusa to the Keraterm camp on approximately 24 May 1992, was reportedly interrogated several times, and was then taken to the Omarska camp on 28 May. According to the report, the Keraterm prisoners were taken in crowded and deliberately overheated buses to the Omarska camp. *2420

       One subject stated that after hiding in the woods with several groups after the attack on Kozarac, he and others gave themselves up to Bosnian Serb forces and thereafter were taken by bus to the Keraterm camp. He stated that 120 people spent two nights on a bus parked at the camp gate without fresh air or water and after being abused, spent two nights at the Keraterm camp. On the third day, subject and many other men were called out at 1:00 a.m., told to keep their heads down, and were driven to the Omarska camp. *2421 Another subject who was involved in the armed resistance of Kozarac, stated that on approximately 29- 30 May 1992, he and his «friends» were captured by Serb forces in the nearby woods while sleeping. He stated they were taken to the Keraterm camp for the first night and were transported in a police wagon to the Omarska camp the next day. The subject stated that on the way to Omarska, they passed through Kozarac where an elderly Serbian man was allowed to beat the young prisoners with a stick. *2422

       One subject from Kozarac stated that on 4 June 1992, he was taken to the Keraterm camp, and that on 6 June he was transported to the Omarska camp, and along with 20 other prisoners, was beaten severely. *2423

       One subject priest stated that he was taken on 16 June 1992, to Keraterm and the next day transferred to Omarska. *2424

       One subject reported that he was transferred to Omarska from Keraterm on approximately 5 July 1992. *2425 Another subject stated that on 9 July 1992, 30 men, most of whom were Croat, were transferred by bus to Omarska. *2426

       One subject stated that the night before he was transferred from Omarska to Manjaca on approximately 4 August 1992, a new group of about 70 prisoners were brought from Keraterm and put into the «white house». He claimed that this was done in order that the ICRC would not see the prisoners who had been more severely abused. *2427

       Prijedor-June-July 1992: It was reported that on 3 June 1992, three large buses carrying Muslim and Croatian male prisoners left the main police station in Prijedor and transported prisoners to Omarska. *2428

       One female attorney reported that on 14 June 1992, she was arrested by armed Serbian police officers, taken to the Prijedor police station, and told to wait in a small, blood- spattered room. She stated that another Prijedor lawyer, a member of the Croatian Democratic Union and two unidentified males were also detained in the room. At about 5:30 p.m. they were driven by auto along back roads to Omarska. They were at one point confronted by paramilitary troops and were taken to the Omarska camp. She stated that upon their arrival at Omarska, the prisoners were pushed out of the vehicle by men in «Cetnik» and JNA uniforms. *2429

       A subject from Brisevo stated that after Prijedor fell on 30 June, he and approximately 20 other men were arrested, taken to the local police station, and then to Omarska. *2430

       One subject reported that he was arrested for the second time in Prijedor and was transported to the Prijedor police station where he was `slapped about' by two unknown policemen. After two days, on 6 July 1992, the subject was reportedly transported to the Keraterm camp. He stated that he remained at Keraterm for only five hours before being taken by police car to the Omarska camp. *2431

       A subject from Rizvanovici, near Prijedor, stated that on 21 July 1992, the Serbian army surrounded all of the villages in the area and took all of the adult males prisoner. The men were subsequently marched out, abused, and an hour later, one- half of them were transported by bus to the Keraterm camp which was full. The prisoners were then driven 30 minutes to the Omarska camp which was also full, and they were thereafter transported to the Trnopolje camp. At Trnopolje, the subject was reportedly abused by a guard during his intake, and after one night, he was thereafter transferred to the «Serbian police headquarters» in Prijedor where he was questioned for five hours. *2432 The subject was thereafter transported to the Omarska camp with an unknown number of other prisoners. *2433

       Kevljani (via Prijedor and Keraterm)-Late May 1992: Reports indicate that on approximately 26 May 1992, Kevljani was attacked by Serb forces, and the villagers fled to the woods, but after spending the night under heavy shelling, then surrendered to a Serbian officer *2434 and other identified individuals. The Croatian and Muslim villagers were taken by bus to Prijedor where the women and children were taken to the youth centre. At 4:00 p.m. the men were taken in 24 buses to the Keraterm factory at the edge of the town. Keraterm, however, was full and the convoy proceeded in a round-about away through Tomasica to the Omarska Camp where they arrived at 11:00 p.m. *2435 Another subject repeats essentially the same fact scenario, stating, however, that 400 of the villagers fled to a nearby river bank to escape the attack and that those men who came to the village school to surrender were beaten by Serb fighters and subsequently taken to the Omarska camp. *2436 Other reports indicate that the transfer of persons from the village of Kevljani to the Omarska camp occurred at the end of May 1992. *2437

       Donji Garevci-Late May 1992: According to one report, at the end of May 1992, Serbian irregular soldiers entered the village of Donji Garevci (six kilometres from Prijedor) and rounded up all of the Bosnian Muslim men for incarceration. The irregulars reportedly told the men that they were going to march to a camp at Trnopolje. They allegedly forced the men to sing patriotic Serbian songs and beat those who refused. Eventually the group reached Trnopolje where they were immediately put on buses and driven to the Omarska camp. En route, uncooperative prisoners were beaten. Upon arrival at Omarska, they found that the camp was «full», and the group was put back on buses and finally off-loaded at the Keraterm camp. *2438

       Gornja Puharska-May-June 1992: It was reported that Gornja Puharska had a population of about 300 Muslim families and six Croat families. On 27 May 1992, JNA forces reportedly surrounded and besieged the village and on about 29 May 1992, Serbian «Red Berets» reportedly entered the village with tanks accompanied by non-uniformed irregular forces. The village's defenders reportedly surrendered, and on 1 June 1992, all of the men were reportedly taken prisoner and transported 23 kilometres south-east to Omarska on two buses and one large cattle truck. *2439

       One subject reported that on 29 May 1992, the people of Gornja Puharska put white flags outside their homes to indicate their surrender. He said that the next day, on 30 May, four to five tanks and 500 soldiers came into the town and rounded up all of the men of military age (about 250 in total). The town's men were reportedly walked to the local mosque and abused. The subject stated that political leaders, policemen, and educated persons were immediately identified and put separately on a bus, along with former soldiers. The subject stated that in total, three buses transported a total of approximately 250 men to the Omarska camp. *2440

       Ljubija-Early June-July 1992: On 10 June 1992, in the village of Kalajevo (approximately three kilometres north-east of Ljubija), «armed Serbs» in uniform reportedly arrested a man and drove in a lorry to the «Rudar» stadium in Ljubija where he was held in a locker room with another six prisoners. He stated that after being held in Ljubija for five days he was transferred to the Omarska camp. *2441

       Another subject stated that he was arrested on 10 July 1992, in his father's yard and taken with two others inside a moving van to the police station in Ljubija where he was held with 15 other men. The men were reportedly interrogated by named individuals and were then taken away in the moving van to the Omarska camp. *2442

       Matrici-4 July 1992: One subject reported that on 4 July 1992, he was arrested in Matrici and subsequently taken to the Omarska camp. *2443

       Biscani-July 1992: One subject reported that on approximately 20 July 1992, Muslim males were taken by Bosnian Serb forces to Omarska from the village of Biscani. However, it was also reported that after arriving at Omarska, the convoy left for Trnopolje after those in charge of transportation were told that no more prisoners would be accepted at Omarska. *2444

       It was reported that on 24 and 25 July 1992, approximately 300 civilians from the villages of Biscani, Rizvanovici, Rakovcani, Hambarine, Carakovo, and Zecovi were brought in at around 4:00 p.m. and severely beaten. *2445

       Rizvanovici-July 1992: One subject stated that on 20 July 1992, he was taken to the Omarska camp from Rizvanovici. *2446

       Donja Puharska-July 1992: On 13 July 1992, all of the Muslim men who remained in Donja Puharska were reportedly arrested and taken to the Omarska camp. According to one subject, he and at least eight other Muslim men were summoned to the local police station to make a declaration of loyalty and to volunteer for work. The men were reportedly beaten by soldiers, locked in a cell, and later transported to Omarska. *2447

       Transfer of Prisoners-Camp Closing: One subject reported that on approximately 30 May 1992, a group of 168 prisoners were selected for a «prisoner exchange». *2448

       One subject reported that on 3 June 1992, three buses filled with older prisoners were transported from Omarska to the Trnopolje camp. *2449 Another subject reported that on 3 June 1992, at 7:00 p.m., two buses were brought into the Omarska camp and loaded with 120 prisoners. The prisoners were reportedly told that the first bus was going to Kozarac and the second to Prijedor, but both buses reportedly went to the Trnopolje Camp. *2450

       It was reported that on 25 June 1992, approximately 100 prisoners were transferred to the Trnopolje camp. These prisoners were reportedly called by name and included many weak individuals. *2451

       One subject reported that in early July, 200 prisoners, all of whom were considered by the Serbs to have been «important», were taken away from the Omarska camp on a supposed prisoner exchange. Subject stated that none of the prisoners had been seen or heard from since. Other sources reportedly believed that those prisoners were killed. *2452

       It was also reported that in mid-July 1992, camp authorities transferred 30 elderly and infirm patients to the Trnopolje camp. *2453

       Reports indicate that the Omarska camp was closed at the end of August 1992. The closing was attributed to the attention drawn there by the media and the international community. *2454 The detainees were, however, not released but transferred to other camps such as Trnopolje and Manjaca. *2455

       Manjaca-Early August 1992: According to most reports, on approximately 6-8 August 1992, a mass-transfer of Omarska's prisoners took place when buses arrived to transport prisoners to the Manjaca camp. *2456 Each of the buses was reportedly crammed with prisoners, with the heat on and the windows sealed shut. The reports of this transfer included accounts where prisoners were abused and killed en route and upon arrival at the Manjaca camp: *2457

       Trnopolje-Early August 1992: Subjects reported a mass transfer of prisoners to the Trnopolje camp. One subject stated that 1,000 prisoners were transferred to the Trnopolje camp while 1,300 were transported to Manjaca. *2458 According to one subject, on 6 August, approximately 1,200 inmates of the second category (those who had possessed or confessed to having possessed weapons), were transferred by bus to the Manjaca camp and at the same time, 700 prisoners of the third category (professionals) were sent to the Trnopolje camp. The subject was reportedly transferred to Trnopolje. He added that guards killed inmates at random during both of these transfers *2459 Other reports describe what appears to be the same transfer. *2460

       It was reported that on 3 August 1992, the women at Omarska were transferred to the Trnopolje camp. *2461 One female prisoner stated that on 3 August 1992, 29 of the camp's 33 women were told to hurry and gather their things and were then taken outside and put onto buses for transfer to Trnopolje. *2462 A similar report stated that before the camp was closed, 33 of the camp's female prisoners were taken to the Trnopolje camp, while 5 others were left at Omarska. *2463 Other reports describe what appears to be the same transfer. *2464

       Manjaca-Late August 1992: It was reported that while prisoners were transferred to the Manjaca camp in early August, approximately 180 prisoners remained at Omarska for another 15 days, after which they joined the others at Manjaca. According to one report, the men who remained at Omarska were moved to a room near the kitchen where they were provided with beds and bedding and were given two meals a day of so much food that they could not eat it all. These prisoners reportedly had to clean up the «white house» and the area around it and paint the building white in preparation for a visit by the Red Cross and television crews. According to the subject, some women at the camp were kept out of sight when the Red Cross and the television crew came, but were returned to Omarska after the visit. *2465

       One subject similarly reported that in early August, the Omarska guards became unsettled and moved men from room to room. The subject stated that he and 183 other men were transferred to a garage about 25 metres square, and after three days, 88 of them, including the subject, were taken to the «white house». The subject stated that on 6 August 1992, mass transfers to Manjaca and Trnopolje took place, but that 184 men singled out before were left at the Omarska camp. Those prisoners were reportedly led to a large room where they had to assemble and make army beds. Subject stated that he was led away to a nearby room, beaten severely, and made to eat a cockroach. The subject believed that he was the last man severely beaten at the Omarska camp. The subject added that although the prisoners had made 120 beds, they were not allowed to sleep on them, but had to sleep of the floor of the hallway in that building. *2466

       One report stated that of the 179 prisoners left at the Omarska camp, five were women. *2467 One woman stated that she was among the last five women (out of 38) to leave the camp several days after Omarska was emptied of its last male prisoners. *2468

       It was reported that on 21 August 1992, camp authorities roll-called 172 prisoners who were taken to the Manjaca camp. Seven other prisoners, some of whom were women, were reportedly taken to an unknown destination. *2469 Other reports confirm that the remaining prisoners held at Omarska were transferred to the Manjaca camp. *2470

       Visits to Omarska by Outside Organizations and Individuals: It was reported that in early August, a group of journalists arrived at the camp, but that camp officials did not allow them directly inside. One subject stated that the Omarska camp authorities prepared a group of 10-15 prisoners to talk with them. The prisoners were given some bread and were ordered to tell the reporters that conditions at the camp were good and that Omarska was not a concentration camp, but a reception centre. According to the subject, about three days after the visit, prisoners began to be dispersed to other camps. *2471 Other reports described the process by which Omarska was prepared for the journalists' visits. Almost all of the female prisoners were reportedly transferred, the corpses on the lawn disappeared, and so did the prisoners marked by torture. *2472 One subject reported that he remained at Omarska to take part in a clean-up of the camp while most of the other prisoners were transferred to the Manjaca camp. The subject stated that there had been blood everywhere, and that marks of shooting on internal walls were covered with cupboards. The subject also reported that those involved in the clean up were told to tell journalists that nobody stayed in the camp for more than a day, and that Omarska was only a transit centre. He added that beds arrived the day before a visit from journalists but that prisoners were not allowed to use them. *2473 Other reports contain similar descriptions of the events during this time period. *2474

       It was reported that before the first journalists arrived at Omarska, about 200 men in one sleeping room were moved to another room already at overcapacity. The prisoners were then told to remain quiet and to keep their heads below the window. According to the report, there was only enough room for the men to sit with their knees against their chests. The other room was reportedly cleaned and 30 new prisoners from the Keraterm camp were reportedly put there and shown to reporters. *2475

       On the 5th or 6th of August 1992, Independent Television News (ITN) reporters Penny Marshall and Ian Williams visited the Omarska and Trnopolje camps. *2476 In their report they visited the camp and were shown only several hundred of the camp's prisoners, all Muslim men. ITN was reportedly told by authorities that those men were there to be interrogated. The authorities stated further that those men found guilty of fighting Serbs were sent to prisoner of war camps, and the innocents, to refugee camps. Reporter Marshall spoke to a woman identified as Nada Balaban, *2477 the camp's administrator, who stated, «No, this is not a camp, this is a centre, a transit centre, Omarska and Trnopolje, both centres, not camps.» When Marshall asked to see the prisoners' living accommodations, *2478 the request was denied by Ms. Balaban. *2479 When Marshall visited Omarska's cafeteria, she commented that the prisoners were silent and that the only voices heard where those of guards ordering the men to eat faster and leave. When a prisoner was asked by Marshall how he was treated, he reportedly responded, «I don't want to tell lies. I can't speak the truth. Thank you for coming.» Marshall reported that ITN was told that the army did not control the Omarska camp and that its prisoners were the responsibility of the civil authorities and the local militia.

       Helsinki Watch reported that after the ITN television crew filmed the Omarska camp, the Serbian military began taking journalists and others on arranged tours of the camps in the area. The military reportedly drove the journalists from Banja Luka to Trnopolje and three other camps in the area: Omarska, Keraterm, and Manjaca. Helsinki Watch reportedly visited the four camps in August 1992, and saw that they had recently been painted and cleaned. Most of the prisoners were reportedly terrified and refused to speak to the visitors. One prisoner, however, reportedly stated: «Don't believe what you see. They have made this place into a tourist attraction.» *2480

       One press report described the observations made by journalists who visited the Omarska camp: «Western journalists arrived at Omarska this week, only 175 men were still there. Crude attempts had been made to clean up the camp. Bunk beds were lined up in a room in which inmates said as many as 1,300 men had slept before.» *2481

       The ICRC was reported to have first visited the Omarska camp on 12 August 1992. *2482 It was reported that due to the mass-transfer of prisoners to the Manjaca and Trnopolje camps in early August, the ICRC was able to register only 173 prisoners during its visit. *2483 One subject reported that on 12 August 1992, international journalists arrived at Omarska and that camp authorities told them that the prisoners there had been held for two or three weeks for interrogation. The journalists had reportedly brought ICRC registration cards and registered all of the prisoners. The subject stated that the reporters told them that they were now citizens of the United Nations. *2484

       One subject reported that on 15 August 1992, the ICRC registered only male prisoners because camp authorities had hidden female prisoners from the ICRC representatives. *2485

       Link Between the Omarska Camp and the Authorities in Prijedor and Banja Luka: Milomir Stakic, the man identified as the mayor of Prijedor after Muhamed Cehajic was removed, reportedly acknowledged the link between civil authorities in Prijedor and the Omarska, Keraterm, and Trnopolje camps. Stakic stated in a translated statement that «[T]hose places like Omarska, Keraterm and Trnopolje were the necessity of the moment and were formed on decision of the Prijedor civil authorities.» With regard to the issue of beatings at the camps, Stakic reportedly stated, «According to the information there was no mistreatment and physical violence in the centres themselves.» Specifically addressing reports that persons had been killed at Omarska, Stakic said, «There were cases as the commander let me know--natural deaths with the medical documentation of death, not murder.» Stakic stated that he did not know how many persons had died, but that there were «not many». *2486

       Milan Kovacevic, the Prijedor city manager in Prijedor, reportedly stated that the Omarska camp was an investigative facility set up «to see who did what during the war, to find the guilty one, and to establish the innocent so that they didn't bear the consequences». He reportedly said that the camp was closed when the investigation was completed. *2487

       A man identified as «Drljaca», who reportedly became the Prijedor police chief when Serb forces took power, reportedly stated that 3,334 persons were arrested on suspicion of resisting or plotting against the new authorities and were taken to Omarska. He reportedly insisted that no one had been killed at Omarska, and that only two prisoners died between 25 May and mid- August, both of «natural causes». He also stated that another 49 had «disappeared», including the lord mayor of Prijedor, Muhamed Cehajic, and were presumed dead. He stated that detainees were interrogated for four days and shipped out. He said that 800 detainees who were alleged to have «organized the whole thing», among them «rich Muslims who financed» the Muslim SDA political party, were taken to Manjaca, which was operated by the Bosnian Serb army as a prisoner-of -war camp, to await criminal trial. Taken with them were 600 people who reputedly commanded units of the Muslim and Croat resistance. The remaining 1,999 were found innocent and taken immediately to Trnopolje, which officials said was a transit camp, Drljaca reportedly said. *2488

       Reports indicate that the civilian and police authorities of Prijedor administered the Omarska camp. Helsinki Watch reported that during its visit to the camp in August 1992, Serbian authorities acknowledged that approximately 3,500 persons had entered and left the camp. The authorities referred to the camp as an «interrogation centre». The camp authorities claimed that, although the «centre» was guarded by soldiers of the «Army of the Serbian Republic», prisoners were interrogated by the local police. *2489

       One news report contains a photograph of the camp's alleged administrator, Nada Balaban, who was pictured with a man identified as the Prijedor chief of police. *2490 Another report contains the same photograph of the same two individuals, with the man who was said to be the chief commander of all camps in the region. *2491

       One subject reported that in early July 1992, two prominent Serbian politicians from the Banja Luka council visited the camp. He said that a man who he identified as Vojo Kupresanin and his deputy by the last name of Glamocanin, arrived in a limousine escorted by a blue colored APC. *2492

       One subject reported that in mid-July 1992, the prime minister of the Serbian Republic, identified as Brdjanin, *2493 came to Omarska that the prisoners were paraded before him and made to sing a Serbian national song and do the three-finger salute. Brdjanin reportedly arrived in luxury car which was followed by helicopters. *2494

       One woman who was held at the camp characterized the guards as uneducated persons from the hills around Omarska. She stated that everything was done on orders from the Prijedor police. She stated that they got their orders directly from Prijedor. She added that most of the inspectors at the camp came from Prijedor and that she knew them personally. *2495

       One former prisoner stated that the strategy at Omarska was to beat prisoners who were considered privileged. He added that there was a camp priority for execution, which was: a) To execute those Muslims with party affiliations when the parties did not include Serbs; b) to execute those Muslims who had been caught in battle or had been arrested in possession of guns; c) to execute civilians; and d) random killings. He stated that at Omarska, legal cases were opened up against prisoners. One such case reportedly involved 35 Muslims and Croats from Prijedor. The subject stated that all 35 were found guilty of unknown charges and were forced to sign statements admitting their guilt and accepting their fate. Those papers were then reportedly filed away, and the individuals were executed. *2496 The subject stated that orders for executions came down through the Omarska camp command from identified officials in Prijedor. *2497

       Two reports from Prijedor lawyers who were held at Omarska also alleged that a «court» was used to legitimize the executions at the Omarska camp. *2498 The subjects identified and implicated a Serbian judge and a lawyer who reportedly headed the «court». *2499 The subjects also identified and implicated two other men who were involved in the «court», the chief prosecutor and his deputy. *2500 One subject stated that court also consisted of a lawyer and a secretary. *2501 One subject stated that on the days that the judge came to Omarska, liquidations and executions began. He commented that the judge and the other man heading the court, came to Omarska to sign «death warrants». *2502

       According to one report from a prisoner who was a lawyer from Prijedor, the «war court» members came to Omarska to oversee findings of the MUP inspectors on an irregular basis. *2503 The subject reported that the Prijedor MUP inspectors handled most of the interrogations at the camp; however, on occasion, either inspectors from Banja Luka or the army reportedly came to conduct interrogations on unidentified important cases. The subject identified the alleged Prijedor MUP inspectors and staff. *2504

       One subject reported information on the organization of the Prijedor Ministry of Internal Affairs (MUP), including the organizational relationship to the camps (including Omarska) and the police. The Prijedor MUP reportedly fell under the control of the Banja Luka MUP. However, parallel with the Prijedor and Banja Luka MUPs were their respective Emergency Operation Centres *2505 Under the Prijedor MUP's control was reportedly the Prijedor Civilian Police, the Omarska Civilian Police, the Omarska Camp, the Trnopolje camp, the Keraterm camp, the «war courts», and the MUP inspectors. *2506 The subject stated that the Prijedor Chief of Police was a member of the MUP and possibly its director. *2507

       According to one report, permission to enter the Omarska camp in early August was granted by local police officials and not by the military authorities. *2508 It was reported that the camp was run by a mix of militias and that no one group seemed to be in charge. Some of the most extreme of the local Serb population was said to be at Omarska. *2509

       Intake Procedures: It was reported that upon arrival at Omarska, prisoners were forced to run though lines of soldiers, during which time they were beaten and abused. A youth from Kozarac, who was reportedly taken to the camp one evening at the end of June 1992, described how he and other prisoners with him had to pass through two lines of soldiers who formed a passage between the bus and the shed into which they were first taken. He said that they were beaten with rifle butts, truncheons and a whip as they ran the distance of about 10 metres between the bus and the shed. *2510 Another subject similarly reported that upon disembarkment from the bus, the prisoners were brought through a 30 metre «corridor» where all were seriously beaten and abused. He stated that this «ceremony» was called the «wedding party» by the prison guards and that the prisoners were forced to the ground and badly beaten, following which they were forced to sing Serbian nationalistic songs. *2511

       One subject reported that after being transported to the camp on approximately 31 May 1992, he and other prisoners were made to pass through a «gauntlet» involving beatings by Serb soldiers. He stated that the garage facility in which they were going to be taken already held about 700 prisoners and that he and the others had difficulty pushing their way in. The subject stated that at least one prisoner was killed as the result of a beating by an identified guard. *2512 Another subject who was transported to the camp on 31 May 1992, described a similar scenario, whereby prisoners had to pass through a corridor and were beaten by guards with rifle butts along the way to a sleeping area. *2513

       One unidentified prisoner stated: «When arriving in Omarska, we had to leave the bus. We were only allowed to look on the ground. I personally was not beaten, but those men who rose their head were beaten by the Cetniks». *2514 Another unidentified witness stated: «When we arrived (28 May 1992) we had to walk to the tunnel through a row of soldiers who hit us with rifle butts, rubber sticks and fists». *2515

       An unidentified 53 year-old ex-prisoner stated that upon his arrival at Omarska on 28 May 1992, the first and the last five men who left his bus were shot by Serbian soldiers. *2516

       A subject who had been transferred to Omarska from Keraterm on 28 May 1992, stated that after getting off the bus in Omarska, the guards took out a health care provider; *2517 a school teacher; a health care provider; and a restauranteur and beat them severely. They were not seen thereafter. *2518

       A subject who was brought to the Omarska camp on approximately 30 May 1992, stated that two prisoners were killed immediately upon arrival at the camp and that they were told that this was to avenge the death of a Serbian soldier who was killed in battle. It was reported that the prisoners then forced to lay on the «runway» the entire day. *2519

       One subject reported that after being transferred to the camp from Kevljani in late May 1992, he and other prisoners were taken to a warehouse where trucks were repaired. He said that about 20 guards received men who emerged from the buses, and beat them. The subject reported that four of the men who observed this tried to escape, and three of them were killed with rifles. *2520

       One subject reported that in early July 1992, new arrivals were transported in and subjected to beatings with rifle butts. The subject reported that one of these prisoners were killed as a result of the beatings. *2521

       Confiscation of Valuables: It was generally reported that Serb guards would force prisoners to give up all of their belongings and to sign documents giving away their property. *2522 Subjects similarly reported that upon arrival at the camp, they were battered by guards who took their money and other valuables. *2523

       Upon their arrival at Omarska, prisoners were reportedly searched and beaten, and all items of value were confiscated. *2524 One former prisoner who arrived at the camp in early June 1992, reported that upon leaving the buses on which they were transported to the camp, prisoners were spread-eagled against and brick wall and searched. He noted that the wall was pock-marked with bullet holes and that the ground in front was covered with large blood stains onto which a soldier in a JNA uniform spread lime powder. *2525 Another subject stated that after arrival at the camp on 29 May 1992, he and 35 other prisoners were subjected to a thorough search by guards who took all of their possessions, including personal identity documents. The guards then reportedly registered each of them by taking their names and other personal data. The prisoners were subsequently placed in a «large hall» on the first floor of the administration building, together with 500 other prisoners. According to the subject, they received no food for four days and had to sleep on a concrete ground without any mattresses or blankets. The prisoners were reportedly interrogated three days later. *2526

       One subject reported that in late May 1992, personal effects were not taken from the prisoners upon intake, although anything resembling a weapon was. The subject stated, however, that during the night, guards would steal whatever they could from the prisoners. He said that a favourite method of obtaining money was for a prisoner to be selected and told to produce a sum of money in deutsche marks in one hour. If the prisoner did not, he would be severely beaten. The subject added that in the early days other prisoners would help to raise the money, but later there was little money and many were beaten. *2527

       One subject said that after arriving at the camp on 4 July 1992, he was met at the entrance by five camp guards who battered him with batons and kicked him with boots. The guards also reportedly took all of his money. He stated that he was interrogated a couple of days after his arrival at the camp. *2528

       Organization of Prisoners: The following are representative accounts of where prisoners were placed, and their subsequent treatment, after their arrival at the Omarska camp.

       One subject who was brought to the camp from Kozarac stated that he and 160 other persons were put into a five metres by five metres room and kept there for days. He reported that they were not fed and were not allowed to use the toilet. The prisoner also reported that he was beaten by soldiers using shoes, guns, and electric cables. *2529 Another subject who was brought to the camp from Kozarac, similarly reported that they were put into five by five metre rooms and were not fed until «much later». He added that the prisoners were not allowed to go to the toilet and were forced to relieve themselves in the room. *2530

       One subject who was transferred to Omarska from Brezicani stated that he and 450 other prisoners from Kevljani- Kozarac were kept in a 20 metres by 20 metres room in a truck garage where they lived for two-and-one-half months. He stated that for eight days the prisoners were given only water, for which they were required to pay and that each day five to six prisoners were called out and beaten. He stated that on the ninth day they were given some bread and on the 10th day, they were able to go to the kitchen for their meal. *2531

       One prisoner who was transferred from Keraterm to Omarska stated that prisoners arriving at Omarska were lined up chest to chest or back to back in numerous tight ranks in an open area in front of the two-story buildings. He said that they were not allowed to sit down, and whenever their ranks exceeded their captors expectations, some prisoners were taken to the side and beaten and shot. It was further reported that no prisoner was assigned quarters prior to an interrogation which took place in separate rooms on the second floor of one of the two-story buildings. He said that the interrogators asked the same questions as had been asked previously at Keraterm (regarding hidden weapons, incriminating documents, gold, and any affiliation with Muslim resistance forces), as well as additional questions regarding why Muslims had not joined in the efforts against Croats, and about the employment and property of each person. According to the report, every answer was accompanied by numerous blows from a rifle butt or iron rod. He stated that the majority of deaths among inmates were caused by injuries from rifle butt blows. He also stated that it appeared that every inmate was interrogated at least twice, and noted several inmates were suspended from an overhead crane to scare them into making confessions. *2532

       One subject who was transported to Omarska from Gornja Puharska stated that upon arrival at the camp, the «special cases» were immediately separated, and most were killed shortly thereafter. He said that the new arrivals were kept on the tarmac, known as the «pista», in the open between the two large buildings. For the first four days, the prisoners reportedly received no food or water. The subject estimated that there were approximately 800 prisoners on the tarmac. During that time, the prisoners were reportedly interrogated, and after being interrogated, they would be moved to a large hangar that had been used for the repair of big dump trucks used for mining. That building reportedly had six entrances for trucks and was divided into small rooms holding 120 men each. The building reportedly held 1,500 prisoners in total. The rooms there were reportedly very hot, with walls of corrugated iron and doors of steel. Each room reportedly had one very small window. On the other side of the tarmac was more of an administrative building that held what had been a canteen. The interrogations reportedly took place on the upper floor of that building which the subject estimated held about 2,000 prisoners. All of the buildings reportedly had a steel structure. *2533

       One subject stated that upon arrival at Omarska after being transferred from Keraterm in late May, approximately 500 prisoners were put in a single room for five days. *2534 He reported further that each day they were given a one and one-half litre bottle of water to share. *2535 Another subject stated that upon arrival at the camp he was taken along with other prisoners to a garage, where 65 persons were held. The prisoners there were frequently interrogated. *2536

       An imprisoned priest stated that upon his arrival at the camp he was subjected to beatings and held in one of the rooms of the «white house» He stated that 20 prisoners, all injured and some with broken limbs were crammed into this four metres by two metres space and that they were deprived of water and forced to drink their urine. He stated that his condition was such that he remained unconscious for several days before rejoining most of the camp's general population. *2537

       One subject who was transported to the camp on approximately 13 July 1992 stated that he was kept in a so-called hangar building that contained truck repair workshops and garages on the ground floor. On 21 July 1992, he was reportedly transferred to a building identified as the «white house» where he was kept for seven days. *2538

       Upon arrival, the prisoners were reportedly taken to what has been described as the two-story administrative building of the former mining company. *2539 One prisoner stated that they were not provided with any food for four days but that water was available. He stated that Bosnian Serbs began to interrogate the prisoners on their sixth day at the camp. *2540 Another prisoner reported that in early June 1992, he was given only water with a high rust content. *2541

       One subject reported that after arrival at the camp, he and other prisoners were placed in room number 15. According to the subject, Muslim policemen and local businessmen were taken out and killed the same night and the rest of the prisoners were registered in the morning. The subject added that for the first 60 hours, the prisoners were given no food or water and had to relieve themselves in the same room. *2542

       Interrogation Procedures: Reports indicate that prisoners were singled out for questioning and were subsequently tortured or killed. *2543 According to reports, interrogations at Omarska were typically accompanied by beatings, torture, abuse, and killing. *2544 One subject who arrived at the camp in late May 1992, stated that intellectuals and better-educated prisoners were usually interrogated several times and killed afterwards. *2545

       According to one subject, every Muslim prisoner held at the camp was interrogated at least three times during his stay there. He stated that most of the abuse, beatings and torture occurred during interrogations, when the interrogator and the guards hit the prisoner with rifle butts and iron bars, kicked him with their feet, and cut and stabbed him with their knives. *2546

       It was reported that the interrogations of prisoners were held on the top floor of the administration building and that a team of interrogators numbering over 16 worked a day shift from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. daily. Those interrogators were reportedly called «inspectors» who were assisted by two «assistants» or guards. According to the subject, the guards had a list of those selected for interrogation, and those selected were brought to the administration building and held on the ground where they were made to stand, arms outstretched with the Serb three finger salute, and that beatings were usually administered by the guards at this point prior to the actual interrogation. Thereafter, prisoners were reportedly taken to the interrogation rooms on the top floor one at a time. The prisoners reportedly stood or sat in front of a table facing the «inspector» with two guards standing behind the prisoners. According to the report, if the inspector was not happy with a prisoner's answer, he nodded at the guards who beat the prisoner. *2547

       An interrogation room was reportedly located next door to where the women in the camp slept. According to one of the women who was forced to clean the room on the mornings after beatings, the floor was often covered with fresh blood each morning. She stated that the interrogation room had three tables pushed against the walls and contained whips made from heavy cable. She also stated that the women who cleaned that room were, under threat of death, told to put back everything exactly as they had found it. *2548

       Women who were held at the camp stated that the interrogators at Omarska were not professional policemen, but had held positions such as movie directors and teachers. *2549One of the women held at the camp estimated that 40 per cent of those killed at Omarska died during, or as a result of interrogations. She stated that she witnessed prisoners being brought back in blankets while they had walked there under their own power. She stated that she heard screams from the investigation rooms «above the restaurant», and that the camp authorities tried to drown this out with noise and music. She added that the women were sleeping in the rooms in which the interrogations took place during the day and had that they had to wash down the room before going to sleep because it was «blood-smeared». *2550 Another woman who was held at the camp stated that after the interrogations, the women found metal bars, heavy plastic objects, pipes with iron wires and metal balls at the end, and objects made of heavy wood. She stated that the women would return these objects to the guards. She also stated that she heard screams from the room all day and that afterward the walls, closets and floors would be covered with blood. *2551

       It was reported that when one prisoner was brought in for interrogation, the interrogators had prior knowledge of his military service, knowledge of weapons, and ability to play the accordion. According to the report, the goal of interrogation was to gain information on the organization of the defence of the village, the identity of wealthy persons and the location of any valuables. *2552

       It was reported that interrogations carried out at night were «unofficial» and were conducted by the guards, the motive often being one of personal revenge. In addition to the unofficial beatings by the guards, the prisoners were also reportedly subjected to beatings and killing by a group which referred to by the subject as the «night visitors». *2553

       One unidentified subject reported:

«Only those were repeatedly questioned who seemed to be the suspicious in some way. When they returned, they always were seriously injured . . . Most of them were questioned and tortured until they died from their injuries.» *2554

       Other reports similarly describe the interrogation of prisoners accompanied by beatings, torture and killings. A priest who was held at the camp from mid-June through August 1992, stated that he was tortured to make him denounce «extremists» from his village and admit that lorries delivering food for Caritas International were transporting arms. *2555 One unidentified witness stated: «When we were questioned, we were beaten, I was beaten with a rubber stick.» *2556

       A subject who arrived at the camp on 28 May 1992, stated that several interrogations centred around weapons bought on the black market. He stated that one reserve policeman and another man who had bought an automatic weapon were killed in the interrogation room. *2557

       One subject reported that five soldiers would approach the prisoners and one would read the names of five prisoners. Those prisoners were then required to stand, place their hands on their heads, and march to the interrogation room which was reportedly located on the second floor of the building where the prisoners obtained their food. *2558 The subject reported that the people who were interrogated fell into three categories: 1) those who were not mistreated during the interrogation process; 2) those who were beaten but not killed; and 3) those who were killed during interrogation or later on the same day as the interrogation was conducted. He added that in at least some cases, the interrogators sought expanded biographical information on prisoners and details on participation in anti-Serb activities *2559

       Other subjects stated that sometimes the interrogations used the pretence of gathering information, determining responsibility for acts of war. One subject stated:

«Someone was a sniper, someone a machine-gun runner, someone a grenade thrower. For everyone they had a charge, which was a good enough reason to beat up a person. If we'd really had that many snipers or fighters, Prijedor and Kozarac would never have fallen.» *2560

       It was reported that prisoners were usually interrogated after their arrival and after a list had been made of the new prisoners' names. *2561

       One subject reported that after being transported to the camp on 28 May 1992, he and some other prisoners remained in the mess hall building for the first two days of their imprisonment. On the second day, camp officials reportedly began interrogations of the prisoners in an office on the second floor of the mess hall building. A guard reportedly led the prisoners to their interrogations one by one. According to the subject, an interrogator wearing a green army uniform without rank, was already seated behind a desk. The guard reportedly sat in a chair to the right of the prisoner and the prisoner was told to take a seat in front of the desk. He stated that in this case he was not mistreated during the interrogation and was offered a cigarette. He stated that he was asked his name, date of birth, name of parents, other personal information, name of siblings, his profession, name of his friends, and whether he had an official function in his village. He stated that the interrogation lasted about 30 minutes. Following the interrogation the prisoner was led to his permanent cell, located in a corner room on the ground floor of the large building which contained a high-bay vehicle work area. *2562

       One subject who arrived at the camp on 30 May 1992, described the process by which prisoners were called from the «pista» into their initial interrogations. The subject stated:

«During the first four days on the tarmac, we each waited for our turn to be questioned. We saw those brought back ahead of us. Each person who was questioned came back bleeding and could hardly walk. Interrogations lasted from 15 minutes to an hour and a half, depending on who did the questioning and who was being questioned. The most unlucky were those who happened to be wearing anything with the color green, the color of the SDA (Muslim political party). If you were wearing this color, you were finished. People tried to pick off that color from their clothes so as not to be killed.» *2563

       One subject stated that he was taken for «examination» on 31 May 1992, a few days after arrival at the camp. He stated that he was beaten and threatened with a pistol and that his interrogators demanded him to tell them who possessed weapons and what kind of weaponry they had. *2564

       One subject stated that he was brought from his detention room three days after his arrival in late May 1992, and was interrogated on the second floor of the administration building for two hours. He identified his interrogator and stated that this was his only interrogation while at the camp. He stated that the guard who brought him upstairs left the room, and that during his two hour interrogation he was not beaten or abused. *2565 The subject stated that he was asked: the names of Muslims in his town who organized resistance and who possessed weapons; the names of rich individuals in the town and where they were hiding their valuables; the names of Muslims who were active in the Muslim Democratic Party; and names and personal data of Muslims who were members of the Territorial Defence. He also had to provide an account of his own activities between 24 and 29 May 1992. *2566

       Another subject who was transferred to the camp in late May 1992, stated that several days after his arrival at the camp, he was interrogated about personal data, background, political activities and attitude, and about the rest of his family. He stated that he was not beaten during the interrogation. *2567

       According to one report, in early June 1992, prisoners were interrogated on their sixth day at the camp. The interrogations were reportedly carried out in approximately 10 offices on the second floor of the building where the prisoners were held. It was reported that prisoners recognized many of their interrogators as members of the civilian police forces in Banja Luka and Prijedor. They also identified some as military police from Banja Luka. It was also reported that interrogators seemed especially anxious to learn about who was responsible for organizing the defence of villages around Prijedor and how non- Serbs were obtaining arms. *2568

       One subject who had been transported to the camp from Prijedor in late June 1992, stated that interrogations started five or six days after his arrival and that the prisoners were asked who had organized an attack on Prijedor and who had smuggled arms. *2569

       A subject who was transferred to the camp from Keraterm on approximately 5 July 1992, stated that upon arrival at Omarska he was interrogated twice, each time for approximately two hours. He said that both times he was interrogated by two men in military field uniforms who asked the same typical questions which had been asked at previous interrogations: if he possessed weapons or western currency; if he was politically active; for which western intelligence service he worked; or if he knew of other Muslims who did any of the above. Three soldiers were reportedly present who beat the subject during the interrogations with baseball bats and electric cables all over his body, especially to the head, legs and kidneys. He stated that at the conclusion of his second interrogation, one of the interrogators apologized for the rough treatment and told him that there had been a misunderstanding and that he would have no more problems. *2570

       One subject reported that after being transported to Omarska in July 1992, prisoners were taken to the «white house» where about 15 soldiers wearing balaclavas questioned them briefly before putting them in the «bloody room». He stated that upon entering this room they were struck on the heads by two guards at the door, forced to kneel on the floor, were told to cross the room to the garage, and then were subjected to harsh beatings en route. The subject said that his ribs were broken, he fainted and regained consciousness four times, and each time was beaten and questioned. He said that he was taken to an office where four persons beat him with rifle butts and repeatedly subjected him to «cross-checked» questions and threatened to kill him. *2571

       One subject *2572 reported that on his 22nd day at the camp (on approximately 18-19 June), he was called out of «Building Number 11» at 2:00 a.m. and was interrogated by an individual who he knew before the war. He stated that the man was an officer with three chevron marks on his uniform, and that he repeatedly questioned the subject about the location of a large gun called a Mitraljez Breda. Subject denied any knowledge of such a gun and claimed that no one in Kevljani had owned such a weapon. The subject was then reportedly taken to «Building 10» to a room with four soldiers. He was then made to undress to his underwear and told to lie down on his stomach on the tile floor. One guard reportedly took an iron chair and put it on the subject's back and sat down as another guard took a large calibre automatic rifle and beat the subject on his spine with the butt of the rifle. A third guard reportedly kicked the subject along his legs and groin, while another guard continually pounded on his rib cage, breaking four of the subject's ribs. The subject stated that he lost consciousness and that the beatings continued when he came to, with one of the guards reportedly taking a police baton, and beating on his back and ribs continually and another guard pulling out a knife, threatening to circumcise him, and then reportedly cutting his kneecap. He was then made to stand up and lost consciousness and collapsed. The guards then threw water on the subject, returned his clothes, and walked him back to his room. The subject alleged that he was the first prisoner at Omarska to be returned to the rooms after a beating, and not be killed or taken to the «white house». *2573

       One subject stated that unlike others at Omarska, he did not undergo an interrogation until he was at the camp for about two months. The subject stated that during his interrogation, he was beaten with a stick to the kidneys and that they wanted to know which Serbs he and his friends had killed. *2574

       A number of other sources described the interrogation process at Omarska. One subject stated that:

«[t]hey would ask questions like `Where are your weapons?' `Were you a member of the SDA?' `Do you like Alija?' [President Izetbegovic] and beating us with each questions. They beat us with everything available, hands, fists, guns, night sticks, baseball bats. I don't understand where they got the baseball bats. We were made to sing Cetnik songs and songs proclaiming Greater Serbia. They forced us to take off all of our clothes to see if we were circumcised. When I went upstairs for my questioning, I was surprised how much information they already had about me--my mother's name, my father's name, where I had been employed. . . . I was questioned for about an hour. There was an interrogator in civilian clothes who asked all the questions. I was seated in a chair. Behind the chair were three men in uniform. As I first sat down and the first questions were asked, the three of them were slapping their billy clubs into their open palms next to my ears. . . .» *2575

       One subject stated that he and his 2 brothers voluntarily went to be questioned, hoping that they would be released and would be able to join their family in Trnopolje. The subject reported that he was interrogated on 6 June 1992, and that the interrogator asked, «Where were you during the attack [on your village]?» «Have you ever had weapons?» etc. One of the men who interrogated the subject had been his math teacher and reportedly kicked the subject in the chest. The subject stated that he was hit 15 to 20 times during the course of his interrogation. In an effort to scare the subject, one of the interrogators reportedly stated that the subject should be killed. *2576

       One subject reported that on 27 July 1992, he was called out of the «white house» by two soldiers and then taken to an upstairs room in the building where the kitchen was located. He stated that in the interrogation room, the chief sat behind a table and two men sat one on each side. One of the two asked questions, and the other two wrote them down. After taking personal data, the chief said he wanted to eat his lunch, and the other two men reportedly took the subject into another room where there were other soldiers: a total of five men. Each man reportedly held an object for use in a beating. The objects were reported to be: a police stick; a whip; a rubber stick; a metal stick that was square in shape; and a metal ball on a chain. The subject was reportedly told to get on his knees and hands and each man hit him on the back, legs, and neck with one of the objects. The refugee stated that he had heard from the other prisoners that it was important not to fall flat on the floor because then all of the men would hit him at the same time. He stated that he was then hit repeatedly about the legs with the metal stick until his legs grew numb. After the beating he was reportedly returned to the interrogation room. The chief then reportedly asked the subject if he was ready to hear his accusation, which stated that the subject was accused of having said in Donja Puharska that Muslim men would kill all Serbian men and would keep the Serbian women for use in reproduction purposes and for sexual training of young Muslim boys. *2577

       Camp Conditions-Meals-Nourishment: Reports indicate that during their first days at the camp, prisoners were generally given no food or water. *2578 Reports indicate that the food supply at the camp was insufficient. In addition, Omarska's prisoners were given only a few minutes for the consumption of their meal. *2579 It was generally reported that Omarska's prisoners were fed one meal per day and that the meal generally consisted of some bread and a bowl of soup or other substance. *2580 Other reports indicate that on some days, prisoners received no food. *2581 It was reported that the food at the camp was delivered by truck from Omarska. *2582

       The following are representative accounts confirming that prisoners received inadequate and infrequent meals at the Omarska camp. One unidentified 27 year old witness stated: «The Serbs gave us one piece of bread and a little bit of water once a day. Sometimes we got warm meals, but it was rather hard to determine what it was.» *2583

       An ex-prisoner who arrived at the camp in late May 1992, stated that a meal consisted of 90 grams of bread and sometimes some soup broth or a cabbage leaf. He added that often, 24-60 hours would pass between meals. *2584 Another subject during the same period of time described a similar meal including a cabbage leaf. *2585

       A woman who was held at the camp stated that the male prisoners at the camp were once a day fed one-eighth of a loaf of bread and a small plate of food. *2586 A male prisoner who was brought to the camp during the first week of June 1992, stated that prisoners were fed one meal per day consisting of a half slice of bread and one cup of soup with white beans. *2587 Another prisoner who was brought to the camp in late May 1992, stated that every two days, they received about 100 grams of bread and a small cup of soup with a bit of rice or potato. *2588

       One subject reported that many prisoners were accused of smuggling biscuits into camp. According to the subject, a pack of biscuits could be purchased from soldiers for 10 deutsch marks and that sometimes, this was the only food the prisoners would have for 36 to 48 hours. He stated that on one occasion, he bought biscuits from a soldier and was thereafter severely beaten by two other soldiers who accused him of smuggling the biscuits. *2589

       Prisoners were reportedly taken to the mess hall in groups of 30. *2590 It was reported that prisoners were ordered to leave their rooms and line up outside in their groups of 30, with heads bent down, facing the wall. They were also reportedly forbidden to turn their heads, and had to wait until ordered by a guard to walk fast, or run, to the mess hall. *2591 A woman who was held at the camp stated that there were eight tables in the cafeteria and that the prisoners were given three minutes to eat, enter and to leave. She said that guards were positioned on both sides of the door and that prisoners had to run so as to not be beaten. *2592

       There are numerous reports of abuse and daily beatings of prisoners entering and exiting the kitchen area. *2593There are reports that prisoners were beaten with heavy sticks, pipes, cables, and rifle butts when lining up for their meals. On their way to the «kitchen», prisoners had to go through rows of soldiers who tripped and beat them. *2594 One ex-prisoner stated that they were made to run a type of obstacle course when they were fed (entering and exiting the cafeteria) and that they had to pass single file between Serbian guards who tripped and beat them as they ran by. Benches and tables were also said to have blocked their path and if prisoners stumbled, they were reportedly beaten even more. *2595 Oil and water was also reportedly poured on the eating-area's floor to make it slippery. *2596

       One unidentified 29 year old witness reported: «When heading towards the kitchen to get our meal, we were often beaten by the soldiers. On both sides of the way, Cetniks were standing who beat us with heavy sticks.» *2597 Similarly, an unidentified 46 year old ex-prisoner stated:

«When returning to the garage after the meal, we had to go through a row of soldiers. The Serbs beat us with heavy sticks and rifle butts. In the middle of this row, there was a table which we had to climb up. The Serbs tilted the table over when a person was standing on it and beat again . . . After meal, we had to lay on the ground. When a prisoner rose his head, he was beaten.» *2598

       One subject reported that on 6 June 1992, an identified prisoner looked through the camp's kitchen window when eating and was shot dead for doing so by a guard on the outside. The subject also reported that on the same day an identified prisoner was eating by the kitchen when he was asked by a guard what he was doing. The prisoner reportedly replied «I am eating cheese [Bojrum] would you like some?» As the word «Bojrum» was of Turkish origin the guard reportedly took exception to its use and began to beat the prisoner. He was thereafter joined by two other guards who reportedly beat the prisoner to death. *2599 This same incident was reported by another source who stated that several prisoners witnessed the beating and killing of an identified prisoner. According to the source, the prisoner- victim received his daily slice of bread after which a guard said «Dobar Tek» (good appetite) to which the prisoner spontaneously replied «Bujum» (the Muslim equivalent). According to this source, several guards beat the prisoner senseless. He thereafter lay on his back and vomited and suffocated as guards reportedly prohibited others from turning him over. *2600 Another source reported that on 6 July 1992, a prisoner said «bujrum» to one of the guards was then beaten until he died («they were jumping on his chest until they broke his breast plate»). *2601

       Water: Reports indicate that on occasion, prisoners did not receive water for days after their arrival at the Omarska camp. In one example, a prisoner who was taken to the camp in late May 1992, stated that the prisoners did not receive any water for three days after arrival at which time they were given only about 10 litres to drink for 450 men. *2602

       It was also reported that the water provided to the prisoners was unfit to drink. One subject stated that the water came from two sources: directly from a well and from the river. He reported that the water was red from iron oxides and had been used to rinse the iron ore. He added that prisoners suffered from dysentery and typhoid fever. *2603 Other subjects reported that the water provided at the camp appeared to be contaminated with oil. *2604

       It was reported by one ex-prisoner that the authorities at Omarska would let prisoners drink as much water as they wanted, but due to its poor quality, the prisoners would get diarrhea or dysentery, which would force them to use the toilet and subject them to beatings. *2605

       It was further reported that prisoners who stashed money away were able to buy a litre of water for 100 deutsch marks. *2606

       One subject reported that the camp's prisoners were forced to sing «Cetnik» songs to be given drinking water. He stated that they did not know the words and were helped by soldiers. *2607

       One subject reported that in late June 1992, water became more plentiful at Omarska. *2608

       Sleeping Facilities: For lack of space in some rooms, prisoners were reportedly forced to sleep in a sitting position. *2609 In at least one severely cramped room, prisoners had to take turns sleeping. «Sleep shifts» were reported to have continued throughout the night. *2610

       According to one ex-prisoner, in late May 1992, he was held in «building Number 11», in a room which was 15 by 15 metres large. He stated that approximately 450 men were forced into the room which was too small for everyone to lie down, so they took turns sitting and standing. *2611

       Another subject reported that after arriving at the camp from Keraterm in late May, he and other new arrivals were taken to a room that was formally used by miners as a changing room. The prisoners were reportedly housed there until 25 June 1992. *2612

       One subject stated that in late May 1992, 200 persons were initially held in a room measuring 250 square metres, but on subsequent occasions, the room contained 400 to 600 prisoners. He added that there was no furniture or bedding and that they slept on a tiled floor. *2613

       One subject who was brought to the camp in late May stated upon arrival at the camp he was placed, along with 150 prisoners, into a garage where they could barely stand. Three men reportedly suffocated to death there. *2614 Another subject stated that «[t]here was a garage where 124 men were kept [three by three].» *2615

       One subject stated that on 28 May 1992, he was led to his permanent cell which was located in the ground floor of the large building which contained a high-bay vehicle work area. He said that this was the building located closest to the «white house». He described his room as a former electricians' workshop and stated that the room was about four by five metres large, with an iron door and a barred window as its only ventilation. He stated that at one point the room housed 186 men and that the men were forced to sleep on their sides on the concrete floor, without blankets, in a partial foetal position. He stated that at night guards would open the door and walk over the prisoners, and that if they found a prisoner lying in any other position, he was beaten. *2616

       One subject stated that after his only interrogation, he was escorted from the administration building to «Room 15» which was located on the «second floor of the largest building where the majority of male prisoners were kept». The subject stated that the room was six by four metres large, and most of the time held 104 men. *2617 He stated that the prisoners slept on the concrete floor and had no blankets. *2618

       Another subject described Room 15, which he stated held 300 to 350 men (some time in July 1992). The subject stated that the room had a small bathroom area with long, cement, trough- style sinks. The subject stated that for lack of space, prisoners slept in and under the sinks. The subject said that three faucets worked, so it was the only room available with water available to the prisoners. He stated that he slept 10 days in the room and was then moved across the hall to the shower stalls. Two prisoners reportedly slept in each stall, one metre square. The subject stated that he could only stretch his legs if he extended them up the side wall, and stated that he stayed there until early August. *2619

       According to one report 475 people were accommodated in a single room estimated to be only eight metres by 14 metres in size. *2620 A priest who was held at the camp from mid-June to August 1992, stated that the prisoners were held 100 to a room. *2621

       Reports quoted ex-prisoners as stating that they were held in various areas of the camp, including: an outdoor pit; *2622 metal cages which were part of an ore loader; *2623 a toilet area. *2624

       Medical Treatment: Most reports indicate that there was no health care provided by the Omarska camp administration. *2625 However, some doctors among the prisoners reportedly tried to take care of the sick and wounded, without any instruments or medicine. *2626 One unidentified subject reported that «there was no doctor in the camp. If someone was injured seriously, the Serbs let him die without any treatment». *2627 Similarly, one subject stated that after severe beatings, the prisoners were given no medical treatment and had to use their shirts for bandages. *2628

       However, one subject reported that there was a doctor and a nurse at the camp, in the «white house». *2629 Another subject stated that during the first four to five weeks in late May-early June 1992, a Serb military doctor would visit the camp a few times a week and hold a two to three hour surgery in the «white house». *2630

       It was reported that a typhus epidemic broke out in the camp at the end of June-July 1992, and that the camp's authorities did not try to stop it. *2631 One subject stated that he never saw a medical doctor at the camp and that sick prisoners were not treated. He added that those who had typhus received no medicine and were not separated from the other prisoners, and that 100 prisoners died of the disease. *2632 Another subject added that dozens of prisoners died of an epidemic which was probably typhus, and that healthy prisoners had to carry out dead prisoners and place them in front of the «white house». *2633

       It was reported that dysentery at the camp was rampant and that conditions were so unclean that some prisoners counted 10 types of lice or vermin on their bodies. One ex-prisoner stated: «We had lice on our eyelids. They'd fall out of your beards». *2634

       It was also generally reported prisoners became sick with diarrhea and that they received no medicine. One subject estimated that at least 10 prisoners died as a result of diarrhea. *2635 Another subject estimated that at least five died as a result of the ailment. *2636

       When the Omarska camp closed down, camp doctors at Manjaca reportedly estimated that of the prisoners transferred there, at least one in 10 had contracted dysentery. Other prisoners reportedly suffered from untreated and festering wounds from their beatings. *2637

       Toilets: Each prisoner was reportedly allowed to occasionally use a toilet for two minutes or less. *2638 However, it was reported that prisoners who attempted to relieve themselves or use the toilet were subjected to beatings. *2639 One subject reported that some guards would not permit prisoners to use the toilet for 10 to 15 hours. *2640 According to one report, one latrine served about 800 inmates. *2641 There was reportedly no toilet paper at the camp. *2642

       One subject reported that there were always two to three guards stationed in the toilets, and that on one occasion, they kicked and beat him as he tried to relieve himself. He stated that he was made to pray in the Serbian Orthodox way, and that they put his head into the toilet bowl. *2643

       One subject reported that the camp initially had four toilets in «block A» and another in «block B». A few weeks after his arrival in late May 1992, one of the toilets reportedly became blocked and was inoperable. The subject stated that after this, the toilets were used only at night; and during the day the prisoners urinated into a concrete ditch running along the side of the compound and defecated on the grassy banks. The subject noted that the prisoners were always under guard. *2644

       One subject who was held in «Room 15» stated that the room had no bucket where prisoners could relieve themselves during the night and they were therefore permitted to go to the toilet. However, the subject added that prisoners who asked for permission to use the toilet at night were beaten. The subject reported that on 10 July 1992, a prisoner who was sick and needed to use the toilet, was beaten by an identified guard wielding a rubber club and a wooden table leg. The prisoner reportedly defecated and had to sleep in his own waste. He was, however, allowed to clean himself at the toilet the next day. *2645 Another subject reported that there was no toilet bucket in the room where he was held, and that people in the room were defecating blood. He stated that prisoners were not able to ask to use the toilet. *2646

       Hygiene: It was reported that prisoners at the camp did not receive soap and were unable to shower or wash themselves. *2647 An unidentified former prisoner stated that he couldn't wash for 70 days. *2648 Another subject stated that in 72 days at the camp he did not get a change of clothes or a chance to wash, except for his hands and face. *2649

       One subject reported that prisoners were allowed to bathe only twice all summer. The guards on one occasion reportedly ordered prisoners to disrobe in groups of 50 and then aimed fire hoses at their genitals. *2650 A subject reported that on one occasion he and other prisoners were taken out to a field and hosed with cold water. *2651 Another subject reported that occasionally prisoners were allowed to use a hydrant for bathing and washing clothes. During that time, they would strip naked and dry their clothes in the sun. *2652

       It was reported that after being denied the use of the toilet, some prisoners had to wear their soiled garments for days, without having the possibility to wash them. *2653

       One subject reported that all of the prisoners had lice and had to share a single comb per 100 persons. *2654 Another subject confirmed that the prisoners at Omarska were infested with lice and other vermin. *2655

       One subject reported that some prisoners received soap from their families and that they were allowed to wash in the same trough from which they drew their drinking water. *2656

       Weight Loss: Numerous reports describe weight loss suffered while at the Omarska camp. One subject reported that during his 77-day confinement at Omarska from late May 1992, his weight dropped from 86 to 52 kilograms. *2657 Other reports by ex- prisoners claim the following weight loss: 71 kilograms to 49 kilograms; *2658 85 kilograms to 49 kilograms; *2659 86 to 40 kilograms; *2660 a total of 25 kilograms; *2661 a total of 30 kilograms. *2662

       Prisoner Routine: Reports indicate that prisoners were allowed out of their housing only once a day, in order to run to their meal at the mess hall building. *2663

       One subject reported that in his case, he and the other prisoners spent most of the day in the same room in which they slept. He said that in order to get to see a friend in another building he had to bribe a guard. According to the subject, prisoners slept until 7:00 a.m. when they were allowed outside to relieve themselves. Occasionally, the guards reportedly allowed the prisoners to sit outside, but at 8:00 p.m., the doors to the «garderobe» were reportedly shut. *2664

       A priest who was held at the camp from mid-June to August 1992, stated that prisoners spent the days lying face-down on the road, with guards trampling on anyone who moved. *2665

       Forced Labour: One subject reported that on 30 June 1992, a group of eight prisoners was assigned to a daily work and cleanup detail, working from 7:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. at a slaughterhouse located 300 metres from the camp. The subject reported that their task each morning included washing interiors of between 10-15 blood-spattered trucks used to transport the bodies of prisoners who had been killed or died the previous night. The subject added that blood-stained and bent iron rods inside the trucks were also replaced with clean ones each day. The subject also stated that the prisoners also helped out at the slaughterhouse where four cows and six sheep were slaughtered to feed the guards. *2666

       Another subject reported that prisoners would be picked two or three times a week to clean the camp and on several occasions qualified welders would be given the task of building up the worn teeth on the excavator buckets on the site. Those jobs were reportedly welcomed because prisoners selected received two meals daily. *2667

       Special Treatment of Certain Prisoners: Reports indicate widespread killing at the camp and that political and religious leaders and professionals were particularly singled out for execution. *2668It was further reported that prisoners were abused every day, especially at night. The guards at the camp would reportedly pick out ten people, take them out and beat them. It was reported that the wealthier or more educated persons were usually the victims of such beatings. *2669

       Reports state that prisoners were grouped into categories such as «guilty» and «innocent», depending on their level of education and wealth. According to many of the reports, mostly (but not exclusively), wealthy persons and intellectuals were executed. *2670 One unidentified ex-prisoner reported that many people who were politically active or wealthy were killed or at least tortured. *2671 Another unidentified subject reported the separation of prisoners at Omarska into three groups: «The first group were those who had been politically active. These people, about 1,000, were immediately shot by the Serbs». The second group reportedly consisted of civilians and the third group of prisoners who had participated in the war on the BiH side. *2672

       An unidentified former prisoner who had been held at Omarska from 30 May 1992, stated:

«It often happened that the Serbs called persons by name and brought them away. During the 73 days I stayed in the camp, I saw 1,200 to 1,400 dead bodies. Every morning, there were 15-20 dead bodies in the fields of the camp . . . . A great part of the victims was rich or educated.» *2673

       It was also reported that at both Omarska and Keraterm, Muslim men who had been policemen were targeted for special abuse, and that many were shot to death immediately upon arrival at the camps. *2674 One subject reported that majority of active and reserve police members at Omarska were killed at the camp. He cited one example of such a killing occurring on 27 May 1992. *2675

       One subject reported that 150 persons from Kozarac were held in a garage, which was big enough to hold only 30 persons. The subject stated that persons from Kozarac were singled out for special treatment because they had put up a fight in defence of their village. *2676

       Abuse During Detention: According to most reports, severe maltreatment of prisoners occurred at Omarska. *2677

       One subject stated that there was a pattern to which prisoners were abused, taken away and killed. The subject stated that,

«after about 10-15 days, we understood their logic, and then one could more or less guess who would disappear from the Omarska camp. The logic was like this: first, the people who had been accused of having fought with arms against the Serb government would disappear. So the first ones they finished off were those who had weapons. When they no longer existed at Omarska, the intellectuals began to disappear. Among the intellectuals, no doctor has survived to my knowledge. After that, renowned citizens disappeared. By that I mean above all, rich people with enviable possessions. When they too had disappeared, they started to kill at random.» *2678

       Reports further indicate that detainees were often beaten with rubber and iron sticks, rifle butts and fists. It has also been noted in reports that many of the camp's prisoners were questioned about wealthy Bosnian Muslims and that wealthy and intellectual Bosnian Muslims were a main target of abuse, torture and killings. In this context, an unidentified subject stated:

«The soldiers often came with a list of names. Those whom they read out had to go with them. They never came back. Most of the people on these lists were in good positions before the war, like managers, owners of restaurants etc.» *2679

       One subject reported that at 10:00 p.m. on 15 July 1992, a couple of camp guards came to Room 15. The guards reportedly read from a list of approximately 33 prisoners, and escorted them to the former car repair shop, called the «garage» which was located on the first floor in the same building. For the next half-hour, subject and his fellow prisoners were reportedly abused by 10 men in JNA uniforms and five camp guards. Prisoners were reportedly struck with rubber clubs, made to lick the dirty garage floor and eat dirt. Other prisoners were reportedly made to smash subject's head into the concrete floor while he was laying on his stomach. The subject was thereafter kicked and trampled by two «Cetniks» and was also hit in the face with a pistol. Subject reportedly broke his nose and received other injuries. Another prisoner reportedly died of his injuries. *2680

       It was reported that a prisoner who had been a professor was beaten severely by an Omarska guard who was a former student. The professor had reportedly given the guard poor grades while he was in school. According to the report, the professor returned from one beating, barely conscious, spitting blood, and with double vision. *2681

       One subject stated that while guards called out names from lists, many of those killed or beaten were selected at random. He stated: «the guards would come in at 3:00 a.m. and take five people out, telling us they were going to be exchanged. Where they took them, God only knows.» Another subject stated that often the guards did not know whom they had beaten to death. The subject recalled that «sometimes they would call them by name. But sometimes they would ask me afterwards, `Do you know who this is?'» The subject said that he identified many friends who had been beaten to death. *2682

       One subject who arrived in the camp in late May 1992, stated that each night guards randomly selected five to 10 persons to torture and kill. The subject commented that guards would hold torture competitions, for example, to see who was the most proficient at breaking bones. *2683

       One subject who was held at Omarska, compared the facility to a camp where he was held in 1945: «I was the oldest prisoner in the camp (Omarska). I know what a camp means. In 1945, I was in a camp as well. I know the rules of a camp, but there were no rules in this camp.» *2684

       It was reported that there were two ways to avoid beatings at Omarska: 1) Never look a guard in the eye; 2) If called to an interrogation, confuse the guards by saying that you had just come from one. To this effect, prisoners sometimes reportedly smeared themselves with blood from newly beaten detainees. *2685

       Reports indicate that ill-treatment worsened when the camp's guards were drunk. *2686 One subject reported that the violence at the camp also worsened in time as the guards «had already taken everything of value». *2687

       One subject reported that he had personally been beaten only a few times by blows from a gun butt. He said, however, that he was part of only a tiny minority (some 10-15 per cent) who «got away lightly». *2688

       Forced Abuse By Prisoners: There are numerous reports that Omarska's prisoners were forced to abuse one another. One subject reported that he was forced to beat his own brother and if he did not, they both feared that they would be killed. He described an instance when a police truncheon was placed into his mouth and he was told to bite it or face having it shoved down his throat and have his head smashed against a wall. He said that he was struck repeatedly about the head with a gun and when he fell, was stamped on. He said that when the «police» became tired, they forced the other prisoners to continue the beatings. *2689

       According to one report, in about mid-June, guards collected prisoners who had organized defences in various villages. Those prisoners were reportedly forced to strip and were forced into vats of a chloric acid solution which caused their skin to turn a vibrant pink. The prisoners were then reportedly ordered to beat each other with metal bars and were thereafter taken away and never seen again. This scenario was reportedly repeated with at least five other groups of men. *2690

       One subject reported that on one occasion a guard cut off a prisoner's ear and forced another prisoner to eat it. The subject stated that a guard also cut a piece of flesh from a wounded prisoner and told the man to eat it. *2691

       See also reports of castrations below.

       Beatings by People from Outside the Camp: Reports also indicate that beatings at the Omarska camp were not only administered by the shift guards, but also by individuals who were allowed into the camp after dark. *2692 One source reported that sometimes Serb civilians would come into the camp for a «little sport». He identified one of those persons who was reported to have called out the names of three well-known prisoners (formerly wealthy individuals) in the source's room and beat them for two hours with a metal pipe. The source stated that the prisoners would come back with broken wrists, battered faces, and were barely able to walk. *2693

       Music During Beatings: Reports indicate the presence of music to accompany some of the abuse at the Omarska camp. One subject reported that music accompanied beatings on many occasions at Omarska. He said that while the music was played loudly, he could still hear the screaming of prisoners. *2694 It was similarly reported,

«[w]hile they were killing, they had the radio on. The tapes, those songs on all night long. The radio was always on. While they were beating the radio was always on. But you could hear the screaming over the radio. It was louder.» *2695

       The «White House: and the »Red House«: According to reports, the Omarska camp had two buildings used exclusively for the purpose of torture: the »white house« and »red house«. According to reports, conditions at the »white house« were terrible, but on occasion, prisoners returned from it. *2696 However, it was reported that no one sent to the »red house« ever returned. *2697

       The «Red House»: It was reported that the building referred to as the «red house» was where prisoners were taken to be beaten and that many of them were mutilated and killed. *2698 It was also reported that educated persons tended to be sent to the «red house». *2699 It was reported by some that no prisoner was known to survive the «red house». *2700 According to reports, corpses were often dumped on the grass near the structure, where they were left out for days. *2701

       It was reported by one subject that from mid-July until Omarska was closed, starting at 8:00 p.m. each evening, guards collected men from different locations in the camp and took them to a holding area at the «white house». Guards then asked the prisoners for their names and family details, and then marched them away individually. At about 4:00 a.m., prisoners would reportedly hear a truck drive up to the «red house» to collect the corpses. *2702

       One subject reported that it was «normal» for up to 40 prisoners to be killed and mutilated in the «red house» in one night. *2703 One subject who arrived at the camp in July 1992, stated that he did not know what went on in the «red house» but that he saw bodies lying outside the building among old automobile tires. He stated that the victims had obviously been killed with knives. He stated that he had observed the bodies each day when the guards escorted the prisoners outside to relieve themselves. He stated that he noticed that the dead outside the «red house» had arms or legs missing and that there was one body of a man with a slit throat. He added that the stench was unbearable. *2704

       Another subject reported that he kept a count each night (for his final 20 nights at the camp) of inmates taken to the «red house». He stated that on some days there were as few as 17 taken, and on others, as many as 42. He stated that none ever returned. *2705

       One report stated that three prisoners tried to buy their way out of the «red house» and that two were shot and killed in one of the compounds by a guard. *2706

       One subject reported that a prisoner was suspended by his wrists in the Red House, after which the subject was forced by drunken camp guards to bite off the prisoner's genitals. This reportedly caused the death of the prisoner. The subject was then reportedly suspended by his wrists, while a third prisoner was forced to bite off the subject's testicles. The subject reportedly lost his right testicle in this manner. He reported that an interruption to the torture prevented further injury. *2707

       The «White House»: The «white house» (bijela kuca) is identified in photos contained in television news reports. *2708 Reports indicate that the «white house» was a place at Omarska where prisoners were tortured and killed. *2709

       One subject described the «white house» as the «most infamous» structure at the camp. He stated that the building was where the camp authorities held those they called «extremists». According to the subject, the first room to the left was the punishment room, where «hardly anyone came out alive». *2710

       Another subject stated that the «white house» was referred to as the «Abattoir». *2711 A subject who had been taken there, said that the «white house» was also known as the «killing house». He said that prisoners estimated that only 1 per cent of those taken there remained alive. *2712

       One subject reported that 10 to 15 days after being transported to the camp in late May from Kozarac, torture and executions began, mostly at the «white house». *2713

       Reports stated that no one was killed with a gun at the «white house», only by beatings and the like. *2714 According to reports, in the morning prisoners would see bodies piled up next to the white house. *2715

       There are reports that prisoners could on occasion buy their way out of the «white house» by bribing guards. *2716

       It was reported that every evening, soldiers would stand before the prisoners where they lay or sat on the concrete pad between the buildings and read out names from pink-colored cards. Those whose names were called *2717 were reported to have been usually taken to the «white house». According to one subject, the men on the concrete pad could see the men being severely beaten, usually to death, in front of the «white house». *2718

       One subject reported that on average, 15 prisoners were killed each night at the «little white house». He added that prisoners in the high-bay building whose detention building faced the «white house» could see the corpses piled outside. *2719 Another subject stated that from his room behind the «white house», he could see the place where corpses were disposed of and that they could see eight to 10 new bodies brought there every day. *2720 Another subject reported that during one month at the camp, he witnessed some of the killings in a room «next door» at the «white house» and the subsequent removal of bodies. He estimated that guards killed five to 10 men per night, and up to 30 prisoners on some nights. He added that guards sang as they beat prisoners to death and sometimes sang nationalistic and religious songs. *2721 Another subject stated that he helped to load between five to 10 corpses daily from daily from the «white house» into a small yellow pick-up truck. *2722

       There are reports that one woman who was separated from the other women at the camp from the onset, was held at the «white house». The woman was reportedly raped by other camp inmates who were coerced by guards. *2723 In a related report, three female subjects stated that they witnessed the killing of a local politician. They stated that the man was ordered to rape a girl who was kept in the «white house». When he refused, he was reportedly castrated, had his throat cut, and his eyes gouged out. *2724

       The following are representative accounts of some of the abuses which occurred in and around the «white house».One subject who was transferred to Omarska from the Prijedor police station *2725 in late July 1992, stated that upon arrival he was put into the «white house» where he was kept for about 15 days. He stated that he was locked in a room with dozens of men, many of whom he recognized from his village of Rizvanovici. He stated that every day prisoners were taken into one of five interrogation rooms and beaten with iron bars and wooden sticks. *2726 The subject added that on many nights guards would come and call prisoners out of the rooms and that those prisoners would never be seen again. On one occasion, when the guards came a prisoner reportedly «lost his nerve» and began to shout, whereupon the guard shot and killed him on the spot. According to the subject, he once watched through the window as guards took prisoners out of the «white house» and told them to run, shooting them in the back as they fled.

       According to one subject (on an unspecified date), three identified prisoners were taken into the compound area outside the accommodation block and beaten until their limbs were broken. Three unidentified Serbs then reportedly blinded the prisoners and forced knives into their mouths, thereafter turning the blades. Two of the men were reportedly killed and a third was taken that night to the «white house». According to the subject, the surviving prisoner was still alive the next morning but was loaded onto a truck with 50 dead persons who had been killed at the «white house» that night. The subject estimated that it was normal for trucks to pull up and take 40-50 bodies away from the «white house» every morning. *2727

       One former prisoner estimated that four to five prisoners were killed in the «white house» per night by beatings with baseball bats, steel balls on chains, whips, and rifle butts. Afterwards, these prisoners were carried outside by other prisoners and laid on the ground. Some of those prisoners were reportedly still alive when they were loaded onto a yellow truck that came each morning to transport the dead and dying. *2728 One subject stated that he was part of a group of prisoners who had to carry bodies of dead prisoners from the «white house». He stated that in five days in early July 1992, he carried 10 bodies out into the field behind the structure. *2729

       One subject reported that prisoners were killed 20 at a time, and that those prisoners would be taken to the «white house» after 9:00 p.m., to be killed, and that the bodies were left behind the building for other prisoners to see. *2730

       One subject reported that each morning, prisoners laid out corpses on the tarmac in front of the «white house». He added that others then loaded them into the small yellow truck that had just been used to deliver food to the camp's kitchen. The subject added that a four-man burial detail would accompany the truck, but only one would return alive. *2731

       One subject reported that on one occasion he saw three prisoners being killed without provocation next to a ditch in front of the «white house» and that on another occasion he saw another seven men being killed in the same manner. *2732

       Castration Reports: A young Bosnian Muslim subject who owned a Suzuki motorcycle was reportedly tortured in front of the other prisoners, after which time his teeth were knocked out. According to one subject, the guards then tied one end of a wire tightly around the prisoner's testicles and then tied the other end of the wire to his motorcycle. A guard then reportedly got on the motorcycle and sped off. *2733

       According to one subject, a prisoner on an unspecified date asked an extreme guard if he could sneak him a bit of bread. The prisoner reportedly said «I'm hungry» to the guard. The guard then reportedly ordered another prisoner to take off his pants and then told the first prisoner to kneel in front of the other man. «If you're hungry, now you'll eat eggs», the guard reportedly said. «If you don't eat, I'll cut your throat», the guard added. The subject said that the prisoner bit off the testicles of the other man who died shortly thereafter. *2734

       Another subject reported that an identified prisoner was castrated after three days of torture. The subject stated that he saw the castration through a gap in a door and that he heard crying from outside. The castration was reportedly performed by «a Serb». The subject added that a friend of the victim was made to cut his body with a knife, kiss him, and lick his blood. *2735

       A television media report featured prisoner eyewitnesses and a prisoner participant in an often reported castration incident alleged to have occurred on approximately 17 June 1992. The report contained interviews with a witness who reported that Serb guards started the incident by calling up names. Q, the participant, confirmed that at around 5:15 p.m., Serb soldiers in camouflage uniforms came in to pick out a cafe- owner and active policemen to beat them up. He also reported that the guards later dragged out two truck-owners and three policemen and thereafter beat them and carved crosses on their bodies with bayonets mounted on automatic rifles. Q stated that he was then told to go outside with the other prisoners and that he had to drag them through the hall, half-dead. One witness reported that he witnessed as the guards first forced Q to jump into a duct filled with waste oil and shout, «I am a pig, I love pigs!» Q confirmed that he was forced to drink motor oil from his hand and later from a beer bottle. Another witness stated that while Q was doing this, the guards were beating the others and trampled them. Q reported that he was then forced to tear off the testicles of the other prisoners with his teeth and that the men were screaming in pain. The witness stated that one victim died immediately and that two others gave some final screams and that they were thereafter taken away in a truck. The witness stated that he and others had to clean up the blood. Q stated that he was ordered by men to tear off the other prisoners' testicles. The witness stated that the guards at the time were under the command of one who was a supervisor at the camp and whose shift was said to have been the worst. The witness stated that there were about 15 guards on this individual's shift. Q stated that the guards witnessed the incident and were laughing, and the next day they told in the «galleries» what he had done. *2736

       Other reports appear to describe the same castration incident, though they vary as to details. One subject reported that Q was subjected to «genital atrocity» at the hands of a coerced friend and then killed by knife at the «White House». *2737

       One subject reported that a fellow prisoner, was forced to drink a litre of motor oil and survived. The same prisoner was also reportedly forced to take part in genital biting and to at least three other prisoners. *2738

       An unidentified 31 year old witness who was at the camp from 29 May to 6 August 1992, described the following incident:

«Four Muslims were taken out of the hall. Two of them were forced to tear off the genitals of the two others with their hands. Then two other Muslims were brought and they also had to tear off the genitals of the other two. Then the four Muslims were taken away by truck. When they were taken away, they were still alive.» *2739

       Another subject who was held at the camp from 29 May to 6 August 1992, stated that,

«three Cetniks, among them [an individual] from Kozarac killed four young men. They first beat them up until they were laying on the floor, they cut their testicles . . . One of the victims was [B] . . . A Cetnik cut three crosses into his body, two in his head and one in his belly.» *2740

       Other reports described what appears to be the same incident. *2741 One such report identified two individuals, who often visited the camp at night. According to the report, they entered the sleeping quarters carrying pistols and automatic rifles and called for B, who was frequently abused, and two other individuals (G and R) to come forward. The three were reportedly beaten with rifle butts and police batons in full view of the other prisoners. The perpetrators then forced G to drink a glass of motor oil and then the urine of the two other prisoners. He was next beaten until unconscious and then awakened with cold water. G was thereafter forced to take his pants off and then the perpetrators reportedly forced B and R to bite off his testicles. G thereafter died of his wounds that night. These acts were reportedly committed on the shift of one of the perpetrators. *2742

       Other descriptions of what appear to be the same castration incident were contained in many of the reports reviewed. Many of these reports vary as to detail, but appear to describe the same set of facts. *2743

       Torture: According to reports, prisoners were forced to lay in the sun on a concrete area known as the «pista» (track) during the summer and were not allowed to move for hours, consequently suffering from sunstrokes and sunburns. *2744

       One subject stated: «We spent day after day stretched out on our stomachs on the concrete of that parking area.» *2745

       Another subject stated:

«After 28 days, they put me on the `pista' which was an asphalt parking lot. Here I was with another 600-800 people. Most of the time we were forced to lay motionless on the asphalt on our bellies. If anybody moved the Serbs opened fire in that direction from the anti-aircraft four barrel machine-gun mounted on an armoured car by the `white house' (Bijela Kuca), usually killing 4-5 people daily and wounding others. . . .» *2746

       One subject reported that after some public beatings, he saw guards pour acid on the fresh wounds of prisoners. *2747

       Number of Prisoners Killed During Detention: Numerous sources referred to «lists» of prisoners to be killed or abused. However, one source reported that the Omarska authorities did not keep track of which prisoners were killed, which often caused confusion. One subject stated:

«They wanted to kill me too, but their greatest mistake was they were killing but had no records, nothing. They'd call out names of people they'd already killed. Later, when we realized what was going on, we didn't answer. They missed me. We'd no papers, they didn't know who we were.» *2748

       An unidentified witness who was held at the camp from 29 May to 6 August 1992, stated that he had seen about 50 executions. He further reported:

«Once they shot 20 people who had tried to flee . . . They wanted to demonstrate that it was useless to flee. They arranged that all prisoners had to watch the execution.» *2749

       It was reported that guards at the camp selected seven or eight victims each night using a flashlight in a darkened warehouse, where 600 to 700 prisoners were packed together. According to one subject, the only apparent trait the victims shared was their muscular build. *2750

       One subject stated that seven to eight days before Omarska's closure, the rate of killing increased at the camp. *2751

       A woman who was held at the camp and worked in the cafeteria stated that every day during lunch they would check how many people had been killed. She stated that as early as 7:00 a.m., the women would start counting those alive and check if they knew of someone who was missing. *2752

       A number of reports estimated that 10 to 15 prisoners were killed at the camp per day. *2753

       An unidentified 31 year old ex-prisoner stated:

«Every day, together with other men, I had to clean the room in which detainees were beaten with heavy metal sticks from blood. When we had finished, we had to clean two small trucks from blood, too. The trucks were full of blood because dead bodies were transported. I suppose that in this camp, every day 10 to 15 people were killed. In the evening the soldiers called these people and took them away. They never returned.» *2754

       A priest who was held at the camp from mid-June to August 1992, estimated that between 10-15 persons were executed at the camp every night and alleged that 1,300 prisoners were killed, mostly intellectuals. *2755

       Other ex-prisoners stated that each day, 10-15 new corpses lay in the field next to one of the «dormitories». *2756

       Other reports describe a higher number of daily killings at the camp. One subject reported that each night the guards at the camp would select 10-20 prisoners, beat them up, and then shoot them with pistols. He said that on the following morning, the prisoners would have to get up early to load the bodies on a «Combi» truck. The subject was not sure where the bodies were taken. *2757 Another subject estimated that on many occasions, 20-40 prisoners were killed at night by «knife, hammer, and by burning». He stated that he witnessed the killing of one prisoner by seven guards who poured petrol on him, set him on fire, and struck him upon the head with a hammer. The subject reported that there were about 100 such killings at the camp. He stated that the intelligentsia of the camp were selected first for killing. *2758

       One subject reported that:

«The guards would come and take away men, at random, it seemed. Each night gun shots would be heard and each morning at 6 o'clock we would see 20-30 dead men loaded on a truck and taken away to an unknown destination. . . .» *2759

       Another subject report that 40-50 bodies a day were taken for mass burial in a nearby open mine pit between 26 June to 21 July 1992. *2760

       One subject estimated that well over 1,000 prisoners died at Omarska. He stated that most died during and from beatings although shooting was heard during the first two to three weeks. He said that then he heard machine-gun fire in 30 round bursts followed by a break «as if to change magazines». He said that this would be repeated two or three times. *2761 Another ex-prisoner estimated that between 28 May and 6 August, at least 1,000 inmates were killed at the Omarska camp. *2762 Similarly, another subject estimated that approximately 1,300 persons who arrived at Omarska disappeared without a trace during a 75-day period beginning in late May 1992. *2763

       Other estimates of the number of prisoners killed at Omarska include: «well over» 1,000; *2764 1,200; *2765 1,400; *2766 1,700; *2767 1,800 between 25 May and 6 August 1992; *27682,000; *2769 and 3000. *2770

       Specific Killing Incidents Reported: According to one subject, a prisoner begged to be killed by a gun and the answer was «no», a bullet is too expensive. According to the subject, the victim was thereafter tortured to death. *2771 Another subject similarly reported that executions at the camp were usually carried out with knives or by beating and seldomly with firearms. He stated that a BiH Muslim prisoner survived three beatings and after the fourth beating he lay dying on the floor. One of the guards reportedly asked «what is your last wish?» The prisoner reportedly first asked for some water and then to be killed with a bullet. The guard reportedly gave the man water and let the man die from his beatings. *2772

       One subject who arrived at the camp in late May 1992, from Kozarac reported that at one point guards called out a dozen people a day for five days and decapitated them with chain saws near on of the main pits. *2773

       One subject reported that he witnessed as a guard at the camp used a car battery (usually used to light the hallways), to electrocute a prisoner. *2774

       In late June 1992, 120 were reported to have been executed to the east side of the «white house». The men were reportedly brought in buses one night and were allegedly shot. The next morning their bodies were reportedly loaded by a bulldozer onto two trailers and taken to an unknown location. *2775

       Subjects reported that during the Serbian holiday of Petrodan (St. Peter's Day) in 1992, prisoners were beaten and then thrown alive into a fire made from the large rubber tires from the excavating trucks previously used at the mine. *2776 It was reported that on that day, volunteers from the town came to the camp to participate. There was reportedly a lot of singing, drinking, and at one point the guards had the idea to set fire to the big truck tires in the yard and to throw the prisoners onto the bonfire. *2777 One subject reported that on 12 July, prisoners saw through a window that the guards had made a fire with old rubber tires and were trying to force prisoners to jump into it. He stated that when the prisoners resisted, the guards pulled them by their hair and beat them with shovels. He described continued beatings and abuse by the next guard shift. *2778Other reports appear to describe the same or similar incidents described above. *2779

       It was further reported that on St. Peter's Day, a Serb religious holiday, *2780 Serbs at the camp killed an estimated 170 prisoners in the evening. *2781 Another subject stated that on a «holiday» in early August 1992, a group of guards arrived at the camp drunk and herded approximately 15 Muslim prisoners into the centre of the camp compound and ran them over with a bulldozer. *2782

       An unidentified 27 year-old subject reported that one night, around 12 July 1992, a mass execution took place in the course of which about 60 persons were killed. *2783

       According to one subject, in late July as detainees lined up for lunch, a prisoner emerged from an interrogation and had a confrontation with a guard during which the prisoner reportedly grabbed a gun, but later gave it up. According to the subject, the guards shoved the prisoner towards the «white house», poured gasoline over him and set him on fire. *2784

       One unidentified ex-prisoner stated that a mass killing took place in July, when 200 prisoners were shot in one night. He stated that he and two other prisoners were taken out of their hall to load bodies onto a truck. *2785 It was similarly reported that following the arrival of 300 prisoners from Biscani, Rizvanovici, Rakovcani, Hambarine, Carakovo, and Zecovi, a number of prisoners were beaten and killed and those who survived were taken into a hangar at around 11:00 p.m. and were killed as well. In total, approximately 230 prisoners were said to be killed and at approximately 4:00 a.m., were loaded onto a truck. It was also reported that two trucks were filled with bodies and that those bodies were taken to the mines in Omarska and buried in mass graves. *2786 Another subject similarly reported that on the night of 24-25 July 1992, between 11:00 p.m. and 9:00 a.m., 180 people coming from the village of Carakovo were killed. The subject stated that 300 persons from that village had been brought to Omarska and that all that night he heard the screams of prisoners being killed on the open ground between the «white house» and the «red house». The subject stated that on the following morning he observed a mechanical digger putting the bodies into two large trucks and that both trucks then left the camp in the direction of the mine shafts. *2787

       One subject reported that on 26 July 1992, at about 3:00 p.m., a Serbian irregular came into the «white house» and declared that he had come from the front where nine Serbian soldiers had been killed. According to the subject, the irregular stated that three Muslim men would be killed for each of the Serbian soldiers and that he would return at midnight to kill them. The irregular reportedly returned after midnight on 27 July with a soldier and a truck. According to the report, the irregular and the soldier entered the room where 50-60 men were held, grabbed one prisoner and took him outside. The sound of a beating and screams for help were reportedly heard, which soon became less audible. This same routine reportedly took place until they had taken 27 prisoners. According to the report, at 5:00 a.m., the men came back and asked for four volunteers to load the dead bodies on the truck. The bodies were then reportedly taken to an unknown location. *2788

       Disposal of Bodies: Reports indicate that prisoners were selected to haul away, bury, or stack-up the bodies of those killed at the camp. *2789 It was also reported that some of the prisoners who loaded the bodies onto trucks were later executed. *2790

       Reports indicate that dead prisoners were loaded onto trucks and taken away early in the morning. *2791 It was specifically reported that small yellow trucks came to the camp each morning to load the dead and dying from outside the «white house». *2792 It was similarly reported that following killings, prisoners were forced to throw dead bodies into a two ton yellow truck and that every day the truck was loaded about four times with dead bodies. *2793 One subject identified an «ethnic Serb» who was charged with the daily task of carrying away the bodies of prisoners, and identified the vehicle used as a «yellow Tamic 2001 truck». *2794 One subject described one of the trucks as being 11 metres long. *2795 Other prisoners generally reported corpses being driven away in small trucks which often had blood stains all over them. *2796

       Reports described mass killings at the camp and the process by which bodies were loaded by a bulldozer onto trailers and then taken to an unknown location. *2797

       Other reports described mass graves near the camp: It was reported that the camp had one mass grave and that the dead were taken to an open mine pit near the camp by truck, and thrown into it. After the bodies were dropped in, dump trucks reportedly came and placed dirt over them. *2798 One report stated that since the facility had been an open-pit mine, there were parts where previous digging had occurred and clay was hit instead of iron ore. Those spots were reportedly abandoned, and that was where prisoner bodies were taken for burial. *2799 Other reports stated that the surrounding ore-pits were used to bury corpses. *2800 One report stated that some of the Omarska camp's victims were dumped in the fish farm lakes south-west of Trnopolje. *2801

       It was also reported that sometimes bodies were not even buried, but were thrown on a scrap heap. *2802 It was further reported that frequently, corpses would lay out all day in the sunshine, before being picked up by truck. *2803

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